‘the Only Reason the Axis Powers Were Defeated in North Africa Was Because of Supply Problems’. How Far Do You Agree?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By SarahBliss16
Words 1261
Pages 6
The Axis powers did certainly encounter supply problems with their campaign in North Africa. Especially towards the end of the campaign, they were experiencing serious difficulties in this sphere. Fuel, troops and ammunition were running out at such a rate that it was becoming increasingly difficult to replace it and Rommel’s pleas to Germany were being ignored. However there were certainly two more important factors that contributed to the Axis power’s defeat. These were Hitler’s, and to a lesser extent Rommel’s, poor grasp of strategical and logistical warfare in the North African area as well as the superiority of Allied naval and air power with the welcome introduction of American forces after 1941.

After an unsuccessful Italian campaign in Egypt, Mussolini requested help from their German ally, and the Italian Commando Supremo sent motorized and armoured forces to protect their colonies in North Africa. The Germans hastily put together a motorized force, whose lead elements arrived in Tripoli in February 1941. Thus the rush to support the ailing Italian forces also played a part in the defeat of the Axis powers in North Africa as Germany certainly viewed North Africa as a peripheral area. The force, termed the Afrika Korps by Hitler, was placed under the command of Erwin Rommel. In April of the same year Rommel launched a series of attacks on Tobruk, the heavily garrisoned port fortress manned by an Australian infantry division. However when he failed in his attempts at its capture, the first supply problems for Rommel were in evidence which contributed to the Axis power’s defeat in the long term in North Africa. His front line positions at Sollum were at the end of an extended supply chain that stretched back to Tripoli and had to bypass the coast road at Tobruk. His forward units were particularly badly affected through lack of petrol meaning their…...

Similar Documents

Opposition Was the Main Problem Facing Alexander3. How Far Do You Agree with the Statement?

...moment when there was urge for changes. His legacy from his father was the inception of newly introduced liberal movements. Even though Alexander was reactionary, it was mainly because he did not want to follow his fathers footsteps who was assassinated by nihilist group “Peoples Will”, he couldn’t stop spread of so called “Westerners” and radicals. It was crucial for Alexander to preserve his power as an autocrat, which meant that there were no room for opposition that could jeopardise his reign. But at that point he could still hold his control over Russia and opposition was too weak and divided to challenge the Tsar, at that time Empire faced more economical and social problems that Tsar needed to solve. As a child Alexander had Pobedonoscev as his tutor who was Tsars chief minister and leading official of the State Church. He was remarkable by his conservative views, being part of Slavophiles movement. It was easy for him to influence Alexanders views far before he became Tsar and even after his influence kept pursuing the young Tsar. Because of Pobedonoscevs doctrines Alexander believed in order for Russia to modernise it needs to follow old traditions, so he will be safe from repeating his fathers fate. Pobedonoscev taught Alexander that basis of political stability, which was very important for the Tsar, lay upon autocracy, Russian nationalism and the Russian Orthodox Church. Russian Orthodox Church members supported Tsar because their position was highly......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

How Far Do You Agree That the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years 1945-55?

...How far do you agree that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years 1945-55? It is clear that the Second World War played a vital part in improving the lives of African Americans between 1945 and 1955. However, the impact of the war was lessened by other factors that brought about change such as the civil rights groups and President Truman. These factors were able to convert de jure change into de facto change; something the Second World Wars alone was unable to do. World War Two had a dramatic effect on civil rights for Black Americans. Over 1.2 million black men joined the U.S army during the war and the experience radicalised them. Northern blacks were often trained in rural military camps in the Southern states, this was their first experience of formal racial segregation. They were appalled to know they were fighting a racist opponent, yet being treated as a second class citizen and receiving prejudice treatment back home. Consequently, the black soldiers used the ‘Double V’ sign, which meant they were fighting for two victories: victory overseas and victory over racism at home. The war also began to change the racist attitudes of whites. The United States and her allies were fighting a racist opponent, Hitler, who passionately believed in a ‘Master race’. In the past, white supremacy groups such as the Ku Klux Klan had presented racism as something that was both natural and noble, however,......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

How Far Do You Agree That the Brutality of the Bolsheviks Was the Main Reason Why They Remained in Power in the Years 1917-24?

...believe that the brutality of the Bolsheviks was the main reason why they remained in power. However on the other hand it could be due to other factors such as the Sovnarkom and the weakness of the White’s. Firstly another reason why the Bolsheviks remained in power was because of their brutality using the CHEKA. This was established by Lenin on the 20th of December 1917. It was used as a secret police force to deal with opposition. The CHEKA used many methods all of which were brutal and included arrests, kidnapping, torture, sending of to labour camps and murder. This meant hat through the CHEKA Lenin could deal with any opposition that could affect his remaining in power. Secondly, One reason why the Bolsheviks remained in power was because of their brutality was due to Trotsky and the red army. For example Trotsky introduced the death penalty for any conscripts who deserted the army. He blackmailed them into doing this by holding their families hostage. This meant that not only did the army hold together but was also being trained by the best people there were around. Meaning this would enable them to have a much better chance of lacking opposition e.g. the white’s. This is a brutal and forceful tactic for the Bolsheviks and it worked. Not only did this lead them to win the civil war but in turn by doing that, the Bolsheviks remained in power. Lastly, another reason why the Bolsheviks remained in power because of their brutality was due to the murder of the royal......

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

How Far Do You Agree That the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years 1945

...How far do you agree that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years 1945–55? The impact of the Second World War was, without a doubt, crucial in improving the lives of black Americans over the years 1945-55, as it led to federal support of the cause. However, it wasn’t as important as the use of direct action which, for the first time, was able to convert de jure into de facto change. This, not the War, was therefore the most significant factor in the improvement; achieving something which federal support and the work of civil rights organisations which did not engage in direct action were alone unable to do. The impact of the Second World War was influential in improving the lives of Black Americans because it led to increased federal support of the Civil Rights movement. During the Second World War, approximately 1.2 million black joined the United States armed forces. Their experience in the army allowed understanding the extent to which they were being discriminated against. The hypocrisy of the USA was discovered, a country claiming to be fighting a war of freedom yet oppressed ethnic minorities in their own country. Being sent to Europe, where formal segregation did not exist, the soldiers were able to see what could be achieved from desegregation. African Americans were encouraged to. The War brought significant economic changes to the lives of black Americans. Initially munitions factories......

Words: 1438 - Pages: 6

How Far Do You Agree That the Main Reason for the Fall of the Provisional Government Was the Skill and Determination of Lenin in 1917?

...determination as leader of the Bolsheviks was the main reason for the overthrow of the Provisional government. Although, there are significant other factors that contributed to the downfall of the government, such as the weakness the government it in itself possessed, the misjudgment and mistakes it made, and other contributing factors, such as the influential role of Trotsky, which helped impact on the eventual overthrow of the government. Evidence suggests that one of the main reasons for the fall of the Provisional government, was the weaknesses it in itself possessed. For example, the dual authority government can be seen as a weakness because it was not an elected body, and came into being as a rebellious committee of the old duma, refusing to disband at the Tsar's order. This meant it consequently lacked legitimate authority as a result. It had no constitutional claim upon the loyalty of Russian people and no natural fund of good will to rely on, meaning it was judged entirely on how it dealt with the nations problems, making it vulnerable from the start. Its second major weakness was that its authority was limited by its unofficial partnership with the Petrograd Soviet. To begin with there was considerable co-operation between the two, with some people (e.g.- Kerensky) being members of both bodies. The soviet did not set out to be an alternative government, and regarded its role as supervisory, checking that the interests of the people were fully understood by the......

Words: 2202 - Pages: 9

How Far Do You Agree That Progress Was Made for Black Americans?

...How far do you agree that the years 1945-55 saw only limited progress in improving the status of African Americans? The years of 1945-55 saw limited progress in improving the status of African Americans to an extent; however, during this time period there was also an increased amount of progress for the African American community in improving their status. There were many key factors, which contributed to improving the status of African Americans, such as the work of key civil right parties, for instance the NAACP and their approach to increase grass-roots activism, and their increased membership shows their wide support. In addition to this, there was also help from economic and political victories which demonstrated a fundamental shift in the attitudes of the federal government. There was also help from de jure change, such as significant civil rights court cases and Federal Intervention from President Harry S. Truman, which as a result improved African Americans status. On the other hand, the problems that remained for African Americans was a lack of de facto change, such as the states reluctant attitude to de-segregate, and also there was opposition from the white population, which included brutal violence towards the African American Community, when they had protests. Finally, the opposition from politicians towards de-segregation and civil rights for African Americans all contributed towards limited progress in improving the status of African Americans. The......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

How Far Do You Agree the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years to 1945-55?

...How far do you agree the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years to 1945-55? I agree thoroughly that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason behind the improvement in the loves of African Americans. There are two other factors which help elevate the position of African Americans after the war these were the Federal Government and the NAACP. The Federal Government can be split into two parts the President and the Supreme Court. Before the Second World War most of the African Americans were working in the south of the country in agriculture. For many they had been born into that life and their parents and grandparents had been slaves. World War two had large impact on the lives of African Americans because it gave a chance for people to start anew. Many people had become tiered of doing hard manual labour every day in the farms. The 1920 and 30s had already seen an increase in the number of black people coming down from the south to the northern and western areas. These areas were considered to be industrial areas. After the war started new jobs were created this meant the demand for workers increased. More black people stated to migrate to the north and west for a job. For many of the black people this could have been a raise in there level of confidence. A crucial part of the employment was in the army, many men had signed up to protect their county. Figures show the migration of black......

Words: 1328 - Pages: 6

How Far Do You Agree That Lenin’s Leadership Was the Main Reason for Why the Bolsheviks Were Able to Seize Power in 1917.

...How far do you agree that Lenin’s leadership was the main reason for why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in 1917. Lenin was a very significant figure during the Russian revolution, under his strong leadership and the advice of some of his advisors, Lenin helped the Bolsheviks come to power. However I would not agree that his leadership was the main reason to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power as factors such as the weakness of the provisional government, the home front and most importantly Trotsky role all played a significant role to why the Bolsheviks were successful. Lenin’s leadership played a significant role to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in 1917 due to his clear and persuading aims. Lenin was an influential figure in the eyes of the proletariat. Due to the April thesis clear aims resulted in that he was able to gain greater support and he succeeded in having 200,000 members. The vast amount of members meant that the Bolsheviks had greater support when it came to seizing power. The main aims of the April theses were, Peace, Land and Bread and power to the soviets. Many supported the idea of Peace, Land and bread as they were fed up with the affect the war was having on them and wanted to bring it to an end, people were also starving due to the war and therefore welcomed the idea of Peace, Land and bread. Lenin also promised the confiscation of landed estates from landowners and the aristocracy. The slogan all power to the soviets......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

How Far Do You Agree That Germany Was a Parliamentary Democracy by 1914?

...How far do you agree that Germany was a parliamentary democracy by 1914? During the first fourteen years of the 20th century, Germany's political system went through radical modernisation, adopting many features that are commonly associated with parliamentary democracies. The Encyclopaedia Britannica definition of a parliamentary democracy is a form of government in which the party (or a coalition of parties) with the greatest representation in the parliament (legislature) forms the government, its leader becoming the prime minister or chancellor. Executive functions are exercised by members of the parliament appointed by the prime minister to the cabinet. The parties in minority serve in opposition to the majority and have the duty to challenge it regularly. The prime minister may be removed from power whenever he loses the confidence of a majority of the ruling party or of the parliament. This form of governance originated in Britain and spread across the globe. Parliamentary democracy is different to direct democracy in that the former is a system in which citizens vote for representatives (politicians) to make decisions on their behalf, whereas in a direct democracy policy initiatives and laws would be decided on via votes/referendums involving eligible and willing to vote. Arguably the most notable condition present in the German political system in 1914 that supports the notion of Germany being a democracy was universal male suffrage, which had been upheld since......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

How Far Do You Agree That the Main Reason for the Survival of Weimar Government 1919 – 1923 Was the Weakness of Its Opponents?

...How far do you agree that the main reason for the survival of Weimar government 1919 – 1923 was the weakness of its opponents? (30 Marks) The reason for the survival of the Weimar Republic can be shifted onto many factors such as the weakness of the opposition. The opposition can be said to be clearly shown through the the Munich Putsch in which there is clear evidence of movements against the government. However, this opposition never managed to over come the army and freikorps who through the Ebert-Groener pact pledged their commitment to support the Weimar Government. However, this may not be the main reason for the governments survival between 1919-1923 as other factors can be said to have influenced the survival of the government such as the accomplishments from Stresemann and Dawes who were the chancellor of Germany and the American budget director respectively. Their joint effort ensured the recovery of the German economy which was collapsing. This work can therefore be said to be a major factor for the survival of the government but to what extent it can be called the main reason must be explored. To an extent it can be argued that the main reason for the survival of the Weimar government in the year 1919-1923 was the weakness of its opponents due to the success the government had in eradicating the multiple attempts to overthrow them, that were attempted in the Munich putsch and the Kapp Putsch. Firstly, the Munich Putsch can be seen as a clear showing of the......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

How Far Do You Agree with the View That the British Were Reluctant Imperialists in Africa from 1870-1902?

...To say that the British were reluctant imperialists would be a misconception and by reluctant we mean were the ‘British’ hesitant in their pursuit of Africa from 1870-1902. However it’s unfair to infer that the British as a whole were imperialists; when we could merely suggest that there were some key figures that played a larger part in the ‘Scramble for Africa’ as well as some key events that influenced the British to get involved. Moreover, it’s important to consider that the period from 1870-1902 spans more than 3 decades which would imply that the British people and those with power to influence may not have been whole-hearted imperialists throughout these 32 years. Nevertheless, whilst it’s also possible that the British weren’t as active in the years predating 1870; the Boer War presents a horrific illustration that even after the war, there were more passionate imperials than reluctant individuals. Hence why I am going to argue that the British definitely were reluctant imperialists; however only sought to defend their territories when they felt threatened and in doing so, they increased their Empire in the process. Firstly, it’s clear to state that every British citizen had the same imperialist ideas as Cecil Rhodes, a man who’s dubbed as the “most famous man on the spot”. However, it wasn’t only Rhodes as it’s possible the find that there were other ‘men on the spot’ that shared similar views and worried about the future of Britain and that of its Empire. Thus......

Words: 1212 - Pages: 5

The Structure of the Prc Into 6 Regions Was the Main Reason Mao Was Able to Consolidate His Power over China, How Far Do You Agree?

...his power over china. He used social, admin, military and political aspects to help him in the process. I do agree that the structure of the PRC in the 6 regions played a huge role in Mao’s consolidation of power but I don’t think it was the main reason. I believe that along with it, other factors were equally as important, such as training people who weren’t members of the CCP to join the government, terror with mass killings, imposed starvation and letting the national capitalists keep their job until he needed them to, so that the system was stable enough for him to control. He also made land reforms and introduced a registration system, which also helped consolidate his power. Mao also extended his political control with the “anti-movements” and the Politburo. The Anti-Movements was a movement against waste, bribery, and inefficiency. It was used as an excuse to getting rid of anybody standing in Mao’s was of ruling. He used to get rid of the people whom he had given jobs to in the beginning, those who weren’t past of the CCP, accusing them of inefficiency. He called these people “the bureaucratic capitalist class”. The Politburo was a circle of twenty leading members of the Communist Party, and the carried the government under the authority of Mao of course. So it was the party that ruled, and not the people. This helped Mao have a better control on the decisions taken for the country and therefore created a controllable system, which helped consolidation of power. In...

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

How Far Do You Agree That the Most Important Reason for Wolsey’s Fall from Power Was His Failure to Gain a Divorce for Henry Viii?

...The most important reason for Wolsey’s fall from power was his failure to gain a divorce for Henry VIII, how far do you agree? Wolsey’s dismissal from Henry’s court came in September 1529, though Wolsey had a plethora of failures before, his fall his failure to get a divorce for Henry VIII proved to be the most significant. This is because Wolsey’s strength of position depended on whether he got Henry what he wanted and the divorce was the most obvious case of Wolsey’s failure to do so. For this reason, this essay will argue that the most important reason for the fall of Wolsey was his failure to get a divorce for Henry VIII. Some argue that Wolsey’s failure was due to his alienation of common people. In his early days, Wolsey sought to ensure that common people got justice through his establishment of the Star Chamber. However, this egalitarian attitude faded during Wolsey’s later years and Wolsey’s own corruptness meant that he fell out of favour with the public. Within the area of the Church, Wolsey was guilty of absenteeism, pluralism and nepotism – appointing his illegitimate son (Thomas Wynter) to high positions in the Church. Furthermore, though his attempt to raise money for Henry’s foreign campaigns came in the form of the Amicable Grant 1525 (a heavy tax) failed, Wolsey was not dismissed on the grounds of this. From this we can see that Wolsey’s alienation from the ‘common’ people did not cause his fall, but something else. Henry did blame the Amicable Grant......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

‘the Main Reason Why Edward and Mary’s Religious Settlements Had Limited Success Was Because Their Reigns Were so Short.’ How Far Do You Agree with This Statement?

...‘The main reason why Edward and Mary’s religious settlements had limited success was because their reigns were so short.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Jake Nicholls To an extent I do agree with this statement as Edward a devout protestant took England to the most protestant it has ever experienced this is also the same for Mary who restored the country to papal supremacy. However, due to the rebellion and opposition each of these monarchs received it hindered the complete success of their religious settlements. Edward VI, reigned for a total of six years, however what limited Edward even further is the fact he didn’t even reach the age of majority (which had been reduced to the age of sixteen) by the time of his death in 1553, which significantly reduced his level of religious influence. Perhaps if he reached the age of majority he would have brought in more extreme protestant reforms than those of his regents, this might be explained by his upbringing as his step mother Catherine Parr was a protestant therefore provided him with reformist tutors. This shows that due to his short reign it limited the success of Edward’s religious settlement. Furthermore, Edward’s issue of not providing an heir can be blamed upon his short reign, as he was only fifteen when he died. If he had produced an heir it would have meant that his Religious settlement would have been inherited and it would have been likely his heir would have been brought up a devout protestant,......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

How Far Do You Agree That Hitler’s Regime Was a ‘Consensus Dictatorship’?

...How far do you agree that Hitler’s Regime was a ‘consensus dictatorship’? A consensus dictatorship is on that suggests Hitler’s regime was surrounded by a general agreement. This would mean that the majority of the German public were in cooperation with the Nazi regime and agreed with both the enforced and promoted concept of the regime. Hitler had mainly achieved this by trying to ‘ win over the hearts and minds of all non-Jewish Germans’ this would mean he would have the majority of the Germans citizens on his side. However, it is also suggested that many of the people had only consented due to fear which can be inferred from source 5 that it was the methods of the Nazi apparatus of terror that had led to the people conforming. Although source 6 suggests, even without terror which wasn’t completely enforced on ordinary Germans, the German public had ‘little difficulty in conforming’. As source 6 suggests ‘Nazi terror posed no real threat to most ordinary Germans’ so most people were easily persuaded by popular policies to consent to the Nazi regime. Source 6 agrees that the Nazi Regime was a consensus dictatorship as the public knew of the terror the minority groups faced but chose to ignore it due to their own self-interest and advantages of Hitler’s policies. Evidence from reports produced by the SOPADE and SPD who were in exile indicates that the people viewed Nazi policies positively. Unemployment had also reduced falling to 350, 000 by January 1939. This prosperity......

Words: 1468 - Pages: 6