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The Emergence of Organization and Administrative Theory

• Max Weber (1864-1920) – “Father of Bureaucracy” and the “Father of Organization Theory”
• Bureaucracy – Literally means, “management by office or position”
• Designed as a logical replacement for feudalistic patriarchal systems which are based on “management by person”

• Weber said that of the three types of authority:
1. Traditional
2. Charismatic
3. Rational-legal
• Of these, rational-legal has the continuity and competence necessary for bureaucracy

• Weber identified seven elements of bureaucracy:
Clearly defined division of labor, authority, and responsibility
Clearly defined hierarchy of authority
All employees selected because of competence determined via testing, background, and education
Administrators are appointed, not elected
Administrators work for fixed salaries and are career officials
Administrators are not owners
Administrators and employees are subject to strict formal rules, discipline, and controls uniformly applied

In Weber’s eyes in order for a bureaucracy to function ideally it must have rationalization as its central concept. Rationalization is the substitution of rational and calculating motivators for emotional and traditional ones regarding behavior in a bureaucracy. Basically, “one can, in principle, master all things by calculation.” This quest for precision is what many tenets of modern capitalism such as accounting, centralization of production control, and discipline on the workplace floor reside upon. The concept of fairness should be mentioned here as Weber saw it as a necessary part of rationalization. People need to believe that they are receiving proper compensation for the amount of work they are putting in.
. In applying rationalization to the political and social realms as well as the economic realm values in areas like ethics and…...

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