Transcription of Oral Discurs

In: Science

Submitted By kate9419
Words 750
Pages 3
ТЕХНИКА ТРАНСКРИПЦИИ УСТНОГО ДИСКУРСА.
The article deals with the transcription of the oral discourse. It touches upon the characteristics of the different transcriptional systems. Also it describes the kinds and the variants of the transcription.
В рамках данной статьи рассматриваются характеристики различных транскрипционных систем, обосновывается предпочтение, которое автор статьи отдает системе «ТРУД» М.Л. Макарова.
Говоря о дискурсе, можно назвать множество различных подходов к нему, например дискурскак междисциплинарное явление или дискурс как речь действующая, развивающаяся (речь здесь и сейчас).
В данной статье принимается определение дискурса как связного текста в совокупности с экстралингвистическими, т.е. прагматическими, социокультурными, психологическими и другими аспектами[3, с. 136].
При изучении дискурса, как и любого естественного феномена, встает вопрос о классификации: какие типы и разновидности дискурса существуют. Самое главное разграничение в этой области – противопоставление устного и письменного дискурса. Это разграничение связано с каналом передачи информации: при устном дискурсе канал – акустический, при письменном – визуальный. Иногда различие между устной и письменной формами использования языка приравнивается к различию между дискурсом и текстом, однако такое смешение двух разных противопоставлений неоправданно.
При анализе данного типа дискурса одной из основных проблем является проблема транскрипции. Создать универсальную систему транскрипции устного дискурса никому еще не удалось: «записывать «тексты» может всякий; хорошо записывать тексты уже гораздо труднее...»-Л.В. Щерба.
Существует два общих подхода к проблеме транскрипции: от теории к практике и наоборот— от практики к теории. Истинным же предметом анализа остается разговор в естественных условиях социальной жизни.И даже аудио- или видеозапись является транскрипцией «в…...

Similar Documents

Oral Health

...Practicing Oral Health i. Why did you choose this health behavior? The main reason I choose this behavior is because I think taking care of your mouth is the upmost important thing to do as it can affect other parts of your body. I have always taken care of my teeth to avoid the dentist as much as possible and keep cavities at a bare minimum. Oral hygiene is important to keep up with because nobody wants to have rotten teeth. We all want a perfect smile without stained or cavity filled teeth so why not take care of them right the first time so never have to get false teeth. For me, oral hygiene is one of the first things I ever think of and I hope other people feel the same so they can have long lasting teeth and avoid the dangerous cancers and gum diseases. The potential epidemiology of oral hygiene can always lead to a disaster of things by simply ignoring it or putting things in a mouth that causes negative health issues. The epidemiology of oral health is influenced by age, sex, origin which is associated with oral cancer risk and established risk factors including alcohol and tobacco use, for example. Additionally, possible associations between oral cancer risk and oral hygiene, diet, nutritional status, and sexual behavior as well as the influence of genetic factors on oral cancer risk are considered (NIDCR Home). Oral health also has an effect on other persistent diseases. Because of the failure to tackle social and material determinants and incorporate......

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Oral Cancer

...Oral Cancer: The Quiet One Imagine for a moment being silent. Imagine having the words to say, but no means to make them heard. Try to envision your life without being able to taste your favorite foods, or perhaps never being able to eat them at all, even though they might be readily available. Picture having all the water you could ever desire, but never being able to quench your thirst. It sounds something like hell, doesn’t it? This isn’t just some make believe version of hell; it is a harsh reality of our world. Each year, thousands of people will experience this nightmare for themselves. “Why?” you may ask. It is all caused by an easily detectable form of cancer: oral cancer. When identified early, the disease can be easily treated and rarely requires radiation or chemotherapy. However, very few people actually get checked for oral cancer, despite the fact that it could save hundreds if not thousands of lives each year. One of the least publicized forms of the disease, oral cancer has very few signs or symptoms in its early stages, can easily and rapidly spread to other areas of the body, and has an extremely high mortality rate. In the early stages of oral cancer, there is often no initial pain. It is difficult to detect without a detailed familiarity with your own body or an experienced professional’s examination. Self examinations can be helpful, but since the mouth often has various bumps and lumps appearing and disappearing, the beginnings of oral......

Words: 1727 - Pages: 7

Transcription

...up in 3 months. Patient #2 ...little more trouble doing this one, had trouble, patient doing quite well, overall... lungs mostly full with hollow expansion, no edema, but PFT is 1.65 liters which is 63% atrophy which is 83% of patient, which is slightly worse compared to last PFT which was 1.83 liters..... mildly worsening lung functions. Plan: at this point I would like to continue to watch her and see her back in 6 weeks, if lung functions remain low then start her on Prednisone pills. I would like to wait to see whether its just the season or not. Wait until follow-up. Patient #3 Right totally arthroplasty wound, multifactorial...Crohn’s Disease. Mr. Fields returns today in follow-up period, he has been doing well on oral avelox following removal of his right knee arthroplasty for his suspected infection period; he has had no positive cultures for any likely pathogens from his operative cultures. He was discharged on avelox with the suspicion that his non-healing wounds are more likely related to the imuran therapy he’s been on before his Crohn’s Disease. He is no longer taking imuran and his right knee appears to be healing nicely. Exam appears to be no stress period, chest is clear via cardiograph, regular rhythm period, right knee wound appears to be granulating in. There is no disposable drainage, there is a bit of serous drainage on the dressing Impressions: improvement in the non-healing wound. I believe that he has no evidence to suggest......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Oral Cancer

...Oral Cancer Oral Cancer: Who's at Risk? Historically, most of the patients are above 40 years of age at the time of discovery of oral cancer. Aging is an important factor because the immunity diminishes with age as well as there are increased chances for the cells turning from benign to malignant tumor cells. This is further supported by the fact released recently in 2008 which says that oral cancer exists even among the non smokers who are below 50 years of age. Predominantly the cause for oral cancer is attributed to the factors like the use of tobacco, consumption of alcohol and infection by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Among all these different causes, tobacco is considered to be the primary culprit although it takes a long time to get precipitated into an oral cancer. Especially the people who are above 50 years of age are widely affected and more than 75% of those people are constant users of tobacco. Tobacco in combination with alcohol is even more harmful and the chances are 15 times more for oral cancer if a person is addictive to both tobacco and alcohol. Recent reports also suggest that the demographics are changing rapidly as the incidence of oral cancer caused by viral infections is increasing day by day. The factors for the cause of oral cancer can be grouped as physical factors, chemical factors and biological factors. Alcohol and tobacco comes under chemical factors. Ultraviolet (UV) rays and x-rays are the major physical factors responsible for......

Words: 2112 - Pages: 9

Transcription

...Polypeptide synthesis- transcription and translation Proteins are made up of polypeptides. Every organism needs to make their own proteins. The biochemical machinery in the cytoplasm of each cell has the capacity to make every protein from just 20 amino acids. The proteins it manufactures depend upon the instructions that are given by the DNA in the cell's nucleus. The process is that DNA provides the instructions in the form of a long sequence of nucleotides and the bases they possess. A complementary section of part of this sequence is made in the form of pre-mRNA, this is transcription. The pre-mRNA is spliced to form mRNA. The mRNA is used as a template to which complementary tRNA molecules attach to and the amino acids they carry are linked to form a polypeptide, this is translation. Transcription is the process of making pre-mRNA using part of the DNA as a template. The enzyme DNA helicase acts on a specific region of the DNA molecule to break the hydrogen bonds between the bases, causing the two strands to seperate and expose the nucleotide bases in that region. This causes the specific region called cistron to unwind. One of the strands is used as a template to make an mRNA copy.The enzyme RNA polymerase moves along one of the two DNA strands, known as the template strand causing the nucleotides on this strand to join with the individual complementary nucleotides from the pool which is present in the nucleus. Specific base pairing occurs so guanine joins with......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Oral Presentation

...Oral Presentation Plan and deliver a 7-10 minute presentation to the class in which you share something interesting (to other business majors) that you learned from researching your trend, problem, or opportunity. You might well define the trend you analyzed or explain a key term or concept that is a major topic of your report. On the other hand, your presentation topic might be only marginally related to the subject of your research report. For example, you might have researched the use and limitations of social media in customer service and could give your report on that topic. But if your scenario had you working for a non-profit or for a state agency, you might want to give your report on the benefits of working for a non profit or for the State of Texas. Avoid simply restating your report findings and recommendations as if you were presenting these to the executive audience of your report scenario. Look for a topic that you enjoyed learning about, and make it interesting to the class. Consider the following elements of the rhetorical situation: * Purpose: Your purpose in this assignment could be informative or persuasive. Teach us something. * Audience: Your audience includes all of us—students and instructor—in this section of Business Communications. Though we are of various ages, we share a keen interest in business, business education, and the role of business in society. * Stance: Your role is that of and inquirer and fellow student.......

Words: 438 - Pages: 2

Oral Language

...ORAL LANGUAGE MATRIX- This matric provides the stages of oral language development, a description of the behaviors associated with each stage, examples of utterances associated with each stage and strategies to support the development of each stage. It must be emphasized that children reach these stages at different ages. Oral Language Stages | Description of Stages | Utterances | Supporting Strategies | 1) Sounds- The child makes mainly crying sounds from 0-2 months | The child uses crying as a language. Crying is used as a signal for food, sleep, discomfort, need to be cuddled and so on | WahWa wa waEeh eeh eehAah, aah, aah | The parent or teacher can speak to the child and try to discern the needs. Are you hungry? Baby is tired and wants to sleep. I know you need changing, and so on. | 2) Sounds- Gurgling and cooing – 3-4 months | The child emits sounds that represent vowel sounds but there is no consistent pattern to the sound vocalizations | Ah ah eeeeOh oh ohUuh, | The parent or teacher should use recognizable words with the child as this provides a good model. “Yes, baby likes his rattle.” | 3) Babbling 4-6 months | In addition to vowel like sounds, the child begins to make consonant like sounds. However some consonant sounds are made earlier than others. For example the child says the “b” sound and the “d” sound, before the “m” sound. The child also recognizes voices and turns head. | Ba ba ba baDa da da daMa ma ma |......

Words: 791 - Pages: 4

Oral Communication

...Oral communication is the process of expressing information or ideas by word of mouth. Learn more about the types and benefits of oral communication, and find out how you can improve your own oral communication abilities. Definition: Great communication skills are your ticket to success in the academic and business world. But have you ever been overcome by fear or anxiety prior to going on a job interview or speaking in front of an audience? Knowing when to choose oral communication and polishing your speaking skills can help you at every stage of your career. Oral communication is the process of verbally transmitting information and ideas from one individual or group to another. Oral communication can be either Formal or Informal. Examples of informal oral communication include: • Face-to-face conversations • Telephone conversations • Discussions that take place at business meetings More formal types of oral communication include: • Presentations at business meetings • Classroom lectures • Commencement speech given at a graduation ceremony With advances in technology, new forms of oral communication continue to develop. Video Phones and Video Conferences combine audio and video so that workers in distant locations can both see and speak with each other. Other modern forms of oral communication include Podcasts (audio clips that you can access on the Internet) and Voiceover Internet Protocol (VoIP), which allows callers to communicate over the Internet......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Oral Language

...------------------------------------------------- Oral Language: Introduction Oral language is about speaking. This section describes what happens when people talk. For most of the time, we take oral language for granted. Young children appear to learn to speak without the intervention of parents or teachers. It just seems to happen naturally. When something goes wrong with speech - through deafness, strokes, accidents - we begin to realise what a complex achievement it is. Someone learning or teaching English as a second language will also be conscious of the complexities of oral language. In writing this section, we were very aware of the unsuitability of the written medium for discussing spoken language. It is much easier to describe syntax and morphology because these appear in the written form of the language, which is what books are designed for. Writing involves no sound; the symbols are taken in by the eye. When we speak, however, we are using organised sounds that are taken in by the ear. It is very much harder, therefore, to convey spoken language because understanding depends on being able to hear different sounds, rhythms, and patterns of intonation. The examples need to be heard rather than seen. This part of the book can deal with only some of the concepts and information about speech and suggest other elements to look for. A videotape, entitled Oral Language, accompanies this book. We were also aware that for most teachers, the study of oral language is......

Words: 1551 - Pages: 7

Oral Language

...Quanita Avery January 17, 2016 ECH/425 Becky Hathaway Five stages of Oral Development 5 Stage of Oral Development | Description | Utterance Sounds | Activities/ Strategies | Cooing | Cooing can begin as early as 6 weeks of age. During this time the infant child begins to explore and play with sounds by using the tongue, mouth and breath. During this time, the child is likely to form vowel like sounds before constants sounds begin to be established. | /aaa/, /ooo/, /ahhh/… | Talking and reading to the baby helps with not only voice recognition, but also verbal development (similar.com). | Babbling | Babbling happens between 4-6 months of age. During this stage, the constant, vowel combination comes into play. As the child gets older 8-10 months, the babbling becomes more developed. This becomes more like a rhythm and sound babbling known as echolalic babbling. | “Ba-ba-ba”“Da-da-da”“Ma-ma-ma” | Imitate any sounds that the baby may make. Also cheer when the baby makes a related sound back (similac.com). Also play mouth patting games helps with oral development. Incorporated with sounds helps with the development (http://www.earlyliteracylearning.org/cellpractices_rev/CELLpracT_Inf_Babbling.pdf). | One Word Stage | This stage comes around the age of 1. During this time, a child may create a word that refers to a special object or toy. Parents may use these created to words to help communicate with the child and establish communication. These words are known as......

Words: 972 - Pages: 4

Oral Rubric

...American International School Trimester 1 Chinese Oral Book Report 1(10-15 minutes) Class: FLM 2C Due Date: 3 November Day E Topic: Students are able to develop the ability to read and understand Chinese story books in specific areas such as plot, characters, theme and literary elements of story. Objective: The Interpretive Mode: 1.2 Students will understand and interpret writing and speech on a variety of topics in the target language. c. Understand the main ideas of nonfiction articles and primary source documents. The Presentational Mode: 1.3 Students will present information, concepts, and ideas to listeners and/or readers on a variety of topics in the language studied. c. Prepare and deliver oral presentations, such as speeches and debates, on various topics. Introduction: Begin with something catchy and interest grabbing. Include the author and title of the book you read, but don’t start it with it? Plot summary: Don’t go overboard here. Tell enough to arouse interest in the book, but don’t tell so much that there is no mystery left. Be careful not give away the ending. Include some detail about the characters and setting in your plot description. Evaluation: Evaluate the book based on the specific area it impressed (or didn’t impress) you. For example, if it is a mystery, was it good because it was very suspenseful? If it is realistic fiction, was it believable? If it is a horror story, was it scary? Evaluate the characters (were they......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Myb Transcription Factors

...engineering techniques are gaining popularity and desired gene isolated from any genetic background can be inserted into wheat genome imparting improved characteristics. Different genetic engineering approaches have been employed to increase agronomic properties of different crops. In this new era of research development, transcription factors are gaining much interest towards improvement of gene pool of certain plants. The nuclear factor gamma (NF-Y) gene family in plants has recently generated huge interest due to involvement of this family members in plant performance, growth and stress regulation. In hexaploid wheat total 35 NF-Y genes (10 NF-YA, 11 NF-YB, and 14 NF-YC) are identified so far and few of them have been characterized. Recently the total number of identified NF-Y genes in wheat increased to 80. Since whole genome sequence of wheat is not known so exact no. of NF-Y genes remained unknown. It was suggested that opportunity for formation of large no. of heterotrimeric complexes in plants provide substantial plasticity for involvement of NF-Y heterotrimeric combinations in regulating several development processes. Subunits of NF-y transcription factors have been shown involvement in developmental stress responses in different plant species. Few of these genes have been characterized in important cereals like maize, wheat and rice. For example, regulating plant potential of height and yield under optimal conditions have been described for transgenic rice plants......

Words: 1943 - Pages: 8

Oral Traditions

...Teach Africa tm World Affairs Council of Houston The Oral Traditions of Africa What are oral traditions? Oral traditions are messages that are transmitted orally from one generation to another. The messages may be passed down through speech or song and may take the form of folktales and fables, epic histories and narrations, proverbs or sayings, and songs. Oral Traditions make it possible for a society to pass knowledge across generations without writing. They help people make sense of the world and are used to teach children and adults about important aspects of their culture. The art of storytelling There is a rich tradition throughout Africa of oral storytelling. Although written history existed for centuries in West Africa, most writing was in Arabic, and the majority of people did not read or write in Arabic. So the transmission of knowledge, history and experience in West Africa was mainly through the oral tradition and performance rather than on written texts. Oral traditions guide social and human morals, giving people a sense of place and purpose. There is often a lesson or a value to instill, and the transmission of wisdom to children is a community responsibility. Parents, grandparents, and relatives take part in the process of passing down the knowledge of culture and history. Storytelling provides entertainment, develops the imagination, and teaches important lessons about everyday life. World Affairs Council of Houston PO Box 920905 Houston, TX......

Words: 2717 - Pages: 11

Oral

...proposiciones acerca de números naturales. * Calcular los coeficientes de un binomio. | Ciclo del aprendizaje Lectura crítica Desarrollo del razonamiento crítico y lógico Desarrollo de procesos Análisis, representación e interpretación de gráficos matemáticos | Textos Materiales tecnológicos Útiles escolares Internet | No hay indicadores para este bloque | TÉCNICAS Interrogatorio Observación Resolución de problemas Situaciones orales de evaluación INSTRUMENTOS:Cuestionario: Expresión oral: Cuestionario: Simulador de un escrito Recursos anecdóticos Lista de cotejo Participación: Demostraciones: Participación | BIBLIOGRAFÍA/LINK GRAFIANuestro mundo Matemática 8Actualización y fortalecimiento curricular | OBSERVACIONES | NOMBRE Y FIRMA DE QUIEN ELABORO EL PLAN | NOMBRE Y FIRMA DE QUIEN REVISO Y APROBO EL PLANFECHA | 3. CONCRECION CURRICULAR SEMANAL/POR CLASE 1 SEMANA/ NUMERO PERIODOS: DESTREZA CON CRITERIO DE DESEMPEÑO: Leer y escribir números enteros.Ordenar y comparar números enteros.Ubicar en la recta numérica números enteros. | ESTRATEGIAS METODOLOGICAS DESAGREGADAS | INDICADORES ESENCIALES DE EVALUACIÓN | RECURSOS DESAGREGADOS | INDICADORES DE LOGRO | Técnica/InstrumentoACTIVIDAD DE......

Words: 11081 - Pages: 45

Discurs

...propriile spuse sau cu cele ale coemitatorului; - a sti sa menajezi imaginea celuilalt; - a sti sa stapanesti comportamentele cerute de genurile de discurs abordate. Este caracteristic acestei competente comunicative faptul de a se modifica continuu, in urma ex perientei acumulate. De altfel, un individ dispune de competente comunicative diverse atunci cand se afla in interactiune cu reprezentanti ai unor comunitati diferite. Temenul competenta discursiva este folosit pentru a desemna aptitudinea pe care trebuie sa o aiba un subiect pentru a produce enunturi adecvate unei formari discursive determinate (de ex ., aptitudinea unui emitator comunist de a produ ce enun turi comuniste). Aceasta competenta este fundamental interdiscur siva: a enunta in interiorul unei formatiuni discursive inseamna, de asemenea, a sti cum sa te pozitionezi in raport cu alte formatiuni discursive concurente (vezi, mai jos, interdiscurs). In vorbire se poate pune in evidenta modul in care subiectul vorbitor utilizeaza codul limbii pentru a comunica, iar mecanismul de trecere al limbii in vorbire este numit actualizare (Ch. Bally). Limba si vorbirea au fost atribuite de E. Vasiliu categoriilor general si particular iar E. Coseriu considera ca intre sistem si vorbire se situeaza norma. Prin definitie, folosirea unei limbi in cadrul unui discurs este considerata doar din perspectiva in care acesta trebuie sa fie enuntat (norma lingvistica). Limbile naturale au calitatea......

Words: 5110 - Pages: 21