The Price of Adultery

In: Social Issues

Submitted By suvithedude
Words 3353
Pages 14
The price of adultery
The Indian law on adultery, drafted more than a century ago, makes it a punishable offence for men alone. The recent proposal to punish women too has generated much debate. Shoma A. Chatterjilooks at the archaic law in the light of changing social mores
HOW fair is the National Commission for Women’s (NCW) stand against the Union Government’s attempt to amend Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code regarding the reversegender bias contained in the country’s age-old law on adultery? It is proposed to include women within the purview of Section 497 as against its present rules that expressly state that a married woman cannot be punished even as an abettor in a case of adultery. Whether the woman is a victim of adultery or is herself an adulteress, she is completely free of being penalised for her misdemeanour. Should this bias continue into 2007?
The question is a tough one to answer. The bonds of marriage have a religious, social and legal sanction in India. Thus, any sexual liaison that defies this bond spells noncompliance with social norms. It is a violation of the sacred marriage vows religiously and morally held to be sacrosanct and is punishable under the laws of

Illustration by Aditi Chahar the land. Bigamy for all non-Muslims is a crime vide Section 494 of the IPC. Why should women remain immune to the law today?
What is adultery
Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) defines "adultery" thus: "Whoever has sexual intercourse with a person who is and whom he knows or has reason to believe to be the wife of another man, without the consent or connivance of that man, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, is guilty of the offence of adultery, and shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both. In such case the wife shall not…...

Similar Documents

Adultery Is Inevitable in Life

...Adultery is inevitable in life. Discuss Adultery is a married people having an affair, not with their legal spouse. In the most recent years there is a lot of adultery news going on in the life of celebrities, professionals, high-ranked officers and civilians. There are many reasons that lead to adultery. Most litigants think that adultery is unpreventable. Due to the strong competitor in the working society and the poor economic, thus their partner tends to spend more time in work or entertaining clients in order to meet the expectation of the companies. This causes the litigant to feel neglected and not been able to have the attention they wanted from their spouse. Low self-esteem people tend to be more insecure about themselves, always having the thoughts that their husband or wife would leave, or they are neither good enough for them. On the other hand over controlling is also another factor that’s leads to adultery, in a marriage one that holds a higher qualification or higher working position might think that he or she should be the one that takes control in the marriage, which will let the other party feel inferior. This in turn that causes the inferior party to commit adultery with of equal levels. In order to prevent such acts from occurring they have to solve the main problem. Having to start communicating with each other is to find out what their spouse expectation and spending more time with them. Insecurity makes sure that enough assurance and affirmations is...

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Emperor Augustus on Adultery:

...Scott Zambito Professor Victoria M. Bryan HUM 1010 Fall 2012 October 19, 2012 Augustus on Adultery: Hide Your Kids, Hide Your Wife! Back during the rule of Emperor Augustus, social problems in Rome were becoming quite scandalous and too much of a commonplace in everyday life. Adultery and divorce had become all too accepted in this society. Due to this, marriage among upper class citizens was increasingly infrequent and those who did marry often failed to produce a child. Augustus realized this and addressed this issue with hast in hopes of a preventing the demise of family life. Augustus’ first move in regaining moral order within society was by “criminalizing adultery and passed several other laws to promote family life. Men between the ages of 20 and 60 and women between the ages of 20 and 50 were required to marry. A divorced woman was required to remarry within six months, a widow within a year. Childless adults were punished with high taxes or deprived of inheritance. The larger an aristocrat’s family, the greater his political advantage” (Sayre 81). Punishment for certain crimes could result in the perpetrator being exiled, property seizure, or possibly even death! As to be expected due to the laws and rules being so strict, they were not taken well by the people of Rome. Even though the laws were strict, they did help restore balance within society and brought morals back into life. Granted society back then was vastly different compared to today’s......

Words: 710 - Pages: 3

Price

...Try to avoid price war as much as possible - Track seasonality of demand through market demand always - Try to understand how much you should change in price based on demand predictions using the breakeven calculator - Use differing price sensitivities for business and leisure travelers and see where is Universal competitive edge across each of the 3 major markets - I was also trying to increase net profits by increasing rental costs in areas where Universal had increased market share (Miami in my case and sometimes in Orlando) - Going forward, I learned a couple of lessons: - I should have managed better my capacity utilization by modiying fleet size in growing cities - Increasing the fleet size to meet market demand is important where I could have generated more sales and hence revenues The simulation covers core pricing concepts including:-The nature and dynamics of consumer response to price (price elasticities)-Pricing for specific customer segments and geographic markets-The role of fixed costs and variable costs in pricing decisions-The role of pricing in managing product inventory We were quickly able to observe that weekday and weekend demand outstripped supply, we deduced that weekday demand was a proxy for business users and weekend demand was a proxy for leisure users. After running the simulation for the first quarter we were able to analyse the Price Elasticity of Demand (PED). In general we found that demand from business users was price inelastic,......

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Adultery

...Adultery is a nearly universal concern. It is defined by Judaic, Christian, and Muslim formulations, and in legal codes deriving from Roman law. Known colloquially as cheating or infidelity, adultery is more complex than simple faithlessness and is not to be confused with fornication, or sex between two unmarried people. In its simplest definition, adultery occurs when a married person has sex with someone other than his or her spouse. Marriage is requisite, on the one hand, for an action to be called adultery. On the other hand, the cheating couple also must not be married to one another; otherwise the situation is not adultery but bigamy or polygamy, even in jurisdictions where such is proscribed. It is sometimes the case that spouses agree beforehand that one or both spouses will seek sexual pleasure outside their marriages, a situation that has been called open marriage. Regardless of the level of consent or of participation by the offended spouse, most legal and religious authorities still consider such activity to be adulterous. Simple definitions aside, whether a particular act can be called adultery depends very much on historical, legal, and cultural contexts. That is, what qualifies as adultery in one jurisdiction would not in another, or even in the same jurisdiction in another era. In some definitions, both ''cheating'' partners are adulterers if either of them is married, and each is to be treated similarly. In practice, one partner--usually the woman--is......

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Price

...Factors that Abraham Isaac manufacturer (AIM) should consider when setting prices for their products at home and in new markets. AIM is manufacturer of Teak Furniture and the head office is based in Jakarta, Indonesia. Price Price can be defined as the sum of all the values that customers give up in order to gain the benefit of having or using a product or service. In simple words it’s the amount of money charged for a product or service. Pricing have a direct impact on the company’s bottom line. Even a small percentage of improvement in price can generate a large percentage in profitability. Price also plays a key role in creating customer value building customer relationships. AIM should avoid the common mistakes of pricing, which are:- a) Too cost oriented b) Not revised often enough to reflect market changes c) Fail to take into account the other element of the marketing mix d) Not varied for different products, market segments and purchase occasions The AIM marketing manager will have to consider the below mentioned factors for the prices of their finished products at home and in new / emerging markets. Internal Factors The pricing decision can be affected by factors that are controlled by the marketing department of AIM organisation. These factors include: 1. Marketing Objectives Pricing decisions can be influenced by different types of objectives, but AIM will have to look at the four key objectives in which pricing plays a......

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

Is Porn Adultery

...Is porn adultery? The notion that watching porn and fantasizing about other women leads to divorce and infidelity has been floating around for ages. The reason this debate has never been settled is because of the ambiguity between a person watching naked women and physically touching another woman that’s not your wife. I think porn has the potential to not only keep a marriage afloat but also strengthen it. A closer analysis into real life interviews with college students, porn statistics and a deep look into Ross Douthat’s essay on porn, it can be concluded that porn, in fact, isn’t a gateway drug to adultery. I was introduced to porn during my freshman year of high school. At the time, I was still attending T.A.S.O.K (The American School of Kinshasa), an extremely diverse private Christian school in the Congo. I vividly remember that Friday afternoon in the men’s locker room after the basketball team had finished practice my friend Jeremy coming up to me with a big smile on his face. He said something along the lines of “James check this out!” He pulled out his new Nokia that he had received as a gift from his parents for his birthday. I remember looking at the screen of the phone and seeing a man and a woman having intercourse and staying in the locker room with the entire basketball team for next thirty minutes. There were lots of fist bumps and laughter as we were all exposed to this simple tape that was part of a multi-billion dollar entertainment industry. According......

Words: 2807 - Pages: 12

Is Pornograph Adultery

...Pornography is adultery Author Institution Date 1. What is the main argument of the essay? You should use a diagram here, with a brief explanation of the key assertions, and of the argument’s structure. The notion about watching pornography and having fantasies about other women leading to infidelity and divorce has been afloat for ages. The main argument of this essay is that pornography is adultery but comes with its equal share of benefits Pornography is sometimes considered as adultery because it brings a third party into the relationship, third party can be the porn-stars in the pornographic material. The effect of these is that it can lead to serious consequences in a relationship, which could be break ups or even a divorce (Awad, 2011). Though pornography does not involve one being physically present at the scene or taking part in the act, it can still lead to adultery in the end because the mind is thinking about it and the only thing stopping someone is the chance and the courage to do it. On the other hand, pornography is beneficial to a relationship. This is because it can also lead to the strengthening of a relationship. As long as one does not physically touch the other person and only uses the mind in fantasizing, there is nothing wrong with it. Adultery involves an encounter of two parties, flesh and blood, but in pornography, none of that is involved. In relationships, if the partners are extremely honest with each......

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Prices

...Price Controls After reading the required textbook “Economics Made Easy” by Les Livingstone, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of price controls. You may want to do some independent research about minimum wage and price control to enhance your discussion. The following are some questions that might help direct your research and discussion. Be sure to explain why you answered as you did, stating the logical reasons for reaching your conclusions, including APA referencing of sources used. 1. There are federal and state laws setting minimum wages for workers. There are also city laws setting price ceilings for housing rents. a. Why are there laws setting minimum wages for workers and maximum rents for housing? b. Why are there no laws setting maximum wages for workers or minimum rents for housing? 2. It has been stated that price controls cause shortages or surpluses. a. Do rent controls cause shortages or surpluses, and why? b. Do minimum wage laws cause shortages or surpluses, and why? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of minimum wage laws for: a. Workers? b. Employers? c. Consumers? d. If minimum wage laws are beneficial, why are minimum wages set as low as they are – for example, what about a minimum wage rate of $100 per hour? e. If rent controls are beneficial, why are rent ceilings set as high as they are – for example, what about a rent ceiling of $100 per month for every rent-controlled......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Price

...power, and nowhere has this been more apparent than in the proliferation of Internet auction sites. Sellers are able to post goods for sale on sites such as eBay or eBid, with or without a reserve price, and buyers are able to place their bids from (theoretically) anywhere in the world. The price rises as more people bid, until there is only one buyer left, who then buys the product at the final bid price. Buyers can pay by credit card through an escrow company (that holds the funds until the goods are delivered) or can make arrangements directly with the seller for payment. In recent years the process has moved a step further with the advent of reverse auctions. Firms such as Letsbuyit.com bring buyers together to bid for products. The philosophy is simple; rather than bidding against other purchasers, and forcing the price up, the reverse auction arranges for buyers to join together and force the price down. For example, a manufacturer may offer an LCD TV for £800. If, however, 100 people are prepared to place a single order, the price might drop to £600. If 200 people are prepared to buy, the price might drop to £500. The price paid to the supplier will be dictated by the number of buyers, so Letsbuyit.com begins by negotiating a series of steps at which the price will fall. The prices are posted on the website for a set period, but once the product is sold out it will not be available to later bidders. If the number of people wishing to buy the product does not meet a......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Adultery and Why It Matters

...Running Head: ADULTERY AND WHY IT MATTERS ENGL126-Sound Writing Skills Instructor: x Final Author May 09, 2011 The gimmick filled reality television and high-speed internet has spun us for a loop and left people so dizzy, they have forgotten which way is up. In an article from Time, Caitlin Flanagan explains why marriage matters and Olivia Stren from Flare discusses why women are optimistic about being given the opportunity to have an affair. As if it is now fashionable to cheat on your wife or husband, adultery has become a socially accepted “norm” as a result of changing demographics and its prevalent nature. This moral regression will leave our society scarred if left unchecked. Adultery cannot be dissected and understood without first understanding the institution of marriage and what it stands for. Let us forgo the typical, contract idea, “in sickness and in health” and the whole “love” thing and settle with the belief, for this argument, that marriages are the beginning of a new generation. Marriage is intended to raise the children, to protect, and instill in that new generation the teachings we want them to take into the future to make our world the best it can be (Flanagan, 2009). With that said, what is marriage as it stands today? If children are watching the moral fabric of society, one of the oldest traditions in the history of our people, melt away and be replaced with selfishness and depression? We are creating the ultimate “Me-Generation”......

Words: 1355 - Pages: 6

Marriage and Adultery

...Sexuality Paper: Marriage Infidelity Abstract This paper will cover the topic of marital infidelity. In recent years divorce has gone over 50% and Christian divorce has grown closer to 57%. Why are there so many couples willing to throw in the towel? Adultery is the cause for many, certainly not all, divorces that occur in our country. There are many reasons why a spouse will choose to stray from the marriage, as well as many reasons for that the marriage should be worked on and saved. God has blessed us with marriage. God wanted us to have a “helper,” someone who could walk through this world with us. God wanted us to have somebody who we could share our joys with and somebody who could keep us focused on His purpose for our lives. Proverbs 6:32- Whoever commits adultery with a women lacks understanding, he who does so destroys his own soul. In the culture of current society the idea of marriages seems to be slipping into being a thing of the past. Monogamy within a marriage seems to losing ground even faster than the idea of marriage. This paper will be outlining the rise of infidelity and the role that society has had in not just looking the other way, but oftentimes praising the act as “human nature.” Is it possible to bring marriage back to its roots, and return the marital bed to one of loyalty, respect, and spiritual oneness? As Carder states, “What is most needed upon the revelation of an affair is compassion and understanding, not condemnation. That......

Words: 2822 - Pages: 12

Ethical Dilemma-Adultery

...Ethical Dilemma-Adultery My conclusion is that adultery is unethical. In the following rational argument, I will support why adultery is unethical. The term adultery is defined as voluntary sexual intercourse between a married man or woman and a partner other than the legal spouse (Collins English Dictionary, Dictionary.com). What makes adultery unethical is that it involves the breaking of a promise. One of the vows two parties promise each other when they get married is that they will abstain from sexual relationships with other people. Because of this promise both spouses have the expectation that the other will behave in conformity with it. Thus, when one of the parties has sexual intercourse with a third person he or she breaks that promise about sexual relationships which was made when the marriage was entered into, and defeats the expectations of exclusivity by the spouse. The breaking of this promise leads to the intentional infliction of substantial pain by one spouse to another. The immorality of such things as breaking a promise and deceiving someone and the action of adultery is, in a strong sense of prima facie, wrong or unjustified. According to Raja Halwani, in his book titled Sex and Ethics: Essays on sexuality, virtue and the good life, the unique wrongness of adultery results from adultery being an assault on a person’s self-conception and self-worth as a human being emotionally, sexually and erotically. It is rational to want to......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Adultery

...Adultery is an age-old social problem. History records have multiple accounts where kingdoms fell; leaders stumbled, careers ended, and children suffered as adultery was committed. Consider the issues caused by infidelity in the workplace, courts, and nation. There are different types of infidelity. The definition of adultery includes sexual infidelity intimate exchange with no romantic involvement, and sexual and romantic relationship. Adultery is a pronounced problem in today’s society. It’s spreading faster than many people could imagine and by some almost uncontrollable. OMG….I can’t wait to watch SCANDAL tonight. Sound familiar? This show has broken down barriers but also has created an interesting dialogue concerning one of the most tumultuous plots on television. The primary leads to the show, The married President of the United States and a single Washington hotshot fixer are in the erotic love affair that has millions glued every Thursday on ABC. Married!!! Affair! SUPPORTIVE AUDIENCE??? How is this possible? Yes, this is television, but “the other woman” is usually considered a home wrecker. The cheating husband is a scoundrel. Why is this the exception? There now seem to be progressions of “just how wrong is it?”? The forbidden love between Olivia and Fitz, and millions of viewers that cheer them on at the expense of the First Lady. It’s the “cheering on” that intrigues me. It has created a long-standing debate on fidelity and how we as a society have become......

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Adultery

...Emily Dillon Adultery Draft In most cases the act of committing adultery is most often viewed as immoral and highly unethical but others may see this act of cheating as justifiable in certain cases. Adultery is being unfaithful and dishonest in a marriage, but people continuously do it. There is typically a compelling reason as to why a person would cheat on their spouse depending on their situation. Although these reasons do not always justify adultery or breaking the law, in some cases the consequences of cheating can be seen to be positive giving it a sense of justification. The reasoning behind infidelity can give a person the idea that adultery can be justified. People may commit adultery for different reasons; they could be due to a loss of love or dullness in their marriage or to peruse personal happiness and or emotional fulfillment which expresses a person’s secret passionate desires in which the case can justify infidelity. Adultery is about a person that is acting out of discontentment with their failing marriage and is committed by people who lack the comfort of marital faithfulness and intimacy. Although cheating is wrong in most situations the story of Dmitry Gurov, in “The Lady with the Pet Dog” by Anton Chekhov, displays a male point of view of committing adultery offering a glimpse of why adulterers choose to be unfaithful. The loss of love between Gurov and his wife reveals the need to search for a further intimacy which he obtains during an affair....

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Price

...profile street marketing events with paid performers are planned.  They kick off with “The full monty”  They agreed with“opinion leading” youth magazine editors to publish advertorial pieces extolling them Constraints  Make sure Virgin’s prices are competitive  Make sure that its profitable  Don’t want to trigger off competitive reactions Pricing There are three options for pricing 1. Clone the industry prices 2. Pricing lower than the competition 3. Completely new pricing system First Option: Cloning The Industry Pros  Easy to promote  Simply to apply  Low or maybe no cost for commissioning  Customers are familiar with the pricing system Cons • No differentiation in pricing • Hard to attract targeted young customers • Risk of losing the advantages of Virgin Xtra • Complicated system Second Option: Below The Industry Pros Additionally to pros to the first option  Attracts new customers easily  Competitive price advantage  Fits to their costumer segmentation Cons In addition to cons for the first option • Possible price reaction of competition • Risk of low profit • Low quality image Third Option: “A Whole New Plan” Pros  Allows to start from scratch and setting new rules  Price differentiation besides service differentiation  Flexible pricing options  Attracts customers who feels conned by market pricing Cons • Risk of an unused system • More costly to promote • Higher risks of churn Third Option: “A Whole......

Words: 1485 - Pages: 6