The Moyne Commission's Effect on the Caribbean

In: Historical Events

Submitted By sammy7777
Words 2872
Pages 12
Introduction Conditions in the Caribbean territories controlled by the British Colony in the 1930’s were not of public health standard especially after the labour unrest. To understand the public health crisis that existed at that time it is important to have an idea of what public health means. Public health as defined by Winslow (1920) “is the science and art of preventing, prolonging life and organized community efforts for sanitation of the environment, control of communicable infections, education of the individual in personal hygiene, organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his birth right of health and longevity”(p.5). Considering this definition and the conditions of the British Caribbean territories one could conclude that there were very little to no public health existence in the time of the 1930’s. Consequently, the British Government appointed the Moyne Commission on August 3rd 1938 to investigate and make recommendations on the social and economic conditions of its territories and to file a report. The Moyne Report ended on February 20th 1939 and published fully in 1945 (Green, 2014). This project, therefore, will give a brief biography of Lord Moyne, discuss the factors that led to the establishment of the Commission, state the implementations of the recommendations; the implications to public health and give an overview of the West Indies school of Public Health.

Lord Moyne otherwise known as Walter Edward Guinness and1st Baron Moyne, played a very important role on being a part of the blue print in the initiation of the foundation of public health in various countries. Moyne’s life…...

Similar Documents

Caribbean Brewers

...ISSN 1940-204X Caribbean Brewers: Transfer Pricing, Ethics and Governance Douglas Kalesnikoff University of Saskatchewan Suresh Kalagnanam University of Saskatchewan INTRODUCTION It is April 2011 and you have used your newly acquired business degree to secure a management job as advisor to the chief financial officer with Caribbean Brewers Inc., located in Antigua in the Caribbean Sea. Caribbean Brewers Inc. is a 75%-owned subsidiary of Gera International, a conglomerate in the business of brewing and distributing beer. It is barely a week since you started your job and you already have major projects to deal with. GERA INTERNATIONAL Gera beer has been a well-established international brand of beer for over half a century, usually ranked among the top three selling brands of beer in the world. Up until 2005, Gera International, head-quartered in Munich, Germany, brewed Gera beer for the Caribbean region at a brewery located in Jamaica. As transportation costs continued to increase, the logistics of shipping from Jamaica, which is located in the western Caribbean, to islands in the eastern Caribbean became problematic. In the early 2000s, Gera International set out to find a suitable location for a plant in the eastern Caribbean. After due diligence investigations on a number of locations, Gera International decided on Antigua. Antigua, with the population of 68,000, is the largest of the English-speaking Leeward Islands of the eastern Caribbean. Antigua became......

Words: 3157 - Pages: 13

The Use of Traditional Medicine in the Caribbean

...and Alternative Medicine: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, examine the use, economics and development of alternative medicine basing their research on archival research. They note that the use of Traditional Medicine is higher among patients with chronic conditions. They also note that while Traditional Medicine is a cheaper alternative, economics is rarely the primary motivational factor- confidence in the treatment, ease of access and convenience and lowered incidence and costs of side effects rank higher. Their research indicates that it is a misconception that the poor and uneducated are more likely to use traditional medicine. D. F. Aarons(1999) in his article Health Care Priorities in the Caribbean, cites the non-existence of Modern Medicine in some rural communities, high cost of medical care in urban centers, unreliable public health clinics, personal beliefs, spiritual awakening and inaccessibility to doctors as the reasons why Caribbean people resort to Traditional Medicine. He notes in Jamaica, Traditional Medicine services in herbal therapy, acupuncture and reflexology are being used and Traditional Medicine use has spread from rural to urban areas. Some doctors are even offering alternative medicine services using an integrated approach to attract more patients. He notes that indigenous beliefs and healing systems like Obeah in Trinidad play important parts, but Traditional Medicine has no official recognition by either governments or...

Words: 2571 - Pages: 11

Caribbean Studies Notes

...caribbean studies notes MODULE ONE LOCATION AND DEFINITION OF THE CARIBBEAN REGION Definition of the Caribbean Region Geographical This describes the area washed by the Caribbean Sea and is often described as the Caribbean Basin. It would therefore include most of the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles as well as the mainland territories in Central America (Costa Rica, Belize, Panama, Honduras) and Northern South America such as Columbia and Venezuela. The common link here is the Caribbean Sea. Geological There are deep seated structural features of Caribbean geology which also identifies commonalities. It is the area that is defined by the Caribbean Plate and which experiences similar tectonic, seismic and volcanic features and processes. Historical It describes the area that saw the impact of European colonization, slavery, indentureship and the plantation system. this refers to all the territories so that one way of defining the Caribbean is to identify those countries that experienced the rule of specific European countries. Thus the Caribbean may be defined as being broken up into the English, French, Dutch and Spanish speaking countries and territories. Political In the Caribbean at least three types of governmental systems are found. They include Independent States, Associated States and Colonial Dependencies. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETY Society Society is a collection of people occupying a defined......

Words: 9332 - Pages: 38

Caribbean Brewers

...Caribbean Brewers: Transfer Pricing, Ethics and Governance Abstract Caribbean Brewers is a fictitious company although the case depicts a real international business situation focusing on transfer pricing, ethics and governance. It exposes students to the role of management accounting concepts such as cost allocation and transfer pricing in terms of how they impact the performance and reward of individuals at different levels within the organization. Students are also exposed to impact of the management accounting and control tools/methods used upon stakeholder interests. The case puts the new comptroller in a difficult position with respect to discharging his or her professional and ethical responsibilities when the interests of the different stakeholders are at odds with one another (e.g., majority and minority shareholders, individual managers and tax authorities). It contains a good balance of quantitative and qualitative analyses, and forces students to delve into the issues in some depth. The ethical issue forces students to think hard about how they would react when facing similar situations. The case offers considerable flexibility to the instructor to emphasize different aspects contained within depending upon the specific course and the level at which it is being used; it can also work well as an integrative case. The case is most suitable for use in advanced undergraduate management accounting courses as well as graduate level courses including those......

Words: 7577 - Pages: 31

Caribbean Development

...Caribbean Development: An Overview Paul Sutton * Development is generally recognised as a complex multifaceted process of economic, social, political, environmental and cultural change, which results in increases in the well-being of people and extends their rights and choices in the present without compromising the abilities of future generations to enjoy these benefits. In the Caribbean the economic, social and political elements of development have held centre stage in the last fifty years. Typically they have been (and are) represented in the form of rising incomes (greater Gross Domestic Product per capita), social progress (improved welfare through education and health programmes and gender equality) and political freedoms (independence, administrative efficiency and democracy). In the last fifteen years environmental issues have slowly risen on the development agenda as well as, more recently, cultural issues such as artistic expression and various forms of identity. Any exploration of development in the region is therefore very wide. The focus of this paper is on the traditional agenda - economic, social and political development in that order. This is not because these aspects are in any sense ‘superior’ to other forms of development (although the economic dimension remains dominant within the development discourse and within the Caribbean), but because it permits the long view - to look back at development policy to situate where the theory and practice of......

Words: 6965 - Pages: 28

Moyne Commission

...India Royal Commission, popularly known as The Moyne Report, is perhaps one of the single most important documents in the history of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Following Emancipation in 1838, former slave owners sought to exact labour at the lowest of wages and former slaves struggled for land, better working conditions and better wages. In the 1930s, the social changes since Emancipation brought an increasing working class consciousness to the fore which erupted in a series of labour rebellions across the territories of the British Caribbean. Complaints of abhorrent social and economic conditions spurred the appointment by the British Government in August 1938 of the West India Royal Commission led by Lord Moyne, to investigate and make recommendations on the conditions in the British territories. The comprehensive Report detailing the horrible conditions suffered by the people of the then British Caribbean is presented in its entirety and is enhanced by an introduction by Denis Benn. From health to infant mortality; housing to child labour and discrimination against women; labour and trade unions; agricultural policy and land settlement, the Report was scathing in its criticism of British colonial policy in the Caribbean and advanced a number of recommendations to deal with the challenges of the territories. A seminal document in the development of the Caribbean The Moyne Report is a critical document for scholars of Caribbean history, society, economics and......

Words: 1946 - Pages: 8

Caribbean Studies

...CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION (CAPE) CARIBBEAN STUDIES For Self-Study and Distance Learning This material has been developed for The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) With assistance from The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Copyright © 2004 CXC/COL Prepared by Dr Jennifer Mohammed Mr. Samuel Lochan Dr. Henderson Carter Dr. David Browne CARIBBEAN STUDIES TABLE OF CONTENTS Study Guide 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Titles Society, Culture and the Individual Geography, Society and Culture History, Society and Culture Cultural Diversity in Caribbean Society and Culture Impact of Societal Institutions on Caribbean People Caribbean - Global Interaction Concepts and Indicators of Development Contribution of Sports to Development in the Caribbean Regional Integration and Development Factors Promoting or Hindering Development Intellectual Traditions The Mass Media Social Justice Investigating Issues in the Caribbean Pages 1 – 21 22 – 51 52 – 87 88 – 116 117 – 146 147 – 170 171 – 187 188 – 195 196 – 207 208 –222 223 – 247 248 – 255 256 – 262 263 – 303 INTRODUCTION Purpose The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), in collaboration with the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), has developed Self-Study Guides for a number of Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) and Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) subjects. The main purpose of the Guides is to provide both in-school and......

Words: 10072 - Pages: 41

Caribbean Festivals

...Caribbean Festivals at Home and Abroad Concept of Carnival/Festival Carnival brings about a "second world condition" so that when carnival comes around, another world is created and people go into that world. Notion of carnival as one of “the decentralising forces that militate against official power and ideology. Carnival as the interruption of dominant discourses “to surrender the critical and cultural tools to the dominant class and in this sense, carnival can be seen above all else as a site of urgency.” Mikhail Bakhtin in Rabelais and His World- Uses the term in reference to carnivals of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Bakhtin one of the key theorists on carnivals. Bakhtin-Carnivals allowed people mostly from the under class to rebel momentarily against social conventions and the class and financial hierarchies that structured society. Bakhtin- Carnival in medieval times offered a “second world and a second life.” Play, mockery, inversion, laughter and profanity all elements in Bakhtin's canival. Bakhtin-Carnival underlined is not a spectacle seen by the people; they live in it and everyone participate because its very idea embraces all the people...It has a universal spirit; it is a special condition of the entire world, of the world's revival and renewal in which all take part.” Bakhtin's views on Carnival have led to many theorists using Bakhtin's views to discuss carnival. Robert Stam- Carnivals can be politically ambiguous affairs that can be egalitarian and......

Words: 5757 - Pages: 24

Integration Efforts in the Caribbean

...INTEGRATION EFFORTS IN THE CARIBBEAN ESSAY Sir Arthur Lewis in 1965 wrote ‘these islands did not start on the federal road in a fit of idleness. They start because it was clear that a federation is the only possible solution to their problem.” To understand what Sir Arthur Lewis meant regional integration must be defined. According to Carbough (2004), regional integration is a process of eliminating restrictions on international trade, payments and factors of mobility. Full regional integration is the economic, social, legal, political, business and environmental factors into one common regional space. There are six levels of integration which are the trade association, free trade area, customs union, common market, economic and political union. Over the past decade regional integration movements have been undergoing tremendous pressure as they attempt to sustain viability. Hippolyte- Manigot (1979) stated “Since the mid 1970s, so serious have some of these difficulties been that practitioners and analyst of regional integration have indicated their doubts about the viability of regional integration.” The first effort for integration took place in 1958. This was known as the West Indies Federation. The federation faced several problems but what really led to the demise of the federation was fell apart in January 1962 was the withdrawal of Jamaica. This withdrawal was to lead to a movement within Jamaican for national independence from Britain. The withdrawal of Jamaica......

Words: 1392 - Pages: 6


...1.2. TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF MIGRATION TO AND FROM CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES Elizabeth Thomas-Hope[1] INTRODUCTION Migration has become deeply embedded in the psyche of Caribbean peoples over the past century and a half. It has evolved as the main avenue for upward mobility through the accumulation of capital – financial and social. Thus the propensity for migration is high and there is a general responsiveness to the opportunities for moving whenever they occur. At times these opportunities have come from within the region itself or the wider circum-Caribbean region, as in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; in more recent times from North America and Europe. The migration dynamic reflects the interplay of international, national and highly personal circumstances. Global changes affect the international economic order and the division of labour and, as a consequence, legislative controls and inducements to the movement of labour across selective national borders. At the national level, economic, social, demographic and political factors influence the variable access of people to economic rewards and social opportunities. But migration is not a passive reaction to internal ‘pushes’ and external ‘pulls’. Within this wider international and national context, migration is part of a dynamic set of negotiations at all levels. For whether ‘free’ movement or refugee, there is a selective process that operates at the interface of the needs......

Words: 9235 - Pages: 37

Caribbean Study

...the challenge of the working world. But there are different types of learners and to accommodate all types of learning, the school must develop a suitable curriculum. This curriculum must include e-learning technologies to support above average students, improve average students and resuscitate underperforming students. In this regard, I chose the theme of education, specifically the topic how has e-learning impacted underperforming students learning in Ardenne High School. To further explore this topic I will: Firstly, analyze if teachers are trained to combine their teaching styles with e-learning technologies, Secondly, has the problem subject mathematics been easier to learn using e-learning technologies and is this reflected in Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate (C.S.E.C) passes, Lastly, is there a positive or negative response to e-learning in the classroom (would greater accessibility to the internet be more of a problem than a solution) and what other improvements could give added benefits to the lesson being taught. As this is a relatively new effort in Jamaica, this study could be used as a base for further research. It would help the government to target the necessary subjects for improvement. Equip teachers with the information that will benefit the performance of students especially in the fight with mathematics. As well as give students a chance to take the initiative, after being empowered, to use technology to their advantage. In the field of......

Words: 3792 - Pages: 16

Caribbean and Cuba

...Assignment 8 1. Despite having a strong base in agriculture the Caribbean has begun to fall behind as competition from the global markets persist. What was a crutch for the economy in the form of tourism has become the main aspect of many Caribbean economies. As great as that may be however, it has its downsides as well. Tourism is something derived from vacationing patrons who enjoy travel in their leisure time. During periods of economic crisis, as seen back in 2008, leisure tends to get put on the back burner as needs tend to eclipse wants during times of struggle. One of the reasons this impacts the Caribbean so hard has a lot to do with its populations. Many of the islands rely so greatly one form of income through tourism that instead of negative impacts being spread across several sectors it is only one that suffers causing many of those employed to suffer as well. Strategies to lessen economic problems in the Caribbean a difficult to devise. Economic diversity is difficult to provide given the limited resources along with them being spread thin as it is. Haiti serves as an example of not diversifying its economic approach, who based its economy on its timber production to the point it clear cut the entire portion of the island it inhabited. Foresight is key to these sort of issues and understanding long term affects to a strategy can decide on whether it is worth doing at all. For the Caribbean, much of what it needs to do is stabilize its......

Words: 1068 - Pages: 5

Amerindians in the Caribbean

...Trecy I. Spencer Dr. Tara Innis FOUN 1101 6 March 2015 All over the Caribbean, the Amerindians have left a rich legacy Forty generations before the arrival of the Columbus, the Caribbean was inhabited by an indigenous people referred to as Amerindians. They were divided into two main groups, the Arawaks (Taino) and the Carib (Kalinago). They had a rich culture and thriving society the evidence of which can be seen all over the Caribbean today. The Arawaks came to the Caribbean from the Orinoco region to Trinidad then spread through the Caribbean. They were of average height, well-shaped and slightly built. They generally wore no clothes except for the married ladies who wore a cotton loin cloth (nagua). It was a common custom for them to do body printing, they would paint their faces, eyes and noses. They wore embellishments made of gold, or an alloy of gold and copper (guanine) in their noses. Tainos, as they called themselves, had organized societies where they lived in villages, carved wood, made pottery, wove cotton and practised religion based on respect for nature and their ancestors which was directed by priests or shamans. They hunted, fished and also planted crops especially cassava in amounts which were adequate for their families. Various types of fish, shellfish, turtle and manatee were consumed. These were captured with nets, hooks made of bones and harpoons; the turtles were caught with a remora (sucker fish). Small animals like the agouti, utia and......

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Caribbean Studies

...Topic: Treats faced by coral reefs in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean, the natural structures of the coral reefs are faced with many severe dangers which are caused naturally and by human activities. Coral reefs however, are living communities. Coral polyps are tiny marine creatures that secrete a calcium carbonate or limestone shell around their bodies, which remains when they die. The long shells become cemented together to form the physical structure of the reef on top of which the live Coral polyps grow. The coral reefs are significantly beneficial to the Caribbean region, thus, certain strict measures should be implemented to minimize or reduce the dangers posed to the coral reefs. The coral reef structure provides protection to plant and aquatic life. Waves break on the reef ensuring that a calm lagoon or stretch of sea occurs between the reef and the coastline. Coral reefs are therefore, ecosystems that support an immense variety of life and also have great potential to produce new medicine for mankind. The coral reef is important to the Caribbean regions with regards to the tourism industry. Thus, these reefs should be protected from human threats. First of all, Caribbean countries can immediately create marine reserves which are places in the ocean that are completely protected from uses that remove animals and plants or alter their habitats. These reserves are off limits to fishing activities because destructive fishing methods physically destroy the reef when......

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Chaos in the Caribbean

...Chaos in the Caribbean Strayer University Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination ACC 571 Dr. Timothy Brown ------------------------------------------------- 1. Evaluate Avey’s role as an expert witness for the Jamaican government. Avey and his firm were hired by the Jamaican government starting in the early in the 90s to investigate accusations of fraud and mismanagement and prepare reports outlining his findings starting with the Blaise Merchant Bank and Trust Co which spread to two similar but larger cases involving Century National Bank and its related financial entities and Eagle Merchant Bank. As an expert witness, Avey was hired by the Jamaican government to provide forensic investigation and audit support. He utilized specialized investigative skills in carrying out an inquiry conducted in such a manner that the outcome would be applicable to a court of law. In addition he examined evidence regarding assertions to determine its correspondence to established criteria carried out in a manner suitable to the court. Avey conducted his investigation grounded in sound forensic accounting principles where he quickly discovered self dealing in the Blaise Case where money was lent from one Blaise financial entity to companies controlled by its principal shareholders. In the Century Case, dishonesty was the main cause of the problems where the use of depositors’ funds to acquire such assets as real estate (which had also been the case with Blaise) for the...

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6