The African American's Struggle

In: Historical Events

Submitted By theoriginalstew
Words 1356
Pages 6
Running head: THE STRUGGLE

The African-American’s Struggle

Joshua T.K. Stewart

Dr. Michele Kinney

US History

October 23, 2013

The African-American’s Struggle
On the very first day of the year 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing approximately three million slaves held in the rebellious Confederate States. While it did not end slavery entirely, it did get the ball rolling toward the complete abolition of slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. While the laws of the land were amended, the attitudes of the people did not change and the African-Americans still had a long struggle ahead of them.
President Lincoln had a plan of action that he wished to implement after the war ended in 1865. He wanted to get the Southern states back into the union as painlessly as possible. In order to be readmitted to the union, President Lincoln wanted ten percent of the voters from each rebellious state to swear an oath of allegiance to the United States (Kennedy & Cohen, 2012). Many in Congress disagreed with the President in favor of a law that would force fifty percent of the voters from the seceded states to swear the oath of allegiance. None of that really mattered to the newly freed slaves. That had lives to get on with and a newfound freedom. Unfortunately, there were those in the South that had plans of their own for their former slaves.
Once Reconstruction began, the seceded states began to reorganize their governments and create new State Constitutions. Most of these states simply returned their Confederate leaders to political positions. They immediately passed a series of laws specifically written to control the behavior of African Americans. (Schultz, 2014) These laws became known as the Black Codes, and they bore a striking resemblance to the slave codes…...

Similar Documents

African American Struggles

...RUNNING HEAD: AFRICAN AMERICAN STRUGGLES 1 African American Struggles Shaneisa Smith Soc 308: Racial & Ethnic Groups Risa Garelick November 23, 2011 AFRICAN AMERICAN STRUGGLES 2 African American Struggles African Americans are knows to face various issues throughout their lives. From being discriminated against, to trying to fit into society, African Americans still have problems because they are considered to be the minority (McGhee, 2010). African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendents of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States. Most African Americans are of West African descent and make up the single largest racial minority in the United States (African American Studies, 2001). Due to the fact that African Americans are minorities, they face problems in today’s world. Unlike the civil rights movement in the 1960s, African Americans today are not fighting for basic civil rights such as the right to vote and the right to attend non segregated schools. Many of the challenges are more subtle. The struggle would involve things like fighting negative stereotypes, pushing against institutional barriers that have been strengthened by those in favor of maintaining a historical......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

African-American College Students: Personal History, Struggles, and Graduation

...African-American College Students: Personal History, Struggles, and Graduation Rheon Gibson Northern Illinois University Abstract In this report, I discuss the importance of African-American college students in higher education realms and why the topic appeals to my interests. I will also identify trends in research questions, methodology, and research findings; regarding three identified themes; Personal History, Struggles, and Graduation. In addition, I will provide the reader with an evaluation/critique of the existing literature, including; 1) contributions of literature to the field, 2) overall strengths, 3) overall weaknesses, 4) missing elements, and 5) what are the next steps for research. African-American College Students: Personal History, Struggles, and Graduation Introduction Importance to the Field Educational attainment amongst African-Americans is a crucial concept that not only affects African-American communities but it also affects society as a whole. Education provides a solid foundation for individuals to experience personal growth, increase one’s socioeconomic status, and obtain professional careers and licensures. Obtaining higher education does not begin upon admission to an accredited college or university; instead, it begins when one is first introduced to the educational system. This introduction can be in Kindergarten, Pre-K, the first year of home school, or wherever the first fundamental steps of acquiring a higher knowledge of......

Words: 2986 - Pages: 12

War of Struggle

... INTRODUCTION Much of the literature about the liberation struggle in the South-East Lowveld has documented different counter strategies by the RSF but propaganda as one of the strategy has been partially covered. The study focuses on Rhodesia Front government’s propaganda as a counter insurgency strategy to the guerrilla activities. Propaganda is the control of public opinion. There are three types of propaganda that is white, grey and black propaganda. White propaganda is the dissemination of the truth to someone’s advantage, grey propaganda is the mixture of lies and truth and black propaganda consists of largely but not total lies. All these types were exploited upon implementation of propaganda at different levels through different tactics. Psychological operations which were executed as forms of propaganda involved planned use of communication through words, symbols and actions to influence the behaviour of the targeted audiences and achieve set objectives. The government’s use of propaganda warfare was prompted by a number of reasons which ranged from economic, political, social and military factors. It is worth noting here that, the tempo and conduct of the war varied from one locality to the other depending on the terrain and proximity to strategical areas like borders, transport networks and close to government’s administrative offices. The study is presented in three chapters. The first chapter outlines the reasons for the introduction of propaganda warfare in......

Words: 26951 - Pages: 108

The African-American's History in America

...The African American’s History in the United States 1865-Present Gina R. Carter Hist:204 Instructor Ronnie Peacock April 8, 2013 The African American’s struggles have been many as well as continuous throughout the centuries. However, this race despite the trials and tribulations thrown at them, stood fast when faced with adversity, discrimination, oppression and segregation. They are a people once condemned by the country that stole their heritage and identity, forced them into slavery and labeled then subhuman. After imprisonments, the loss of lives, much sacrifice and an undeniable refusal of contentment, they are now America’s doctors, lawyers, priests, educators, judges and Secretary of State. From slavery to the White House, the African American took control over its fate and today continues to orchestrate its own destiny. After many years of involuntary servitude, beating, rapes and hangings, the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified on December 6, 1865, stating, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States.", the African American slave finally had a taste of freedom, so he thought. Even though the Thirteenth amendment was the Constitutional end of slavery in the United States, this was not the end of slavery. Instead the American southern states introduced slavery by another name. American History 1865-Present | End of Isolation......

Words: 2842 - Pages: 12

African American Stereotypes

...African American Stereotypes in Movies Media Research Methods CO 455 November 20, 2012 African American Stereotypes in Movies Introduction There once was a time when everyone expected the black man to be the first actor to die in every movie that possessed a black man in its cast. However, over time the assumption of the black man being the first to die has changed. Currently in the year 2012, there are progressively more movies in which black men portray leading roles. This change in black men as leading characters in movies is a welcome change. In the past, supporting or backup roles were considered the best role a black man could achieve. In this paper, the researcher will conduct information by means of content analysis. Content analysis is the most commonly used methodology because of its ability to measure human behavior, assuming that the verbal behavior is a form of behavior. This study will examine specific media products and define these products by determining smaller elements that complement these products. This document will address a wide view of concerns regarding the African American culture, and will provide assumptions on how this issue can be addressed in the future. The stereotype of African Americans in movies today, is the topic of this research paper. Why do African Americans face stereotypes in the media? Why do black actors and actresses have difficulty obtaining roles that are not......

Words: 6681 - Pages: 27

African American’s Battle for Equality and Right’s

...African American’s Battle for Equality and Right’s Luis Gomezfranco HIS204: American History Since 1865 Prof. Lisa Bowie January 14,2012 African American’s Battle for Equality and Right’s During and after the Civil War (1861-1865), the African American people were mistreated and discriminated against for many years. There is still racism going on until this day that routes from years of violence and maltreatment of the Black community in the United States. Black men and women were in a constant struggle in order to try to gain their equal rights as American citizens throughout history. When the United States was first getting colonized around the year 1619 there were African Americans who were stripped of their homes and forced into slavery. It was only years later that there was a Civil War that ended slavery but didn’t end resentment and animosity between Whites and Blacks. Even though Blacks were constantly beaten in public places and made to feel like insignificant human beings, they still fought long and hard for their right’s to live in this nation as equal as a White man and Woman. In this essay I will explain how they fought for their rights and what trials and tribulations they had to go through in order to get the respect they deserved and the life they fought to live amongst the White population. “The Black Codes codified some of these feelings into law when in 1865 southern state governments created legislation that restricted and controlled...

Words: 1940 - Pages: 8

The Struggle

... The Balanced Sentence A balanced sentence is a type of parallel sentence in which two parallel elements are set off against each other like equal weights on a scale. In reading the sentence aloud, one tends to pause between the balanced parts, each seeming equal. When writing a balanced sentence, be certain that both parts of the sentence have the clear parallels of form, that they appear parallel grammatically. In a balanced sentence, the phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length: e.g., “He maketh me lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside still waters.” George Bernard Shaw said of writers: The ambition of the novice is to acquire the Literary Language; the struggle of the adept is to get rid of it. [Each part of the sentence follows the same pattern: subject, verb, infinitive phrase.] Content of a Balanced Sentence Balanced sentences are particularly effective if you have an idea that has a contrast or antithesis. Balanced sentences can emphasize the contrast so that the rhetorical pattern reflects and supports the logical pattern. No man has ever seen anything that Burne-Jones cannot paint, but many men have painted what Burne-Jones cannot see. 1. (Shaw) And so my fellow Americans—ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. (Kennedy) 2. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor...

Words: 2800 - Pages: 12


...Struggle In the story of Slamming On Pig’s Misery Evvie Tooms is constantly fighting the hardships of her life. It starts off with Evvie bargaining for sled time, and the only thing she has as a bargaining chip is her body. So, this shows from the beginning that Evvie is probably in a poor family. The entire town thinks that Evvie is crazy because she does some weird things. For example, she will sit in the outhouse for hours on end at times. Evvie does not have a great relationship with her mother and father. It isn’t directly said but it is implied in the story that Evvie and her mother are both physically abused by Evvie’s father. It is also made clear that Evvie’s father sexually abuses Evvie and the mother does nothing to prevent it even though she fully knows what is indeed going on. The mother turns to the bible to find answers and even is singing a gospel hymn while Evvie is being raped. It is apparent that the mother has no clue what to do and can’t seem to find the answer. Evvie has an obsession with speed or adrenaline rushes, so every time winter comes around she likes to sled. So for her eleventh birthday her father purchased her a sled, Evvie treasured the sled and stowed it under her bed until it would be time for some sledding. But Evvie’s family is very poor and eventually the owner of the toy store comes and reposes the sled back. Sledding to Evvie is a escape in two ways. It lets her escape life momentarily and even eventually permanently. The other...

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

African American Struggle

...The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South. The leadership was African-American, much of the political and financial support came from labor unions (led by Walter Reuther), major religious denominations, and prominent white politicians such as Hubert Humphrey and Lyndon B. Johnson. The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities. Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the civil rights......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Eflection on: Robert F. Williams, “Black Power, ” and the Roots of the African American Freedom Struggle

...article challenges the concept that Black Power and armed self-defense emerged only after 1965. Rather, Tyson points out that the roots of Black Power stretch further back and often worked "in tandem and in tension" with non-violent direct action. This is an important reconceptualization of a critical era in American history. As a matter of course, Historians have depicted the civil rights movement as a nonviolent call on the morals of America and following the Black Power as a violent disapproval of what was considered to be the right way of gaining equality and freedom, Timothy B Tyson in his article acknowledges that both movements grew out of the need to combat injustice and white supremacy, They both reflected the same quest which was African American freedom. Robert Williams left a very good legacy that should be uplifted by all....

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

African America

...Response #5 Many rivers to Cross Civil rights movement was accomplishing in the court and congress in 1968. How African America dream to be able to achieve equality. The news of Martin Luther King was assassinated, killed the Politics of non-violence and blacks started to rioting across the country. African American started a group of the Black Panthers. Guns were used for defense the black community’s. Maulene karenge created Kwanza and how soul train helped spread the new that African American is beautiful. African American got job and black student’s alliance shaping the education. FBI launched an attack on The Black Panther and started conflict between black groups. Black organization came together in Gary to start The First National Black Political Convention. Successful blacks, middle class that have stability and some middle class that was poor. Problem that started in black communities have been addressed to the government that was lead to drug to increase. In 2005 Hurricane Trina struck the city of New Orleans and about 1500 lost their lives and hundred thousand lost their homes because they were black and poor. Almost them were senate Barack Obama. Then a year later Barack run for President. Obama became the first Back President. How Black man was in prison and when they are release it was hard for them to find employment The African American’s struggles have been many as well as continuous throughout the century. However, Black people are still faced with racial...

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

African American's Enslaved

...When Africans were enslaved in the Americas, were they completely stripped of their heritage or do the spirits of their ancestors still influence their lives? If African American’s were completely stripped of their heritage during enslavement, we would not have the slightest bit of knowledge about their past like we do today. These people of color would have been unknown to the 21st century, textbooks, and any media if their ancestors did not influence their lives. I believe that although the slaves were forced to convert to American traditions, their heritage and spiritual religion still remained intact and is part of our modern day culture today. However, to fully answer this question, I must first give some background knowledge on the two tribes I have selected; the Zulu’s and the Ashanti’s. Living in central Ghana a British colony until 1957. Ancient Ghana trade produced pepper, otherwise known as slaves gold and was famous for urban settlement, architecture, and political reign. The Ashanti’s are a ethnic group of the Akans and barley more than 50 years old. The religion is based off the spiritual and supernatural idea that plants, trees, and animals have souls. There are also beliefs centered around ancestors, higher gods, and Nyame; the supreme being of the Ashanti’s. If you think about it, some of the Ashanti’s beliefs are present in American culture. Take the millions of American’s who are vegan. These individuals feel that animals have souls and...

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

African American Struggles

...1. ATOMS I can… 1. identify the parts of an atom; protons, neutrons, electrons. 2. properties of an atom; charges (anion & cation), atomic number, atomic mass & isotopes. 3. determine the number of subatomic particles in a neutral atom and charged atom. 4. the development of atomic models including, the Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. 5. represent elements using the modified Bohr model of an atom. 6. examine the spectra of common atom(s) to determine that each element has a unique pattern of light emitted & absorbed. 7. model and explain Rutherford’s gold foil experiment. 2. PERIODIC TRENDS I can… 8. describe how elements are organized on the periodic table. 9. identify metals, non-metals and metalloids on the periodic table. 10. identify elements that belong in the same group/family and explain shared characteristics. 11. identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases on the periodic table and describe their distinguishing characteristics. 12. identify and predict physical and chemical properties of elements based on their location on the periodic table. 13. determine the number of valence electrons for a given element. 3. BONDING & COMPOUNDS I can… 14. define and illustrate ionic bonds. 15. given a compound’s name, determine the ionic formula. 16. use the periodic table to predict what ionic formula will result when two elements bond. 17. show how......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

African American Women and the Vote, 1868-1877

...The Radical Reconstruction period from1868 to1877 provided suffrage to the African American community in tremendous ways. This Reconstruction period provided new prospects for the African American community for example, voting, labor, ownership of property, education and restoration of family life. In addition, to providing many opportunities the Radical Reconstruction made it very challenging for African American’s to take advantage of their “freedom”. In this paper my aim is to prove that African American women were relentless individuals, who controlled voting in southern African American communities through the use of their counterparts. Furthermore, African American women overcame the challenges that came along with the opportunities’ that were given during the reconstruction period, they utilized many strategies particularly violent ones. Elsa Barkley Brown article The Labor of Politics, substantially supports my argument. Brown provides numerous testimonies and examples of how African American women manipulated the vote through African American men. Throughout the article Brown uses African American women to emphasize her argument that ex-slaves developed their politics differently from their white Republicans allies. After the Civil War African American’s reconceptualizatize their role to vote in politics and one may wonder how can a group of people who have been recently emancipated do such a thing? Well Brown argues that the Black Richmonders, operated in two......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5

African-Americans Struggle

... Africa-Americans Ever since African Americans were slaves, the population of the African Americans during 1860’s in the northern America was about 1% after American Revolution. They experienced discrimination since the beginning based on the color of their skin. This race was perceived to be inferior compared to the whites. Because of discrimination, they were not given some civil rights such as voting. The illogical premise to support this claim was given by the state that the law forbade in certain areas. During this period, the New York Convention stated that only those African Americans with property had the right to vote (Dagbovie, 2007). In essence, during this time they were struggling to get employment and most of them were not financial stable. African Americans have undergone a lot in history and in the present American some of them hold political positions (The president of the United States), manage large firms, and have equal rights like other citizen. In fact I has never been this way, they were unjustly treated and undergone through difficulties that the today’s generation may not understand. The black generation has undergone various challenges in their history that the current generation can never believe to be true and valid. This paper explores the historical background of the conditions this community undergone and how they overcame the racial discrimination, segregation and isolation to acquire equality. Segregation The term segregation......

Words: 2568 - Pages: 11