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1) The measured demographic variables would be age, income, length of labor, return to work, and number of hours worked each week. These categories provide defined values that can be used to obtain set intervals.

2) The statistics used to describe the length of labor were the N (number or value), Mean and Standard Deviation. Yes, these are appropriate as hours worked are a defined set value with no obvious margin of error.

3) Another statistic that could have been used is the Median which describes the middle of the ordered value set, however to me this is not the best choice.

4) The score distribution for the experimental and control groups for length of labor are similar. There is not a significant difference in the described hours to change the outcome of the study.

5) Both the experimental and control group were similar for the types of feeding. For both bottle and breast, both had the same value of (2) and the remaining categories were very close in values.

6) In comparing the marital status mode between the experimental and control groups, the majority of women in both groups were married with a frequency of 25 and 78.1 percent in the experimental and frequency of 31 and 86.1 percent in the control.

7) Median values can be obtained from the education categories for both groups. This would be the mid-range value of Some College. The experimental group has a median of 11 and the control group has a median of 15.

8) The findings in this study cannot be generalized for black women as black women did not account for the majority of the participants. The data would be grossly skewed if stating a generalization since there were no black women in the control group.

9) The reason there is data on only 30 subjects on the experimental group and 34 in the control group is explained on the disclaimer information at…...

...Name: MaryAnn Dennis Date: 04/20/14 Class: HLT -362-0191 Applied Statistics Exercise 16 Mean and Deviation 1. The null hypothesis is for the study is: “There is no difference in the levels of empowerment, self-care self-efficacy, and depression of patients with ESRD who attend an empowerment program versus those who do not.” 2. What was the average baseline depression score of the experimental group subjects? The average or mean baseline depression score of the experimental group was 14.00. 3. Compare the baseline and the posttest means of the self-care self-efficacy variable for the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer. The experimental group’s mean self-care self-efficacy posttest score (mean = 96.00) was 6.44 points higher than its baseline mean score (mean = 89.56) because on average the experimental group subjects scored higher on the posttest than at baseline or the beginning of the study. This was an expected finding because it was hypothesized that after the completion of the empowerment program, the experimental group’s self-care self-efficacy skills would improve. This finding indicates that the empowerment intervention had a positive impact on the self-care self-efficacy of ESRD patients. 4. Which group showed more variability or greater dispersion in their depression posttest scores? Provide a rationale for your answer. The experimental group’s posttest scores were slightly more dispersed......

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...Exercise 16: Mean and Standard Deviation 1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? a. Nominal b. Ordinal c. Interval/ratio d. Experimental C. The researchers analyzed the data as though it were at the interval/ratio level since they calculated means (the measure of central tendency that is appropriate only for interval/ratio level data) and standard deviations (the measure of dispersion for interval/ratio data) to describe their study variables. 2. What was the mean posttest empowerment scores for the control group? According to Table 2 the mean for the posttest empowerment scores is 97.12. 3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer. The experimental group subjects scored lower on the depression posttest (mean = 13.36 vs. the baseline score of mean = 14.00), meaning that they were less depressed after the completion of the empowerment program. This was an expected finding, because the researchers hypothesized that the empowerment program would be beneficial to ESRD patients and result in a decrease in their depression scores. However, the difference in the depression baseline and posttest means for the experimental group was only 0.64, which is less than what might have been expected. 4. Compare the mean baseline depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken...

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...HLT362V Applied Statistics for Healthcare Professionals July 20, 2014 Exercise 11 – Using Statistics to Describe a Study Sample 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Demographic variables that are measured at the interval level are age, income ($), length of labor (hrs), return to work (wks), number of hours working per week. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? The statistics used to describe the length of labor in this study descriptive, they were mean and standard deviation. These are appropriate as they both can be calculated at the interval level of measurement. 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for you answer. The median could have been used as the mean and standard deviations for both groups were close. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide rationale for your answer. Yes, the standard deviation measures the average deviation values of the mean. The difference between the two groups is 0.48 hours which is less than 30 minutes. The mean difference between the two groups is 1.84 hours. 5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer. Yes, the groups were similar in their type of feeding. The difference in breast feeding was 1.1%, the......

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...Workbook Exercises11 & 16 Grand Canyon University 1. Complete Exercises 11 and 16 in Statistics for Health Care Research: A Practical Workbook, and submit as directed by the instructor (e.g., as a Microsoft Word document in the LoudCloud classroom). In order to receive full credit on calculated answers, please show your work. (Use Word's equation editors, etc., and/or provide a short written description as to how you obtained the final result.) Exercise 11 (4 points per question) 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Age, Income, Length of labor, Return to work, and Number of hours working per week. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? Sample size, Median and Standard Deviation were used to describe the length of labor in the experimental group and Population, Median, and Standard Deviation were used to describe length of labor in the control group. Because length of labor is considered an interval level of measurement, using these statistics were appropriate. 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. I believe mean could have been used to describe length of labor. By calculating the mean, you can figure out the average length of labor of the population. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of......

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...Complete Exercises 11 and 16 in Statistics for Health Care Research: A Practical Workbook In order to receive full credit on calculated answers, please show your work. (Use Word's equation editors, etc., and/or provide a short written description as to how you obtained the final result.) Exercise 11 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Age, income, length of labor, weeks to return to work and number of hours working each week. The experimental group with 32 subjects had a mean of 26.72 and the control group with 35 subjects of 26.89. Income of the experimental group was a mean of $35, 675 with 30 subjects while the control group was $41,450 with 34 subjects. The number for the experimental group to return to work and hours working were a group of 8 with 5 weeks median and 34.25 hours weekly, respectively. The control group had 9 subjects in each category with 5.78 weeks to return to work and 36.68 weekly hours, respectively. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? The SD of the experimental group was 7.78 hours with a mean of 14.63 and was measured in 30 of 32 subjects. The SD of the control group was 7.2 hours with the mean being 12.79 hours, measured in 33 of 35 subjects. Based on the statistical methods to obtain the means, these number look right to me although 12 to 14 hours of labor for an average woman in today’s world is often long thus I...

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...Name:SALYYOHANNAN________________________________________ Class HLT-362V______________________ Date:11/16/2014______________________________________________ EXERCISE-11 1) What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement Education is measured at the interval scales because the data is measured on specific intervals, and grades of education. 2) What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? Length of Labor is measured in hours. It is s an appropriate measurement because the time measured is less than a 24 hours. 3) What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer Length of Labor could have been measure in minutes for more accurate measurement. 4) Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. Both groups showed similar scores, well inside the first standard deviation. 5 ) Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer. The percentages of both the groups were similar in the type of feeding. The differences in the scores are a result of difference in the number of subjects. 6) What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental......

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...EXERCISE 11 1. What demographic variables were measures at least at the interval level of measurement? a. The number of hours worked per week and the length of labor (hrs) 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? b. Length of labor for both the control and experimental groups were described with mean and standard deviations. Yes, these were appropriate measures of statistics. 3. What other statistics could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. c. In addition to mean and standard deviations, mode could have been used in this study to describe length of labor. It would have given an understanding as to how long the common length of labor was. Median could have also been used, but I don’t think it would be any more beneficial than knowing the average and most common length of labor. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. d. The standard deviation for the experimental and control groups were 7.78 and 7.2 hours, respectively. By looking at standard deviation, yes the distribution of scores appear similar. However, when looking at the average length of hours for these groups, the experimental group’s length of labor was almost 2 hours longer which I feel is quite a significant difference. Each group must have similar outliers......

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...“Exercise 11 - Using Statistics to Describe a Study Sample” “Name:” _SM___________________________ The demographic variables at the interval level of measurement were length of labor, and number of hours working per week. “1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?” “2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?” The statistics that were used to describe the length of labor in this study were hours. They was appropriate because, the frequency is 30 and the mean is 14.63, they are used to describe the data. “3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.” Length of labor was described for both the experimental and control groups using means 14.63 and standard deviations 7.78. The exact length of labor was obtained, providing ratio level data that are descriptively considered with means and standard deviations. “4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.” The distributions of scores were not similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor. Experimental group has slightly higher dispersion (n = 30 and SD = 7.78) than control group (N= 33 and SD = 7.2). Standard deviation decreases with larger sample sizes. “5. Were the experimental and control groups similar......

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...Workbook Exercises 11 & 16 Name: To answer a question, please click on “Choose an item” and on the drop-down arrow and choose an answer. Here is a resulting drop-down list: If it is not working, you can enter your answers to the table at the end of the file. Question 11. 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? A. Age, Income B. Length of labor C. Return to work D. Number of hours working per week E. All of the above Answer: Choose an item. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? A. Mean B. Standard deviation C. A & B D. Minimum and Maximum E. Range Answer: Choose an item. Were these appropriate? A. Yes. B. No Answer: Choose an item. 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? A. Mean and Standard deviation B. Minimum, maximum C. Quartiles D. Median E. B, C, D, and other statistics for descripting continuous variables. Answer: Choose an item. ------------------------------------------------- Provide a rationale for your answer. ------------------------------------------------- 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? A. Yes. B. No Answer: Choose an item. ------------------------------------------------- Provide a rationale for your...

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...Can you image having something lounged in your knee causing unbearable pain after surgery. In 2010 a patient went to a local hospital in Woodland Hills California, to have a knee replacement surgery done, and the operating surgeon left a foreign object inside the knee after performing surgery.(CDOPH). (Jones 2012). It was found that their was a unidentified nurse working in the in the surgical unit who failed to do a correct count on the sponges before surgery and after. Further more she forged a technician signature on the operating room record who was suppose to do the count himself, but failed to do his job. The doctor himself did not follow the correct procedure, and stuffed a 4 by 4 saturated sponge with anesthetic inside of the incision, causing the patient to have terrible pain and a lump in the knee by the incision.(Jones 2012). The patient went to another hospital and it was discovered that a foreign object, a sponge was left in after the procedure. The patient had to have another operation to remove the sponge. Can you image having something lounged in your knee causing unbearable pain after surgery. In 2010 a patient went to a local hospital in Woodland Hills California, to have a knee replacement surgery done, and the operating surgeon left a foreign object inside the knee after performing surgery.(CDOPH). (Jones 2012). It was found that their was a unidentified nurse working in the in the surgical unit who failed to do a correct count on the sponges......

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...Geraldo Gutierrez Gomez Grand Canyon University HLT-362V September 6, 2015 Professor: Steve Austin Workbook Exercise 11 to 16 Statistics Class 1. What demographics variables were measured at least at interval level measurement? The demographics variables measured at least on the interval level measurement were the number of hours per week and length of labor hours. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Where these appropriate? The mean and standard deviation were used to describe the length of labor of for both group the control and experimental group. I agree these were appropriate measures of statistics. 3. What other statistics could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide rationale for your answer. In my opinion in addition to the mean and standard deviation, the mode could be used in this study to also describe the length of labor. It will give us and idea of how long the common length of labor was. The median could also been used, but in my opinion will not be more beneficial to knowing the average and the most common length of hours on the control and experimental groups. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide rationale for your answer. The standard deviation for the experimental group was 7.78(length of hours) and for the control group was 7.2(length of hours).By looking at the scores of the standard deviation my opinion...

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...Name: Michele Burlas Class: HLT-362V-0501 Date: 11/28/15 Questions to be graded for Exercise 11 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Length of labor and number of hours working per week. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? The length of labor was described with the experimental and control groups using means and standard deviations. There could be some misleading data if a couple of subjects worked a lot more hours than the rest. 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. The statistic that could be used for this is the median. The median is the middle score for a set of data arranged by magnitude and it is less skewed outliers. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. Yes, both groups were similar. The mean is 14.63 in the experimental group and 12.79 in the control group. The standard deviations in the experimental group 7.78 and 7.2 in the control group. The only difference is caused by the fact there was 30 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group. 5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer. Yes. Bottle-feeding was the mode for the......

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...Exercise 11 1.What demographic variables are measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Age, Income, length of labor, return to work and number of hours worked per week. 2.What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? The length of labor mean was 14.63 for the experimental group and 12.79 for the control group. The SD for each group was about 7 which seems appropriate. 3. What other statistics could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. Time from when the persons water broke or time from their first contraction, when does the length of labor begin, using the time of the first contraction would give a better statistic for length of labor 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. The N number for the experimental group is 30 and 33 for the control group. The median is 14.63 for the experimental group and 12.79 for the control. Based on the N number the scores are very similar based on the number of people in both groups. 5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their types of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer. Yes both were almost identical in types of feeding, the rationale being that when the groups were divided they were done so randomly so there would be no reason or cause for the groups to be different. 6. What...

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...Exercise 11 USING STATISTICS TO DESCRIBE A STUDY SAMPLE |Name | | |Course | | |Date | | |Section | | 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. 5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer. 6. What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups. 7. Could a median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and the control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer. 8. Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer. 9. If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects......

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...HLT-362V / Applied Statistics for Healthcare Professionals Workbook Exercises 11 and 16 Exercise 11 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Age, income, length of labor, return to work, number of hours worked per week 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? Mean and standard deviation. Yes, they are appropriate due to their being able to be calculated at the interval level. 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. Median could have been used because the mean and standard deviation were both similar. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. They were similar; standard deviation was 7.2 and experimental group was 7.78. With a difference of only 0.58, there is a very close standard deviation. 5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer. Both groups were similar, with only a 3.1% difference between control and experimental groups for bottle feeding and 1.1% difference between the control and experimental groups for breast feeding. 6. What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups...

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