Social Learning Theory

In: People

Submitted By deborah74
Words 576
Pages 3
Classical Theory The term “classical” and “positivist” refer to certain ideas and certain people who have been very important in the long history of trying to understand, and trying to do something about, crime. “Classical” criminology is most often associated with the name of the Italian Cesare Bonesana, Marchese de Beccaria. Classical criminology emerged at a time when the naturalistic approach of the social contract thinkers was challenging the spiritualistic approach that had dominated European thinking for over a thousand years. Classical criminology was a protest against those criminal justice policies and against the spiritual explanations of crime on which they were based. Aquinas argued that there was a God-given “natural law” that was revealed by observing, through the eyes of faith, people’s natural tendency to do good rather than evil. While Aquinas argued that people naturally do good rather than evil, Hobbes argued that people naturally pursue their own interests without caring about whether they hurt anyone else. Becarria’s theory changed criminal justice policies, especially in France and led to the expectation that crime would soon decrease. Today, we take such regularity in crime statistics for granted, but at that time, those who held a “free will” theory of crime expected random changes in the number of crimes, especially in the number of unpremeditated crimes such as passion murders. The development of national crime statistics in France reflected the larger development in Europe of relatively accurate official records as part of the development of stable social and political organization. In the 1600s various items in the official records began to be counted and compared as part of an analysis of economic conditions and their consequences. In England such studies came to be called “political arithmetic,” while in Germany they were…...

Similar Documents

Social Learning Theory

...complied with. However, except for what is stated in Companies and Allied Matter Act 1990 and Bank and Other Financial Institution Act 1993 on compliance with the standards, it is yet to be seen how many of such envisaged laws have so far been enacted. An overview of the Act (The Nigerian Accounting Standards Board Act, 2003) establishing the Board shows that section 21 instituted an Inspection Unit. The unit was charged with the responsibility of enforcing compliance with standards and imposition of sanctions for non-compliance. However, in the face of prevalent corporate scams the unit needs to proof its relevance and/or effectiveness. Sutherland (1939) defines white collar crime as a crime committed by a person of high-respectability and social status in the course of his occupation. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (1989) on their part defined white-collar crime as those illegal acts which are characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust and which are not dependent upon the application or threat of physical force or violence. White-collar criminals therefore are usually those who take advantage of their positions to illegally accumulate financial gain for themselves and at the detriment of the larger society (opportunist). The converse of white collar crime is blue collar crime otherwise known as street crime and is usually characterized with violence. Examples of such crime are armed robbery, arson, burglary, theft, assault, rape and vandalism.......

Words: 5152 - Pages: 21

The Impact of Bandura's Social Learning Theory on Today's Children

...Stephanie Salony B00397265 March 10, 2013 Developmental Psychology Of The Life Span Douglas Butler The Impact of Bandura’s Social Learning Theory On Today’s Children There are many different psychologists who have varying views on the learning and development of humans. This paper will focus primarily on Albert Bandura’s Social Learning theory and his view between cognitive and behaviorist learning and how it impacts development today. His ideas essentially include three main abilities: attention, memory, and motivation. Also, how people learn from one another via: observation, imitation, and modeling. “Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.” - Albert Bandura (1977) To start, Bandura believed most human behavior is learned by watching other humans interact and perform. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” (Bandura: 1977). For example, you will notice children constantly watching others, or particularly their parents, while they are cooking, doing a project, or interacting with others. Notice the child may start to mimic the parent and try to reenact what they just saw. This is what Bandura is explaining by watching the performance......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Social Learning Theory

...Social Learning Theory Bertha Zhagui BUS375: Employee Training Instructor:  Marissa Chavez July 8, 2013 The importance of training and cost of training are obvious. The question forcing the executives in organization is that how organization can make these training programs more effective. It means that individual makes the organizational performance better by utilizing their knowledge and skills consequently organization offers training for development of its employee performance to achieve required goals. This study highlights the importance and applications of learning theories and how these theories could prove to be of most effective in trainings. As training are only effective if it promote learning. Several theories relate to how people learn. Each theory relates to different aspects of the learning process. In my following paper I will discuss the Social Learning Theory, and will explain how this theory relates to my current workplace and how it would generate the same results in any other organizations. People are the critical component of the organizational system (Hayes, Wheelwright and Clark, 1998). Superior performance is ultimately based on the people in an organization, the right management principles, systems and procedures play an essential role. The capabilities that create a competitive advantage come from people, their skill, discipline, motivation, ability to solve problems and their capacity for learning......

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Social Learning Theory

...Social Learning Theory (Week 2: Assignment) The Social Learning Theory (Week 2 Assignment) There are several theories that have been developed in order for man to explain social development and the social concepts created by these developments. The many different theories that “explain how people become socialized, including the psychoanalytic theory, the functionalism theory, the conflict theory, and the symbolic interaction theory look at the individual learning process of man” (Vissing, 2011). They dive into the formation of one’s self, and they explain how the influence of society within socialization affects individuals. The social learning theory is one of these theories that attempt to explain the details of socialization and the effects of one’s own development. The social learning theory has been noted and acknowledged within the psychology community for some time now and was greatly shaped by psychologist, Albert Bandura. Overall, the social learning theory has several aspects and elements that make it a formidable and studied theory by many psychologists and it is used by many while attempting to explain how exactly people become socialized. To begin with, the social learning theory takes in to account the formation of one’s identity. The identity is considered to be a learned response to social encounters. The theory “emphasizes the societal context of socialization rather than the individual mind” (Anderson, 2009) and it “postulates that an individual’s......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Describe and Discuss the Social Learning Theory

...Describe and evaluate the social learning theory approach in psychology. The social learning theory approach argues that it is the mediational processes which lie between the stimulus and response, influence our behaviour and the way we act. This is when we witness a certain action and then thought processes occur, this is where we consider how we behave. For example, a child may be watching the tweenies’ and witness reinforcement for good behaviour, they then would like the same reinforcement and therefore imitate this good behaviour. Another assumption of the social learning theory is that learning can occur by observation of others, such as role models. Social learning psychologists argue that we are more likely to imitate people who are similar to us, people in high status and people who are of the same gender and are warm, supportive people. An example, many young boys may imitate David Beckham by playing football and dressing the way he does, this is because of his high status. The social learning theory also believes can be a result of direct reinforcement and indirect of various reinforcement. An example of this is a child observing another child being rewarded for a behaviour and then decides to imitate this behaviour. Indirect reinforcement is when a child in the audience watches a child receive a medal for winning in a match the child in the audience watches this and wants to do the same. ‘modelling’ is when someone is modelling out behaviour with no intention...

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Drug Use and Social Learning Theory

...Theoretical and Conceptual This study is anchored on Albert Bandura’s Social Learning theory. This theory states that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction (Bandura, 1963). Social learning theory holds that behavior is molded by rewards and punishment, or reinforcement. Past and present rewards and punishments for certain actions determine the actions that individuals continue to pursue. Reward and punishment structures are built into specific groups (Akers, 1992). By interacting with members of certain groups or social circles, people learn definitions of behaviors as good or bad. It is in the group setting, differentially for different groups, where reward and punishment take place, and where individuals are exposed to behavioral models and normative definitions of certain behaviors as good or bad . Social learning theory proposes that the use and abuse of psychoactive substances is caused by the differential exposure to groups in which use is rewarded. “These groups provide the social environments in which exposure to definitions, imitations of models, and social reinforcements for use of or abstinence from any particular substance takes place. The definitions are learned through imitation and social reinforcement of them by members of the group with whom one is associated” (Akers et al, 1979). Drug use, including abuse, is determined “by the extent to which a given pattern of......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Social Learning Theory

...Framework Social Learning Theory Developed by Albert Bandura in 1965 and 1977, Social Learning Theory emphasized on the importance of rewards and punishments. This theory identified that children can learn new behaviours in one or two ways: by direct experience through trial and error or by observing and imitating others in their social environment. Bandura (1994) stated that observational learning eventually is more efficient than trying to discover everything on your own. Children can and do learn from other people in their environment, including parents, siblings, peers, and teachers. Children can also learn from characters and people that appeared in the mass media (Sparks, 2002) Bandura’s studies helped researchers to understand a number of things about television violence, animated programs and children. First, viewing television violence and animated programs could cause children to behave more aggressively, particularly if the violent characters were attractive and received rewards for their actions. Second, in many of these studies, the effects emerged most strongly for boys not girls. The researchers thought that perhaps this aggressive tendency resulted in boys being more sensitive to the impact of media violence. In the 1980s, Bandura (1986) reformulated his theory for the reason that it had been criticised as too behaviouristic, which was focusing mostly on the reinforcements and how people act. The newer perspective, which was called Social......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Social Learning Theory

...Criminal Justice 201 Term Paper – Social Learning Theory (Q#5) Carmina Janine Ibanez December 9, 2013 Learning as found in the dictionary is the act or process of acquiring knowledge or skill (dictionary.com, n.d.). Have you ever heard of the saying that states, “We learn something new everyday?” Now, that “something” can be anything from learning how to walk, learning how to write, learning the 50 states of America or even how to behave or act. Everything we do has been learned and observed. Social learning theory states that crime can also be learned. I believe that delinquency or criminal behavior is learned in early childhood by our environments. Learning criminal behavior can come from anywhere; it can come from your living/social environment, people you associate with or even things you see on television (TV). “Socialization is a continuing process whereby an individual acquires personal Identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position. (Dictionary.com, n.d.)” Socialization is a lifetime process and it influences who we are and who we can be. It begins when we’re born, we learn and conform to the norms of our family and then we move on to school, for some church, and as we get older, work. In school we are heavily influenced by our peers to wear certain clothes and act in various ways. When we begin to work, we have to learn how to act and look in ways that are appropriate to the company where we’re......

Words: 1420 - Pages: 6

Social Learning Theory

...APA Style Social Learning Theory Name of Student Institution affiliation In the society, there are social happening that influence relationships among people as they interact and work together to achieve certain goals. Crime is an issue that affects a society in many ways and many attempts to deduce the root causes and ways to alleviate it have come up. Some theories have come up to try to explain how to deal with crimes in the society. In criminal justice, there are theories that explain crime and factors that influence its occurrence with a certain social context. The social learning theory explains that a person acquires knowledge through observation and interactions which models the behavior. The theory proposes that the behavior of an individual can be shaped through reciprocal interaction between the forces of cognitive, environmental and behavior systems. The understanding of the theory will help in determining its effectiveness in handling events of crimes in the society. Albert Bandura as a way to help in understanding the criminology and give the necessary information in relation to addressing the problems caused by crime advanced the social learning theory. The theory is a combination operant theory of Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess and the theory of differential association by Edwin Southerland. The theory has been discussed by various scholars who needed to test its accuracy in addressing the various causes of......

Words: 1168 - Pages: 5

Social Cognitive Theory of Learning

...Social Cognitive Theory of Learning Social cognitive theory of learning is a theoretical perspective that focuses on learning by observing others and eventually assuming control over one’s own behavior (Ormrod, 2011, p.323). Social cognitive theory is a perspective that helps us understand about learning by observing other people doing the same thing. This theory is a blend of behaviorism and cognitive psychology (Ormrod, 2011). Behaviorism theory relates to learning as a stimulus- response relationship and suggests that learning involves a behavior change whereas according to social cognitive theory learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a behavior change. According to social cognitive theory, people and their environments mutually influence each other (Ormrod, 2011). People learn from the environment they are in, people they interact with, and behaviors they watch. People can learn by observing others and as they become older they can set their goals based on the accomplishments and the results of that learning. People learn by observation is the basic assumption of the social cognitive theory. The person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else is the model for the learner (Ormrod, 2011). According to instrumental conditioning, learning is a process of trial and error (Ormrod, 2011, p.324). Learners observe different behaviors and try to adopt those behaviors, if any of the learned behaviors bring desirable results; those behaviors stay......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Social Learning Theory

...What is Social Learning Theory? The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become the most influential theory of learning and development. Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. While the behavioral theories of learning suggested that all learning was the result of associations formed by conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment, Bandura's social learning theory proposed that learning can also occur simply by observing the actions of others. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling) this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. People learn through observing others behavior , attitudes and outcomes of those behaviors. Social Learning Theory explains human beahvior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive , behavioral and environmental influences. Necessary conditions for effective modelling are: ATTENTION: various factors increases or decreases the amount of attention paid. In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that distracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. RETENTION: remembering what you paid attention to. Includes......

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Social Learning Theory

...Use the Internet to research a social learning theory applicable to the workplace that is not addressed in Chapter 4. Then, determine whether the social learning theory that you researched can be applied your current or past work experience. Support your reasoning. A social learning theory that is related to the workplace is the Goal Setting Theory. The way in which an employee behaves is said to come from the employees conscious goals. There are two types of goal orientations: learning orientation and performance orientation. The learning orientation depicts a learner that is motivated by competency in a specific task. The performance orientation depicts a learner who focuses on how well their performance is compared to others (Nuriddin, 2010). The Goal Setting Theory is something that I use in my current position and have used in my past jobs. I believe it is very important to be a goal-minded person in the workplace. In my current position, I use the Goal Setting Theory to set daily goals of what I want to get completed. I also set weekly and monthly goals for my job at hand. This has always helped me with staying on track with tasks at work as well as feeling good once I have achieved my goals. I set personal goals on a weekly, monthly, and yearly basis. As far as the two goal orientations go, I see a little bit of each in myself. I like to know what I am doing and be a specialist in my position, but I am also very competitive. If there is a way to track...

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Social Learning Theory

...Describe and evaluate the Social Learning Theory (SLT). Refer to at least one other approach in your answer. Social Learning Theory (SLT) has two assumptions; the first assumes behaviour is a product of environmental influences and is therefore learned as a result of observation and modeling. Whether the behavior is acquired depends upon a person’s perception of reinforcement and rewards. It emphasises the importance of individuals actively seeking out behaviour and attitudes. The process of social learning involves four stages; attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. Firstly, a person pays attention to a behavior which is being modeled or reinforced and the behavior is then memorized. The person then tries to imitate the behavior but only if they have observed that their action will provide desirable consequences i.e. a reward. The second assumption suggests that mediating cognitive factors, such as memory and thinking, occur between the stimulus and response. We do not observe and automatically imitate the behaviour that we observe, but think about several factors before we imitate. For example, we may ask ourselves whether we are physically able to carry out the action we have observed and whether we want to do it or not. An example of another approach is the behaviourist approach which uses the principle of operant conditioning. The principles of operant conditioning are that it deals with the association between a voluntary behaviour and its consequences...

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Internet Discrimination & Social Learning Theory

...Internet Discrimination & Social Learning Theory Ashley Bowers SOCW 510 September 21, 2011 Everyone has the right to be respected, safe and free from violence, harassment and bullying. A life free from violence and from cruel, degrading and inhuman treatment is a fundamental human right. Bullying and harassment can also lead to violations of a range of other human rights. People have the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, work and fair working conditions, freedom of expression and to hold opinions without interference, and the right to be free from violence. People, especially the youth, have the right to feel free to go by their day without fear of persecution and bullying can affect these rights and this should be taken into consideration before people decide to sign into the internet. People today have been using multiple electronic digital devices which provide a new means of communicating with each other and access to the worldwide Internet. While these devices should be used as positive tools in educational and other settings, unfortunately, these devices are also sometimes used in very unsafe and irresponsible ways. When people start resorting to bullying and harassment via the Internet and other electronic communication devices, these behaviors are called “cyber bullying.” Recently, there have been many public service announcements (PSAs) trying to stop the use of discriminatory slurs with little or no effect. There were......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Social Learning Theory and Its’ Impact in the Workplace

...job or in school. Small tasks that I feel I should be able to accomplish without difficulty are so overwhelming that I find myself either refusing to complete the task or completing it poorly. ADD plays a major role in the process due to an inability to concentrate on one thing. Worst states that one way you can overcome burnout is to prioritize. He recommends writing down your daily activities, such as work, study, sleep, etc. Once writing the activities down, calculate the percentages spent in each category. He suggests that taking time out to relax and develop your personal interests is a great way to combat stress. This would be very important for me to adhere to as a Teacher at the Inner Visions Institute for Spiritual Learning because Teachers who are dedicated to their craft usually spend the majority of their personal time doing job related activities such as researching, planning or buying materials for their classes. Worst also suggest that taking care of oneself is important. Exercising, following a healthy diet and taking supplements can do wonders to help improve mood and memory, two things that are extremely important for those who also suffer with ADD. I would combine Worst’ advice to improve my performance on the job and decrease my level of stress. First I would create a schedule detailing my daily activities. I would incorporate exercise, preparing healthy meals and fun activities into the schedule. I would place the schedule on the......

Words: 2011 - Pages: 9