Skin to Skin

In: Other Topics

Submitted By cgruberrn
Words 3274
Pages 14
Women and Birth 27 (2014) 37–40

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Women and Birth journal homepage:

Effect of immediate and continuous mother–infant skin-to-skin contact on breastfeeding self-efficacy of primiparous women:
A randomised control trial
Karimi Aghdas a, Khadivzadeh Talat b, Bagheri Sepideh c,* a Student Research Committee, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Nursing and Midwifery School, Mashhad University of Medical Science,
Mashhad, Iran
School of Nursing and Midwifery and Women Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran c School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran b A R T I C L E I N F O

Article history:
Received 3 July 2013
Received in revised form 25 September 2013
Accepted 26 September 2013
Skin-to-skin contact
Routine care
Breastfeeding self-efficacy
Breast feeding initiation


Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother–infant immediate skin-to-skin contact on primiparous mother’s breastfeeding self-efficacy.
Study design: A randomised control trial.
Settings: The study was conducted in Omolbanin obstetrics hospital (large tertiary hospital), Mashhad,
Participants: 114 18–35 year-old primiparous, Iranian, healthy and full term mothers who anticipated normal vaginal delivery and intended to breastfeed their babies.
Intervention: Skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth and then controlling breastfeeding selfefficacy at 28 days postpartum.
Main outcome measure: Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy at 28 days postpartum and success in first breastfeeding and mean time of first breastfeeding initiation.
Results: A total of 92 mother–infant dyads (47 dyads in skin-to-skin care skin-to-skin contact group and
45 dyads in routine care group) were…...

Similar Documents

Skin Cancer

...Speech Outline Topic: Skin Cancer Thesis: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States but is highly curable if detected early and treated properly. Specific Purpose: to inform the audience about the different kinds of skin cancer and what preventive measures you can take to protect yourself from skin cancer. I. Introduction A. Do you know that skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States; two million people are diagnosed annually. B. Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells caused by UV radiation from the sun and tanning beds. C. 1 in five people will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. D. The risk for skin cancer is much higher for Caucasians than for people of African or Hispanic descent. E. It is also the most treatable form of cancer, if found and treated early. F. I was diagnosed with squamous cell keratocanthoma type skin cancer at the age of 35, quite a shock. G. Today, I will share with you the facts about skin cancer. II. Body A. Basal cell skin cancer are abnormal, uncontrolled growths or lesions that arise in the skin’s basal cells, which line the deepest layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin).Basal cell skin cancer is the most common form of common form of cancer in the United States and accounts for more than 90% of diagnosed skin cancer. Most skin cancers are basal cell cancer. 1. You are more likely to get basal cell skin cancer if you......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Skin Conditons

...Skin Conditions Student’s Name Institution of Learning Introduction The society requires attaining, maintaining, and recovering from disease, ailments accidents. It calls for specialized care from a trained professional. In most of the cases, care givers at home may lack this expertise. It requires people who are trained and specialized, and who understand the medical aspect of the patients’ condition. The best suited group of people that can deal appropriately with these problems are nurses. Nursing is a health care profession and hence, their services are oriented to this direction. In their duty, they give care to all members of societies; both individual and families (Braverman, 1998). Nursing care is understood as being particularly crucial during patients’ recovery from serious illness or injury. Classically, it was thought that people requiring these services were probably people who were bed ridden. The objective of health services delivery is not only to care for bed ridden people but also anybody else that have a condition that is reducing their quality of life. It is known that some diseases significantly reduce the quality of life. Today, the aim of healthcare is to assist any person with any disease, ailment, or any form of suffering to recover and have a joyous and creative life. Another factor that makes a nurse to be specifically suited to their job is because they are trained about community care. They......

Words: 2264 - Pages: 10

Skin Cancer

...SKIN CANCER (Kantor ¶ 1, 2009). Name: Course: College: Tutor: Date: Basically, the unrestrained abnormal growth of skin cells is usually referred to as skin cancer. Skin cancer originates within the skin. In the event that the skin cancer is left uncontrolled, the cancer cells have the potential of spreading from skin to other tissues as well as organs. Generally, skin cancer affects most of the people worldwide as compared to the other types of cancer. This is mostly due to the fact that skin forms part of the largest organs within human body. There are various skin cancer genres. The most common type of skin cancer is the basal cell carcinoma. On the other hand, the type of skin cancer which is least common is melanoma, but it has been categorized as the most dangerous. The other skin cancer type which is considerably common is squamous cell carcinoma. Both the basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are commonly termed as nonmelanoma. Other least common nonmelanoma cancers of skin are cutaneous lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma alongside merkel cell carcinoma. In most cases, melanoma originates from the skin surfaces which are directly exposed to the sun. In addition, melanoma has the capability of spreading very quickly all over the body unlike nonmelanoma. (Kantor ¶ 1, 2009). The external skin layer, which is known as epidermis, is composed of various kinds of cells. Consequently, classification of skin cancers is made in relation to the epidermal...

Words: 1826 - Pages: 8

Skin Bleaching

...INTRODUCTION The differentiation of skin tone by lightness or darkness continues to be a sociological issue in both the United States and Jamaica today. It is believed that light skin is valued over dark skin in communities all over, in turn causing people to make changes to their natural physical appearance. Studies have been conducted with aims to determine why people bleach their skin, if it has to do with self-image, identity, or if it’s due to psychological scaring from the past. Dating back to plantation slavery, social relationships among Africans and white communities shaped what is now perceived as “acceptable” in communities now a day. “Dark skinned people were considered to be devalued whereas light skin was valued.” (Charles 2003) The Mulattoes, which were the people mixed with Black and white, were allowed to work in the great house. The Africans on the other hand were socialized to show deference to the mulattoes on the plantation (Charles 2009). Today, more than 90% of Jamaica’s population is of African descent and dominate the political landscape, but the minority dominates the economy. Although class and color distinction are very important in society, there is minimal tension over race (Charles 2009) Identity, as well as self-esteem is often thought to be the reason behind skin bleaching. Slavery was an extremely traumatizing experience for the Africans. They were brainwashed into believing that the values of the British communities were more...

Words: 2444 - Pages: 10


...Skin written by Adrienne Vrettos, is about a 14 year old boy named Donnie who tells a story about his family life is. Adrienne starts off with Donnie vividly finding Karen her older 16 year old sister on the floor dyeing because of anorexia. He tries to save her but he fails and the paramedics come to aid him but they didn't get that far. From this point on Donnie tells his story how things were until his sisters death. Donnie’s life is protected by Karen his sister. When ever their parents would get in a fight over the most simple things like not having ice cream to complex things such as dad not coming home often because of the job he holds. They do have a family trip that brings them all together on a vacation on a lake. They share many happy moments and also bring home lots of pictures to remind them of the fun and happy times. After the vacation things fall apart. Donnie’s dad finds a new job and a new apartment provided by his job and schedules for him to come home and see Karen and himself but Donnie’s dad doesn't make it his priority. The fights start to show up again and Karen finds a new friend Amanda that live next door. Karen would always take Donnie out side to the front porch during their parents fights no matter what the weather is and is seen as Donnie’s body guard, always being there. But when Karen finds Amanda, Donnie finds him self on the porch by him self waiting out his parents fights. Though Donnie does mostly hangs out with his sister and Amanda even......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Choclate and Skin

...Eating Chocolate Can Save Your Skin Everyone knows excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun can have adverse effect on the human epidermis . For years, scientists, dermatologists, and mothers-in-law have offered varying solutions for this problem with varying results. An interesting contribution to this discussion comes from three cosmeticians. The authors sought empirical evidence to assert, “ingestion of HF (high flavanol) chocolate is photoprotective and thus can contribute to nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight” (Williams, Tamburic, & Lally, 2009, p. 170). They organized a study with 30 volunteers in good health, who were tested at the beginning and end of a twelve-day span. Half of the randomly selected subjects ate a daily dose of conventionally-manufactured, low flavanol (LF) chocolate as a snack between breakfast and lunch, while the remaining half consumed a daily amount of specially-manufactured, HF chocolate (Williams et al., 2009). Many factors like the creation of free radicals and inflammatory mediators contribute to sunburns and could be effectively counteracted by the ability of cocoa bean flavanols to reduce or even eliminate the skin’s inflammation (Williams et al., 2009 ). After the 12-day testing period the participants given the cocoa-bean product with high flavanol levels experienced such a significant measurable increase in the protective ability of their skin that the authors could indeed claim,......

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Skin Is Not Skin

...Tennessee Academy of Cosmetology Michele Byers didn't have any skin problems. She just wanted to do something nice for herself as she approached her 50th birthday. Byers went to an at-home esthetician for microdermabrasion, a nonsurgical procedure that polishes away dead skin. After a session, bumps started to appear on Byers' face. Her cheeks were covered in indentations. "It looked like a railroad track on my forehead and nose," says Byers of Castro Valley, Calif. "Here I was trying to do something nice for myself and I ended up looking worse than I ever had in my life." Contrary to popular belief, darker skin is not tougher; in fact, while extra melanin does have its benefits - sun protection and slowed signs of aging - it makes the skin more sensitive and vulnerable to injury. The side effects are common for people with darker skin. Most skin care is only marketed to white people (lacking tone), not even Asians, Hispanics and darker-skinned Europeans. Education of the skin is geared to white skin, and it's still not considered to be a prestigious career here in the United States as with beauty advisers in Europe. If the skin is darker it is prone to scarring and hyper-pigmentation, so we have to be more careful with skin of color. Latin, Asian, Indian, Mediterranean or African-American descents skin requires special skin care. Even acne or laser hair removal should be handled differently on dark skin. As cosmetic procedures and medispas grow in popularity, Terri......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Skin Cancer

...Skin Cancer Mary Mark Coahoma Community College Anatomy & Physiology I Ms. Letha Richards October 15, 2014 Abstract Skin cancer is a term used to describe cancer in skin tissues. The skin is made of several layers. Skin cancer is classified according to the layer it develops in. Skin cancer is classified according to the layer it develops in. Skin cancer is a disease that can affect any one. Skin cancer includes many types that can be classified as severe or superficial. Consequently, treatments of skin cancer depend on the degree of severity a person has. In the following paper, I will shed lights on the types of skin cancer such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Skin cancer is an abnormal growth of skin cells that usually develops on skin exposed to the sun. Skin cancer can be found in the early stage, which can usually be cured if treated before the spread. Skin cancer begins where we can see it, such as on the face or arms. Some signs may include, growing bumps, changing mole and/or a dry and scaly rough patch. In this paper, I will explain the three major types of skin cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is abnormal, uncontrolled growths that arise in the skin’s basal cells, which line the deepest layer of the epidermis. BCC’s usually appears and look like open sores, red patches, or scars. According to ( “An estimated 2.8 million cases of......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Skin Disease

...illness and the severity of your symptoms. Epiglotittis-inflammation of epiglottis Cause: A bacterial infection is the most common cause of epiglottitis Prevention: * Wash your hands frequently or use alcohol sanitizer to prevent the spread of germs. * Avoid drinking after other individuals and sharing food or utensils. Treatment: * intravenous fluids for nutrition and hydration until you’re able to swallow again * antibiotics to get rid of a bacterial infection Erysipelas- is a bacterial infection in the upper layer of your skin. Cause: * cuts and ulcers in your skin * surgical incisions * insect bites Prevention: * Always keep wounds clean. * Treat athlete’s foot if you have it. * Use moisturizers to prevent skin from drying and cracking. Treatment:Antibiotics, such as penicillin, are the usual treatment for erysipelas. Nali Fungal Infection-can affect any part of the body, from the skin to the eyes. Cause: Fungi that are already present in or on your body can cause nail infections. Prevention: * using antifungal sprays or powders regularly * washing your hands after touching infected nails * dry your feet well after showering especially between the toes Treatment: * terbinafine * itraconazole * fluconazole Strep Throat- is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation and pain in the throat. Cause: This common condition is caused by group A streptococcus bacteria. Prevention: Avoid......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Dark Skin

...The Ongoing Issue- Dark Skin and Light Skin Janice Crosley University Composition and Communication II 10/07/2012 Tracy Alberry “All the prettiest kids are light skinned anyway.” This is a quote that Neyo, a pop/rap artist made during one of his many interviews.(Bougie Black Girl) (4/11/2012) This is how dark skin is depicted in the African community by each other. Divisiveness is a very strong trait in the African American community and being dark skinned is one that has kept oppression alive from within. One might say that this paper is too offensive or bias because of the use of the African American Culture. It is always negative to speak about racism, dark skin or anything that has to do with the African culture and racism normally in any situation. This has been a tainted subject for quite some time now and it travels all the way from the continent of Africa. This is definitely a form of racism and the rules need to change in order to protect, heal and strengthen not only the black community, but the cultural world as a whole. Nonetheless, the origin of racism began some time ago. The first boat that carried Africans to be enslaved was brought to America in 1619. They were bought here by the White man to trade and use for cleaning, cooking, working in the fields and whatever else was needed. It was a business that was flourishing throughout the world. It is said that slavery started with the Africans in the continent of Africa. Slavery was supposed to be......

Words: 1248 - Pages: 5

How to Skin a Perfect 5 Skin

...There are eight essential components you will require for the construction of a "fatty five skin". These are.... firstly you will need to acquire 5 of the finest rolling papers, you will then have to construct your standard three skin setup, but then (and here's the twist) you proceed to gummy your next two skins. You may want to make a "super doint" by either putting an L on it (adding an extra skin to the end to make it that little bit longer) or making a similar five skin setup and make it a caribbean by sticking the two setups together side by side so it's double width (and then put and L on it to make it that little bit longer again). Next you will need the finest green card to make your gargantuan rocket roach. This is no ordinary roach. This kind of roach can be made out many household objects that may be just knocking around, for example, train tickets, footy tickets, the top of your skin packet (this is the most common). If your roach appears to be too wide and you fear the risk of "shooters" (bits of baccy flying through the roach and in to your airways) then do not be afraid to make a thinner roach to post inside your original roach. This will prevent any frisky shooter being capable of moving and you will feel a strong sense of satisfaction knowing that you showed that shooter who's boss. Now if you ever find yourself trying to roll the perfect 5 skin but you are outside then this is not a one man job. You will need your boiz. One to table your joint in the......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Skin Structure

...Chapter 1 Skin structure and function Introduction The integument or skin is the largest organ of the body, making up 16% of body weight, with a surface area of 1.8 m2. It has several functions, the most important being to form a physical barrier to the environment, allowing and limiting the inward and outward passage of water, electrolytes and various substances while providing protection against micro-organisms, ultraviolet radiation, toxic agents and mechanical insults. There are three structural layers to the skin: the epidermis, the dermis and subcutis. Hair, nails, sebaceous, sweat and apocrine glands are regarded as derivatives of skin (see Figure 1.1). Skin is a dynamic organ in a constant state of change, as cells of the outer layers are continuously shed and replaced by inner cells moving up to the surface. Although structurally Figure 1.1 Cross-section of the skin. 2 Aromadermatology Table 1.1 Layers of the skin. Skin layer Description Epidermis The external layer mainly composed of layers of keratinocytes but also containing melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkel cells. Basement membrane The multilayered structure forming the dermoepidermal junction. Dermis The area of supportive connective tissue between the epidermis and the underlying subcutis: contains sweat glands, hair roots, nervous cells and ®bres, blood and lymph vessels. Subcutis The layer of loose connective tissue and fat beneath the dermis. ...

Words: 2940 - Pages: 12


...‘It is our relationships with others that help to define us.’ In life, we will try to be successful by doing special things. However, if we have no idea of who we are then how can we succeed? We will always ask ourselves, who we exactly are and where do we belong. Our identity is normally affected by the place of our homeland, family’s behaviour and the culture. It will influence us to be the person we really are. Homeland is a strongly influence giving us the sense of who we are. Home is the security of place we know, and it provides us with safety. “The way we belong isn’t for people to decide, it is decided by us.” The film “Skin” by Anthony Fabian describes Petrus the man who changes a lot with the destruction of his homeland. In the beginning, Petrus is a hard-working black man proud of his job. He loves his job and when he first sees Sandra he falls in love with her. Consequently, Sandra leaves her family to live with him and gets pregnant. Petrus believes life is getting better because Sandra brings luck. Unfortunately, the government destroys everything in their homeland suddenly, also breaking their confidence. Because Sandra’s white identity makes Petrus annoyed, he becomes lazy and violent. The calamity of homeland can make people have such big changes, as homeland is the basic security for people and helps people to be safe. The Italian movie “I am not sacred” is about the Italian young boy Michele discovering a cruel plan by his family. Michele is a nine year......

Words: 1163 - Pages: 5

Skin Cancer

...treatment options are used to help cancer patients | Causes and risk of skin cancer Skin cancer occurs when errors (mutations) occur in the DNA of skin cells. The mutations cause the cells to grow out of control and form a mass of cancer cells. Skin cancer begins in your skin's top layer — the epidermis. The epidermis is a thin layer that provides a protective cover of skin cells that your body continually sheds. The epidermis contains three main types of cells: Squamous cells lie just below the outer surface and function as the skin's inner lining. Basal cells, which produce new skin cells, sit beneath the squamous cells. Melanocytes — which produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its normal color — are located in the lower part of your epidermis. Melanocytes produce more melanin when you're in the sun to help protect the deeper layers of your skin. Most skin cancers are preventable such as avoiding the sun during the middle of the day. Avoiding the sun at its strongest helps you avoid the sunburns and suntans that cause skin damage and increase your risk of developing skin cancer. Sun exposure accumulated over time also may cause skin cancer. Wear protective clothing and cover your skin with dark, tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs, and a broad-brimmed hat, which provides more protection than a baseball cap or visor does. Avoid tanning beds this can increase your risk of skin cancer. Be aware of sun-sensitizing medications. Some common......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Skin Cancer

...Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in this country. The most common type of skin cancer is keratinocyte cancers such as basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which come from the main cell type of the epidermis and are most often caused by the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. They are generally localized and rarely move to other areas. These cancers are easily identified as sores that won’t go away or crusting patches that grow mostly on sun-exposed parts of the body such as the hands, neck, arms, and face, they can be treated with routine surgical procedures. Malignant melanoma is a potentially serious type of skin cancer due to uncontrolled growth of pigment cells, called melanocytes. Melanomas are most common in white skinned people, but rarely develop in those with dark skin. There are many factors that can affect who deals with this, including inherited genes and genetic defects (gene mutations) that are acquired due to environment factors, such as excessive sun exposure. Gene mutations that are passed down from parent to child can increase the risk of melanoma. Variation in skin, hair, and eye pigmentation between people of different ancestries is one of the most noticeable human characteristics; it is very well known and understood that human skin color, hair color, and eye color is mostly genetic. The MC1R gene provides instructions for making a protein called the melonocartin 1 receptor. This receptor plays an important......

Words: 596 - Pages: 3