In: Science

Submitted By okace
Words 3175
Pages 13
Geophysics ,Geology ,Mining Engg-IIT ,BHU ,Varansi 221005 ,India,, Summary
With a view to energy security of the world, unconventional energy resources - coalbed methane (CBM) , Methane Gas Hydrate, shale gas, basin centred gas ,tight gas, oil shale and heavy oil- exploration and exploitation is pertinent task before geoscientist . Shale gas is natural gas from shale formations which acts as both the source and the reservoir for the natural gas. Each Shale gas reservoir has unique characteristics. Shale has low matrix permeability, so gas production in commercial quantities requires fractures to provide permeability. For a given matrix permeability and pressure, gas production are determined by the number and complexity of fractures created, their effective conductivity, and the ability to effectively reduce the pressure throughout the fracture network to initiate gas production. Understanding the relationship between fracture complexity, fracture conductivity, matrix permeability, and gas recovery is a fundamental challenge of shale-gas development. Shale gas reservoirs almost always have two different storage volumes (dual porosity) for hydrocarbons, the rock matrix and the natural fractures .Because of the plastic nature of shale formations, these natural fractures are generally closed due to the pressure of the overburden rock. Consequently, their very low, matrix permeability, usually on the order of hundreds of nanoDarcies (nD), makes unstimulated, conventional production impossible. Almost every well in a shale gas reservoir must be hydraulically stimulated (fractured) to achieve economical production.
These hydraulic fracture treatments are believed to reactivate and reconnect the…...

Similar Documents

Prospects of Shale Gas Development in India

...PROSPECTS OF SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA: A term paper by Tejal Johri (MPE1296) and Shruti Sharma (MPE1293) for Semester 1 Course: Environment and Development Department of Policy Studies, The Energy and Resource Institute (New Delhi) Submitted on 9th December 2012 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Literature Review 4 Scope 6 Conclusion 10 Works Cited 11 Executive Summary The gradual shift of the US gas sector- from one of deficit to one of surplus has gathered appreciative appraisals from the rest of the world and initiated talks about the prospect of harnessing shale gas in other countries, as US reached the lowest CO2 emission level in the last 20 years due to shift to natural gas. It has been referred to as “the biggest energy innovation of the decade”, in light of the growing need for suitable alternatives to conventional oil and gas with increasing pressure on energy over time. 90% of global shale gas is currently produced by the US. India meets two-thirds of its petroleum requirements by importing of fuels that include coal, and this figure is expected to rise in the future in spite of India being a coal-rich country. Even with introduction of more efficient technologies and cases of higher CO2 emission reduction, our country’s import dependence on petrol, oil and gas will significantly rise in the future, raising the pressure on the resources. This concern for energy security calls for further research in technological solutions for......

Words: 3059 - Pages: 13

Shale Gas

...Impact of Shale Gas Production on the Market Fundamentals and Energy Security of  Certain Countries       ICCG Think Tank Map: a worldwide observatory on climate think tanks IMPACT OF SHALE GAS PRODUCTION  ON THE MARKET FUNDAMENTALS   AND ENERGY SECURITY OF CERTAIN  COUNTRIES  Ekaterina Zelenovskaya, ICCG 1 Impact of Shale Gas Production on the Market Fundamentals and Energy Security of  Certain Countries       Impact of Shale Gas Production on the Market Fundamentals and Energy Security of Certain Countries Ekaterina Zelenovskaya, ICCG Abstract The world’s unconventional gas base such as tight gas, coalbed methane (CBM) and shale gas are estimated to be as abundant as conventional gas resources. The recent start of shale gas production in the North America has significantly influenced major regional gas markets around the world. This article intends to examine the impact of shale gas production to the situation with the energy markets and energy security of particular countries, such as United States and countries of Continental Europe. 2 Overview of Shale Gas Production Activities and their Impact on Regional Energy Security    Shale Gas and Energy Security Energy production and use have various environmental implications since energy represents about 1 65% of global anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions. The general belief/opinion is that fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of primary energy in the following decades. However,......

Words: 2024 - Pages: 9

Messel Shale Pit

...The Messel Shale Pit is located approximately 35 kilometers southeast of Frankfurt Germany in a town called Hesse. The pit is 1000 meters long, 700 meters wide, and currently, stretches 60 meters deep. It has been dated back to the Eocene age which was fifty four to thirty seven and a half million years ago. Eocene is Greek for “New Dawn”, and is most often recognized as the age of the first large land mammals. The Pit was once a former quarry and was used from 1859 to 1971 for mining oil shale. Oil Shale is a fine grained sedimentary rock in which hydrocarbons or oil shale, can be produced. The area is considered to be a lake that sat within a volcanic crater. The oil shales in the area are said to be the result of a heavy presence of algae. The toxic gases omitted from the volcanic crater are thought to be the reason for such a high number of land animals having been fossilized. It wasn’t until 1875 that the first fossil, a crocodile, had been discovered. Since then, numerous fish and sea creatures, thirty one plant species, 45 mammals, and 43 species of bird have been discovered. Some even had stomach contents and tissue still intact. There is no doubt that the area is extremely important to the world of science. In 1971, the Messel Shale Pit almost became a waste dump, but thankfully the plans for the dump fell through. It wasn’t until 1991 that the site was purchased by the Hessen State for over 35 million marks. The site had contributed so much to science and......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Hyrdro Fracking in Marcella Shale

...Hydrofracking in Marcellus shale: The Consequences of America’s Gas Rush Introduction Demand for fossil fuels in America has led to a flurry of unorthodox methods for the extraction of natural gas. Fracking or hydrofracking in the U.S.A has proven to be an efficient way of extracting natural gas from permeable rock. A new large scale hydrofracking operation has been proposed in the eastern states of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York. This method of extraction is highly controversial, and is thought to have severe environmental and potential health consequences. This essay will provide further insight into the practice of Fracking in an area of shale known as Marcellus shale, and help to expose the environmental and human implications. What is Hydrofracking? Hydraulic Fracturing is an un-conventional process used in the extraction of gas in permeable rock (David 1973). A horizontal well is drilled into permeable rock such as shale and is injected with millions of gallons a high pressure fluid known as frac-fluid, this fluid is a mixture of sand, water, and an array of lubricating chemicals (Deutch 2011). The high pressure frac-fluid forces open fishers (cracks) within the rock which are kept open with sand granules; this allows pockets of gas to flow more easily from the shale (David 1973). Once the well is depleted all fluid that can be recycled is extracted, and the well is capped to stop any unused gas escaping (David 1973). The process of fracking is expensive and......

Words: 1854 - Pages: 8

Economics of Global Shale Gas Development

...Economics of Global Shale Gas Development Shale gas is considered as a “game changer” for the US and global gas markets. Gas production from shale gas in the US has significantly reduced US gas imports in the last five years. Shale gas has become a common discussion topic in the industry as nobody wants to miss the opportunities that are related to the exploitation of gas from these resources. Policymakers in many countries with shale gas resources are seeking to replicate the success of shale gas in the US. This short write-up provides: (a) Summary of the global shale gas resources (b) Estimated economics of shale gas development Some useful rules of thumb are provided that can be used to quickly assess the estimated profitability of shale gas development. Natural gas is produced from different types of gas accumulations. These accumulations are classified into conventional and unconventional gas (UG) resources. The conventional gas can be either associated gas (gas produced with oil), gas cap gas (a gas column in direct communication with oil column below) or non-associated gas (gas reservoir by itself). The unconventional gas is non-associated gas and it comes from hydrocarbon bearing formations that are classified as Tight Gas, Coal Bed Methane (CBM), Shale Gas and Gas Hydrates. Gas has been produced from tight gas and CBM for more than three decades. Production from shale gas started about a decade ago. In 2011, the US Energy Information......

Words: 1539 - Pages: 7

Fracking and the Eagle Ford Shale

...2013 NPRE 101 – INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY SOURCES END OF TERM PAPER PROF. RUZIC HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND THE EAGLE FORD SHALE Patricio Calles Almeida – UIN 651559726 Everyone knows that the urge to find an alternative to fossil fuels is one of the top priorities of technology researchers and scientists. We also know that the United States is becoming more and more dependable on foreign resources as the national ones are running low. However, fossil fuels are still the only cost-effective sources of them all. You could argue that hydroelectric and nuclear power are on the rise, but the first one does not produce large scale amounts of energy and the latter requires a huge initial investment with long waits until returns and profits; all the previous makes these sources not really convenient in developing countries, the ones that ironically need is the most. That’s why fossil fuel sources will continue to dominate the energy scene for the next decades, at least. In this context, I want to focus my paper on hydraulic fracturing, fracking. Actually, more specifically, the absolute focus will be to relate this modern method of oil and natural gas extraction with the Eagle Ford Shale, located in South Texas. Specifications and characteristics that make this shale so appealing for fracking will be a part of the following analysis. Overall, the shale is one that could be the biggest production center of oil and natural gas of the US and bring lots of economic benefits to......

Words: 3616 - Pages: 15

Shale Gas

...What is shale gas and why is it important? Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Over the past decade, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has allowed access to large volumes of shale gas that were previously uneconomical to produce. The production of natural gas from shale formations has rejuvenated the natural gas industry in the United States. Does the U.S. Have Abundant Shale Gas Resources? Of the natural gas consumed in the United States in 2011, about 95% was produced domestically; thus, the supply of natural gas is not as dependent on foreign producers as is the supply of crude oil, and the delivery system is less subject to interruption. The availability of large quantities of shale gas should enable the United States to consume a predominantly domestic supply of gas for many years and produce more natural gas than it consumes. An analysis in the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (released June 2012) indicates that the uncertainty in the size and economics of the domestic shale gas resources could have a considerable impact on future domestic natural gas production and that 2035 shale gas production could be between 9.7 trillion cubic feet and 20.5 trillion cubic feet. U.S. total natural gas production is projected to range between 26.1 trillion cubic feet and 34.1 trillion cubic feet.  Where is Shale Gas Found? ...

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Shale Gas Revolution

...techniques are opening up a potentially huge array of unconventional sources, including tar sands, shale gas and ultra-deep water. While in the long term, the use of renewable sources of energy like harnessing wind and solar energy is inevitable, at present the costs associated are high and the efficiency of the power generated is low to make it viable for developing countries like India and China from adopting them on a large scale. In the short term, of all the unconventional sources of energy discovered, shale gas has been touted as the immediate answer of solving the energy crisis. The use of shale gas has also had a positive response from environmentalists as it is well known that natural gas produces far lesser emissions than traditional sources of energy like coal or oil. Shale gas Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Since they tend to overlie conventional oil and gas reservoirs, the extensive exploration for conventional oil and gas resources can generate enough leads to locate potential shale plays. Shale gas is one of a number of unconventional sources of natural gas. China is estimated to have the largest shale gas reserves in the world as of 2013.In the United States, a decade worth of shale production has been discovered in the Barnett shale play in Texas. It has been postulated that there may be a 100-year supply......

Words: 1310 - Pages: 6

Shale Gas and India

...Shale Gas and India Introduction Shale gas has impacted the scenario of Energy market world over. US being the first one to explore and produce shale gas with its indigenous technology, is projected to emerge as an exporter of LNG over the next few years from being a major importer few years back. China has the largest reserves of shale gas followed by Argentina and US, while India has sufficient reserves as well; around 100 trillion cubic feet. Indian Scenario GOI has appointed the public sector companies ONGC and OIL to further explore prospects of the six shale gas basins identified in India. With the shale gas policy to be cleared soon, ONGC has tied up with ConocoPhillips to explore and develop Cambay, Cauvery, Krishna-Godavari and Bengal basins, after the success of a pilot project in Damodar Basin. Also, OIL has hired Schlumberger to evaluate the potential of shale gas reserves in Rajasthan and Assam-Arakan basins. India at present is a net importer of natural gas with the demand supply gap increasing further. Shortage of gas is also aggravated by the lower production levels in KG-D6 block. This has resulted in the under utilization of gas-consuming industries, notably the power and fertilizer industry. Associated issues Shale gas being an unconventional source of natural gas requires unique technology of Hydro-fracking, a method of horizontal drilling using high pressure water along with chemicals. One of the key determinants for implementation of this......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

The Economic and Environmental Impacts of Shale Development

...ENGR 2595 | Shale Oil | A Controversial Energy Source | | Gabriel Lessard-Kragen, Daylon Hutton, Nikolai Sie | 12/4/2014 | | Table of Contents Table of Figures i Introduction 1 What is Hydraulic Fracturing? 1 Socio-Economic Impacts 3 Local Economic Impacts 3 U.S. National Economic Impacts 5 International Economic Impacts 6 Environmental Issues 8 Water Impacts 9 Greenhouse Gases 11 Liability 12 Conclusion 13 Bibliography 14 Table of Figures Figure 1: Marcellus Shale 10 Figure 2: GHG Eissions Associated with Oil Extraction 12 Figure 3: Deepwaater Horizon Impacts 12 Introduction The topic of this document is shale oil and gas, and the issues surrounding their extraction and usage. The terms oil and gas are used interchangeably in this article, however they technically are different substances. The issues and economics attached to the two substances are similar, and thus are discussed as a group. This document will begin with an analysis of what hydraulic fracturing (fracking) actually is, as a lot of controversy and misinformation has been released around it. Afterwards the economics of the shale boom will be analyzed, from both a local, national, and international perspective. Finally the environmental impact of shale gas will be discussed, as this is the major concern surrounding the technology. What is Hydraulic Fracturing? Fracking is the term most often used to describe the process of hydraulic fracturing. Unknown...

Words: 4807 - Pages: 20

What Will Be a "Game Changer" for Europe and Poland: Secure Supplies, Shale Gas, Open Market or Renewable Energy

...WHAT WILL BE A "GAME CHANGER" FOR EUROPE AND POLAND: SECURE SUPPLIES, SHALE GAS, OPEN MARKET OR RENEWABLE ENERGY (a "game changer" means- which of the mentioned options will influence strongly/determine energy developments in Europe and Poland) Zarówno w Polsce, jak i w Europie można zaobserwować wielkie zmiany zachodzące w sektorze energetyki. W ostatnich latach zintensyfikowano poszukiwania złóż gazu łupkowego, Polska przygotowuje się do wzniesienia elektrowni atomowej, ponadto wdraża się system inteligentnych sieci, a także co raz bardziej wspiera się inicjatywy dotyczące odnawialnych źródeł energii oraz gorąco debatuje się nad kwestiami ekologicznymi oraz emisji CO2. Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne oznacza – zgodnie z polskim prawem – stan gospodarki, który umożliwia porycie bieżącego, a także perspektywicznego zapotrzebowania na energię przy zachowaniu wymagań odnośnie ochrony środowiska. Oznacza to, że Polska powinna się starać stworzyć taki system prawny i ekonomiczny, który zapewniałbym pewność dostaw, wysoką konkurencję oraz powinien zapewniać ochronę środowiska. Jeśli chodzi natomiast o Unię Europejską, jej polityka energetyczna sprowadza się do trzech głównych celów: przeciwdziałania zmian klimatycznym, ograniczania podatności państw członkowskich na wpływy czynników zewnętrznych od importerów oraz na wspieraniu zatrudnienia, a także zapewnienia wzrostu gospodarczego. Polska w swoich planach określających perspektywy bezpieczeństwa energetycznego zamierza......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

The Shale Gas Revolution in the U.S.

...The Shale Gas Revolution in the U.S. - Aspect of Domestic Market - Prepared for Microeconomics May 6, 2014 "The all-of-the-above energy strategy I announced a few years ago is working, and today, America is closer to energy independence than we’ve been in decades," Obama said during his fifth State of the Union speech on January 2014. In a fact sheet accompanying the speech, the White House called on Congress to establish "sustainable shale gas growth zones." As mentioned by the U.S. president Obama, “The Shale Gas Revolution” is hot topic in the energy industry recently. Previously, the U.S. has imported large amounts of natural gas from other countries, but now it is expected to be an exporter of natural gas because of shale gas production. (Reference: Annual Energy Outlook 2011, May, 2011) Exporting shale gas would bring economic benefits. Gross Domestic Product can be increased, employment on LNG supply chain would be increased, and there will be no import of LNG anymore. Nevertheless, there is some limitation which will not favor to domestic LNG market. For exporting the shale gas, there are many researches to determine the associated costs. The price U.S. LNG exporters can afford to charge can be separated into the following components. Price = Wellhead price + Pipeline + Liquefaction + Shipping + Regasification Based on the above formula, experts’ estimate that the minimum price the U.S. and afford to export LNG to Asia, mainly Japan and......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Geophysics of Trenton-Black River Limestone

...Trenton-Black River limestone. Using the different responses of a few log curves, especially gamma-ray, resistivity and neutron porosity, the formation tops for the Utica shale, the Trenton limestone, the Black River limestone and the Prairie du Chien sandstone are identified. From these, an isopach map showing the thickness of Trenton-Black River formation is created, indicating that its maximum thickness lies in the eastern basin and decreases gradually to the west. In order to obtain more detailed lithological information about the limestone formations at the thirty-five wells, (a) neutron-density and neutron-sonic crossplots, (b) mineral identification methods, including the M-N plot, MID plot, ϱmaa vs. Umaa MID plot, and the PEF plot, and (c) a modified mineral identification technique are applied to these wells. From this, compositions of the Trenton-Black River formation can be divided into three different rock types: pure limestone, partially dolomitized limestone, and shaly limestone. Maps showing the fraction of dolomite and shale indicate their geographic distribution, with dolomite present more in the western and southwestern basin, and shale more common in the north-central basin. The Thomas Stieber method of analysis is best suited to sand-shale sequences, interpreting three different distributions of shale within sand, including dispersed, laminated and structural. Since this method is commonly applied in clastic rocks, it is useful and interesting to test......

Words: 8718 - Pages: 35

Significance of Burgess Shale

...The Burgess Shale What is the geological significance of the Burgess Shale: • The Burgess Shale is famous for its fossils of soft-bodied organisms. It is exceptional to find complete animals preserved, especially ones that had only soft tissues and no mineralized structures. (Typically it is only the hard parts of organisms - shell or bone - that become fossils.) • When this happens palaeontologists can gain a vast amount of ecological and biological information about a particular time in Earth's history. The Burgess Shale is such a site, providing the best window on animal communities during the end of the Cambrian Explosion. When was it deposited: • The story of the Burgess Shale begins more than 500 million years ago. Shortly before the Burgess Shale animals lived, there was an evolutionary “Big-Bang” called the Cambrian Explosion. • These fossils are approximately 530 million years old, and represent an array of life-forms present during the early-middle years of the Cambrian period (545-495 million years ago). What kind of organisms were fossilised: Approximately 120 species are found in the Burgess Shale, including familiar forms as well as several species belonging to previously unknown phyla. Some of the fossilized species are members of groups (phylum) that still exist. These species can be categorized as members of the phyla Porifora (sponges), Annelida (segmented marine flatworms), Arthropoda (insects, crabs, and trilobites), and Echinodermata (sea...

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Economic Analysis of Shale Gas

...Economic Analysis of Shale Gas an Industry Alternative By Lillian Ashford & Bridget M. Chow Professor Nelson Altamirano, Ph.D. National University ECO 607 Economics for Managerial Decision-Making December 11, 2011 Introduction Shale gas is natural gas that is trapped in shale formations. Shale particles are fine grained sedimentary rocks that are rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. In the past, it was not economically viable to produce shale gas; however, with technological advances and the forward thinking perceptions of reducing our ecological footprint, the process has become more economical due to horizontal drilling and fracturing. The natural gas industry in the United States has been revitalized as a result of the production of natural gas from shale formations. In 2009, shale gas represented approximately 14% of the United States total natural gas supply. The production of shale gas is expected to increase and make up approximately 60% of the (U.S.) total natural gas supply by 2035. The question to ponder is whether or not shale gas is a viable energy option for the United States to consider in reducing the energy dependence of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) while increasing fiscal responsibility and economic viability in both the short and long run analysis? Economic Analysis The shale gas industry has contributed to the economy in terms of jobs, economic......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6