Season Affective Disorder

In: Science

Submitted By corum72
Words 1090
Pages 5

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year experience depression related symptoms in the winter months on a recurring yearly cycle.

The specific cause of seasonal affective disorder remains unknown but most research shows that (SAD) is caused by a lack of sunlight which has an effect on the chemical levels in the brain. A few specific factors that may come into play include: * Circadian rhythm. Reduced levels of sunlight in fall and winter may disrupt your body's internal clock, which determines when you should sleep or be awake. This disruption of your circadian rhythm may lead to feelings of depression. * Serotonin levels. A drop in neurotransmitter levels such as serotonin, which affects mood, may play a role in (SAD). Reduced sunlight can cause a drop in serotonin that may trigger depression. * Melatonin levels. The change in seasons can disrupt the balance of the natural hormone melatonin, which plays a role in sleep patterns and mood. * Vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D levels in the blood have recently been linked with a higher occurrence of (SAD) along with other depression related disorders. * Gene Mutation. A new study indicates that (SAD) may be linked to a mutation of melanopsin, a pigment gene in the eye. The melanopsin gene encodes a light-sensitive protein that is found in a class of photoreceptors in the retina that are linked to many non-visual responses, such as the control of circadian rhythms, the control of hormones, the mediation of alertness and the regulation of sleep.

SAD occurs throughout the northern and southern hemispheres but is extremely rare in those living within 30 degrees of the Equator, where daylight hours are long,…...

Similar Documents

Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and Treatment

...Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and Treatment Robert Baker Psychology GE1116 Dr. Angela Isom November 30, 2009 Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and Treatments In today’s society, people seem to have a lot of problems that are classified as mental disorders. These disorders include: depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, and even seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The immediate stigma that is placed on most if not all mood disorders is that they are sicknesses. In the case of depression, this is not to confuse depression, a normal emotion with biological depression, an illness. Further along this line of irrational thought is the belief that they are not treatable and the person affected is in some way, shape or form disconnected from civilization as we know it. In this research paper, we will attempt to destroy these unfair stereotypes on this subject, attempt to rationalize the behaviors, and shed light on treatments for the various disorders. The research gathered will attempt to understand and answer these questions: 1. What are mood disorders and their symptoms? 2. What are the causes? 3. How can the stigma of mood disorders be removed? 4. What forms of treatment are the most successful? What Are Mood Disorders And Their Symptoms? In order to get a good idea of what causes mood disorders, we first must attempt to categorize what various classes of......

Words: 3426 - Pages: 14


...A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight. Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution. The seasons result from the Earth's axis being tilted to its orbital plane; it deviates by an angle of approximately 23.4 degrees. Thus, at any given time during summer or winter, one part of the planet is more directly exposed to the rays of the Sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. Therefore, at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. The effect of axis tilt is observable from the change in day length, and altitude of the Sun at noon (the culmination of the Sun), during a year. Summer: Summer is the warmest of the four temperate seasons. Summer is the warmest season of the year when the sun shines directly on one half of the world. Usually, July and August are the hottest months of the summer season. Crops, trees, and other plants reach their full maturity in summer. Summer is traditionally associated with hot dry weather, but this does not occur in all regions. Summer is one of the seasons of a year which is the warmest. It falls between the seasons of spring and autumn. Summer is generally known to be the season which has the hottest and longest days in a year. The summer nights are usually smaller than those of winter. It is a very good......

Words: 2120 - Pages: 9


...2013 Season Dates These dates are provided only as a general reference. Check current regulations for specific dates. Visit our website @ 2013 Big Game Seasons Antelope 900 series .............Aug 15–Nov 10 archery ..................Sept 7–Oct 11 general ..................Oct 12–Nov 10 Bighorn Sheep archery ..................Sept 5–Sept 14 general ..................Sept 15–Dec 1 Bison .........................Nov 15–Feb 15, 2014 Black bear spring ....................Apr 15– Varies (May 15-June 15) fall archery ............Sept 7–Sept 14 fall .........................Sept 15–Dec 1 Deer & Elk archery ..................Sept 7–Oct 20 youth, deer only, two-day hunt .......Oct 17–Oct 18 general ..................Oct 26–Dec 1 backcountry – HD’s 150, 151, 280, 316* archery ...............Sept 7–Sept 14 general ...............Sept 15–Dec 1 Moose .......................Sept 15–Dec 1 Mountain Goat...........Sept 15–Dec 1 Mountain Lion archery ..................Sept 7–Oct 20 fall .........................Oct 26–Dec 1 winter ....................Dec 1–Apr 14, 2014 2013 Wolf Seasons - dates adopted in July, 2013 These dates are provided only as a general reference. Check current regulations for specific dates. Visit our website @ 2013 Upland Game Birds Seasons Mountain Grouse.......Sept 1–Jan 1, 2014 Partridge....................Sept 1–Jan 1, 2014 Pheasant ...................Oct 12–Jan 1, 2014 Sage Grouse .............Sept 12–Nov 1 Sharp-tailed Grouse ..Sept......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Summer Season

...The summer season is one of the main seasons of India. It starts from the month of April and lasts up to the end of June. There is intense heat during these months. The sun shines perpendicularly causing numerous difficulties for the people. They want to stay indoors, especially during mid-day. They get tired very soon and feel lethargic. Summer mornings are little bit pleasant and so are the summer evenings. Hence people look busy during these times. They try to finish all their work as quickly as possible because they know that a long hot day is waiting for them. At noon the heat is at its peak. The towns and cities look deserted. There are few people on the road. Sometimes it is too hot to continue the work. Everything is paralysed. People go inside their houses in the darkest room. They drink cold water again and again just to quench their thirst but they never feel satisfied. During summer we eat little food. We do not feel healthy and sometimes develop many complications regarding health. Any irregularity in food-habit leads to sickness. Hot wind called loo' blow throughout the day and many die of heat stroke. The rich people do not have much problem because they have electric fans, coolers and air conditioners. But the poor people have to face hardships. They go on with their work in the open under hot sun. The season is lazy one. People do not feel active and only want to sit under fan in the cold dark room. It is therefore all schools and colleges......

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

Four Seasons

...Four Seasons I chose Four Seasons for my term project because this is my dream employer, ranking in Top 100 Employers to Work For by Fortune magazine. With their long-historical success, global dominance, and impressive business philosophies, I believe Four Seasons is a very interesting company. While having a strong brand and powerful strategy tools, there is always room for improvements. Four Seasons target markets are mostly luxury travellers, families, high-class events, and business travellers. Their hotels and resorts attract customers with their luxuriousness and reputation. Four Seasons successfully built an internationally recognizable brand to be a hospitality world leader. In the recent years, they developed a policy on “Supporting Sustainability”. They bring the idea of protecting the environment into a new defining core value. The problem is how to bring sustainability and the increased revenue and marketing opportunities that it offers to all areas of their enterprise. This will cut down some of their operational costs, it will also drives the content of their social media marketing, and eventually will drive new business. At the same time, focusing on social media is one of the most advantage steps they can continuously focus on. Four Seasons Hotel Toronto successfully launched a virtual platform to highlight its food and beverage properties and drive consumer traffic as well as increase awareness. I believe if they can combine their Supporting......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Seasonal Affect Disorder (Sad)

...Seasonal affective disorder, likewise abbreviated as SAD, is a type mood disorder that is annual consistent with the seasons. The most common SAD depressive symptoms starts late in the fall, continues throughout the winter (most crucial stage), and the symptoms lessen in the spring. However, it is possible for someone to have SAD during the summer season. For example, during the summer time a person may suffer from summer depression and or summer blues, then less depressed in the winter time when it gets colder. It is a type of depression generated by shorter days and longer nights. This form of depression can prevent the sufferer's ability to cope with their daily life activities, but the symptoms usually fade when there is a change in the season. According to the handbook Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) fourth edition text revised, SAD is considered a pattern “a specifier of major depression”, or subtype, of another mood disorder diagnosis. For example, an individual may be diagnosed as having a major depressive episode with a seasonal pattern. SAD was introduced and named in 1984 by Norman E. Rosenthal as well as his colleagues at the National Institute of Mental Health. Rosenthal is a psychiatrist and a scientist who was born and educated in South Africa and moved to the United States to finish his medical training. In all, he has written a total of seven books, and published two-hundred scholarly papers. In the following you will learn......

Words: 2176 - Pages: 9

Seasonal Affective Disorder

...Christine M. Muller Abnormal Psychology Jeffrey Geibel, PhD. Seasonal Affective Disorder It's wintertime, and you feel stressed, lethargic and disconnected from everything and everyone around you. "Maybe it is just the winter blues," you tell yourself. However, the depression and other symptoms continue to persist from the beginning of winter until the springtime, every year. Although you may believe that you, like many other people, are bothered with a case of the winter blues, you are most likely suffering from a more severe form of seasonal depression known as Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD. This form of depression has been described as a form of a mood disorder that, unlike other forms of depression, follows a strictly seasonal pattern. In general, many people suffer from some form of sporadic depression during the wintertime. We may feel more tired and sad at times. We may even gain some weight or have trouble getting out of bed. Over 10 million people in America, however, may feel a more extreme form of these symptoms. They may constantly feel lethargic and depressed to an extent that social and work related activities are negatively affected. Typical SAD symptoms include sugar cravings, lethargy, depression, an increase in body weight, and a greater need for sleep. Onset of these symptoms usually occurs in October or November, and the symptoms disappear in early spring. Frequently, people who suffer from SAD react strongly to variations in the amount of......

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Bipolar Disorder

... Circadian Rhythms as a basis of mood disorder, in particular bipolar disorder. Introduction: The complex structure and the functions of the human body has been a subject of study by a lot of individuals since a very long time. The curiosity of the human being supporting it, further aids in discovering the secrets hidden behind the way a human being is. Biological rhythms or circadian rhythms also make up one of the hidden secrets for the functions of the human beings and scheduling of various tasks. The terms Circadian is derived from Latin word Circa, “around” or “about” and diem or dies “day” meaning literally “about a day” or “around a day”. This circadian rhythm is already built in the complex human body but is regulated by external factors known as “zeitgebers”. The primary or the most important zeitgebers is ‘light’ which helps human automatically start a particular process in one’s life and controls various cycles at regular intervals. This may include sleep/wake cycle, eating habits, seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or bipolar disorder. Scientists have long been researching the effects of disturbance of circadian rhythms and its consequences on the life of a human being. This paper also considers the facts that have been established in this area to identify and discuss the process undergoing in a human being and its complexities with a particular reference to circadian rhythms and bipolar disorder, its causes and how shall it be handled to......

Words: 1992 - Pages: 8

Seasonal Affective Disorder

...S.A.D.? The Truth behind Seasonal Affective Disorder                                                                                                 Are you S.A.D.? The truth behind Seasonal Affective Disorder           Seasonal affective disorder, also known as Seasonal Depression, winter or summer depression, winter or summer blues, or seasonal mood disorder, is a type of depression that occurs at the same time every year (Lee, S.A.D.). Although the exact cause for the depression has yet to be found, there are many theories that point to the exact same thing. Most of them, have much to do with the factor of the sun. The symptoms of seasonal affective disorder vary from mild depression to suicidal thoughts, with almost everything imaginable in between (Stein, page 2). Although it hasn’t been established what the exact cause of seasonal affective disorder, there is a wide range of theories that exist. Although Seasonal Affective Disorder has roots going all the way back to 1845, it was not officially classified until the psychiatrist Norman E. Rosenthal noticed that a lot of his cases for depression had occurred only during the months of winter(Waltz, page 1). When he published his articles in The Washington Post, he received thousands of letters from people all over the country who had the exact same symptoms that he found with his own patients in his private study. He went on to release the book Winter Blues: Seasonal Affective Disorder: What it is and How to Overcome......

Words: 2229 - Pages: 9

Four Seasons

...Case 1 : Four Seasons in Paris 1. What has made Four Seasons successful over the last 30 years? Several reasons have made Four Seasons (FS) successful: - The guarantee for the guests to receive a high-quality and consistently exceptional personal service is part of FS’s distinguishing edge. One of the most important elements of this success is the ability of employees to provide customers with an intelligent truly personalized service and to anticipate the guests’ needs. - FS has defined worldwide core operating standards. The respect of those standards is the guarantee that, all over the world, in any FS hotel, customers will be offered the highest quality. Furthermore, these standards help to shape relationship between people, and those relationships contribute to building the corporate culture. - Besides the definition of globalized standards, FS emphasizes the importance of cultural diversity. Adaptability to local culture and environment is a key to success. Each hotel is representative of its location and has its own style. When they stay in a FS hotel, guests immediately know in which country they are staying. FS is promoted in a very positive manner: it is a guarantee of quality but the brand does not rigidly define the product. - The regional management structure is a key component of FS’s ability to deliver and maintain the highest and most consistent service. In each FS property, a general manager supervises the day-to-day operations. Every morning the top......

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Holiday Season

...Once again we find ourselves enmeshed in the Holiday season, that very special time of year when we join with our loved ones in sharing centuries-old traditions such as trying to find a parking space at the mall. We traditionally do this in my family by driving around the parking lot until we see a shopper emerge from the mall, then we follow her, until she led them to a parking spot. We try to keep our bumper about four inches for the shopper’s calves, to let the other circling cars know that she belongs to us. Sometimes two cars will get into a fight over whom the shopper belongs to, similar to the way white sharks will fight who gets to eat a snorkeler. So we follow our shoppers. Closely, hunched over the steering wheel, whispering “It’s Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas” though our teeth, until we arrive at her car, which is usually parked several times zones away from the mall. Sometimes our shopper tries to indicate that she was merely planning to drop off some packages and go back to shopping, but when she hears our engine rev in a festive fashion and see the holiday gleam in our eyes, she realizes she would never make it. And so we parked and clamber joyously out of our car through the windows, which is necessary. I do not mean to suggest that the true meaning of the holiday season is finding a parking spot. No, the true meaning of the holiday season is finding a sales clerk. The way to do this is looking around the store for one of hose unmarked......

Words: 397 - Pages: 2


...Analyst of Various Disorders Sonia Oliver PSY410 Abnormal Psychology May 24, 2010 Vallery Tovey MA, MA, CAAC, ICRC Analyst of Various Disorders According to the DSM-IV-TR there are various mental disorders that fall under different classifications. Anxiety Disorder has various listings like OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) is classified under this disorder. Cyclothymic Disorder is classified under Mood and Affective Disorders. Dissoactive Identity Disorder is classified under Dissociative Disorders. Also according to the DSM-IV-TR, Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder is classified under Somatoform Disorder. In describing the symptoms of these disorders under each category, included will be the biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral component of above listed disorders. One of the various disorders listed under Anxiety Disorder is OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) were the individual will form recurring and unwanted anxiety that will produce feelings and compulsive routines. The individual is trying to form a way to provide protection for him or herself (Hansell & Damour, 2008). The biological component may include in other Axis I disorder is present; there is an obsessions or compulsion, which is not restricted to it. The individual can form various habits that include; fixation of food that leads to an eating disorder. The individual can begin pulling his or her hair out (APA, 2000). Emotionally the individual’s disorder is obsessions or......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Seasonal Affective Disorder

...Seasonal Affective Disorder Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Abstract Seasonal affective disorder is currently on the rise with statistics showing that more than10 million Americans have been affected by the disorder. Additionally 10-20% has exhibited mild seasonal affective disorder. It is not only for the high number that the topic was chosen but because it affects people of the age between 23 and 27 with few cases reported among children and adolescents (Weiner, 2013, p.101). . The affected are young generation and represent the future of humanity. The disorder affects mainly women compared to men. One of the astonishing facts is that 35% affected individual contemplate committing suicide (Weiner, 2013, p.102). This essay, therefore, will look into the definition, symptoms, how it affects those close to the individual suffering, treatments and options for dealing with the disorder. Seasonal affective disorder is a recurrent type of depression that is related to the seasonal variation of the light. The majority of seasonal affective disorder cases are reported in late fall or early winter seasons and change to normal in the summer. 10 million people are reported to suffer from this mood disorder every winter in the United States of America. The disorder is often diagnosed as either major depressive disorder, bipolar I or bipolar II. Major depressive disorder is the most common diagnosed of the three. A diagnosis of the disorder is made after three......

Words: 639 - Pages: 3

Anxiety Modd/Affective Somatoform Disorders

...Anxiety Mood/affective Somatoform Disorders Marie K Cesar Abnormal Psychology In this paper I will analyze the biological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral components of several disorders. The DSM-IV-TR offers professionals to opportunity to use a standard classification of mental disorders by the mental health professionals. Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is similar to a fear, it is defined as a unpleasant emotion associated with a general sense of danger or the feeling that something bad is going to happen ( hansell & Damour 2008). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorder among the U.S population. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can be long term. If someone makes changes in their lifestyle as well as seek psychological counseling and develop coping skill. It is not completely know what causes GAD, the natural chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine may be a possible contributor. Depending on the severity of the condition it may also include genetics as part of the equation. When a person is going through a great deal of stress, they may develop irritability, sleep issues as well as difficulty with concentrating or staying on task. There are many diagnostic criteria for GAD a person must have continuous anxiety for at least six months and have difficulty controlling the anxiety. (Damour & Hansell, 2008) Many people may have difficulty dealing with stress and worry that this may cause them distress and could interfere with their function in day to......

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

Affective Events Theory

...Affective Events Theory 1/26/2012 Abstract Emotions and moods are an important part of daily live and work live, and can influence our job performance and job satisfaction. The affective events theory demonstrates how employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and that their reactions can influence their attitudes and behaviors at work. The theory, which was introduced by psychologists Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano, states that negative emotional episodes in a work environment can produce shocks that then produce lasting affective reactions. Emotions and moods are an important part of daily live and work live, and can influence our job performance and job satisfaction. The affective events theory demonstrates how employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and that their reactions can influence their attitudes and behaviors at work. The theory, which was introduced by psychologists Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano, states that negative emotional episodes in a work environment can produce shocks that then produce lasting affective reactions. Work events can include, but not limited to hassles, tasks, autonomy, job demands, emotional labor and uplifting actions. Emotional labor occurs when an employee displays the company’s desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. These work events affect employees positively or negatively. Employee mood directly affects the intensity of their......

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5