Safety

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MODULE 7.5 Chemical methods of treatment of hazardous wastes
Chemical Oxidation and reduction Ozonolysis Acid-base neutralization Chemical precipitation Hydrolysis Ion exchange Thermal treatment methods Performance of hazardous wastes incinerators Advantages of incineration Disadvantages of incineration Wet air oxidation Photolysis Biological treatment of hazardous wastes Land treatment Preparation of wastes for disposal Land disposal Land fills Surface impoundments Underground injection References 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 12 12 12 14 15 16

MODULE 7.5 Chemical and other methods of treatment of hazardous wastes
The selection of a treatment process for a waste stream depends on among other factors the nature of the waste, desired characteristics of the output stream. Most of the times the chemical property of the waste constituents determine its applicability in waste treatment. In this chapter the major chemical treatment processes applicable to hazardous waste such as chemical oxidation-reduction, acid-base neutralisation, precipitation, hydrolysis, ion

exchange, thermal treatment methods, wet air oxidation photolysis and biodegradation are discussed.

Chemical Oxidation and reduction:
(I) Oxidation reduction methods provide another important chemical treatment alternative for hazardous wastes. One important chemical redox treatment involves the oxidation of cyanide wastes from metal finishing industry, using chlorine in alkali solution. In this reaction CN- is first converted to a less toxic cyanate. Further chlorination oxidises the cyanate to simple carbondioxide and nitrogen gas. NaCN + Cl2 + 2NaOH → NaCNO + 2NaCl + H2O ………………………….(1) 2NaCNO + 3Cl2 + 4NaOH → 2CO2 + N2 + 6NaCl + 2H2O …………….......(2)

1

(II) Another important redox treatment process is the reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium Cr(III) in…...

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