Rats and Caffeine

In: Science

Submitted By julie7942
Words 357
Pages 2
1. Question: The question defines the purpose of the study. It is the answer to the question that the experimenters are looking for.
2. Hypothesis: Commonly known as an educated guess, the hypothesis is a prediction of what the experimenters think the result of the study will be. In other words, it is what the experimenters think is the answer to the question that was proposed in step 1 of the scientific method.
3. Independent variable: The experimental variable or the one change within the experimental groups that the purpose of the study is testing. In this study, the independent variable is the caffeine given to the experimental group.
4. Dependent variable: The experimental result or the result of the independent group and the data the supports the answer to the proposed question and what the hypothesis predicted will be the outcome of the experiment. In this study, the dependent variable was the 30% decrease in blood glucose in the experimental group that was supplied coffee/caffeine in diluted water. The other dependent variable was the increase in blood glucose concentrations in the group that only drank water.
5. Controlled variables: In an experiment, it is important to keep all other variables as constant as possible so ensure that it is the independent variable that is affecting the result, and not other variables that could be affecting the result. In this experiment, the controlled variables were the similar composition of diets and the living conditions (same size cage, lighting, shavings in cage, etc)
6. Control group: The control group is what the experimental group is compared to. The control group does not receive the experimental conditions. In this study, the control group was the group of mice that was given water
7. Data: The raw data/observations gathered from the experiment. From this experiement, the data that was gathered was average…...

Similar Documents


...Caffeine is Beneficial to your Health Evelyn K. Polanco Calhoun Community College General Point: To Persuade Specific Goal: To prove caffeine can be beneficial when used properly. I. It is estimated that in North America between 80 and 90 % of adults and children habitually consume caffeine. However, 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine uses citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects. II. For centuries the use of caffeine has been a subject of controversy. Many researchers have blamed caffeine for potential health harms. But is it true? Can caffeine have more negative effects on you rather than positive effects? III. I am here today to discuss why I think caffeine should be included in your everyday diet. I am going to tell you what exactly caffeine is, its negative effects, and the curative effects of caffeine and how it can improve your overall health. I. What is Caffeine? A. According to the University of Michigan Caffeine is possibly the most popular and widely used drug. 1. It is considered a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system. a. Stimulates the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord. 2. Once the central nervous system is relax b. People may experience an increase in alertness, improvement in mood and a temporary boost of energy. II. What are the negative side effects of caffeine? A. Caffeine blocks adenosine a chemical that......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4


...• The topic of my speech is going to be on caffeine and how it effects your body. • How many of you consider yourself as caffeine addicts? How much coffee do you drink a day? One cup? Two cups? More? How about caffeinated sodas? • Caffeine is spreading in our society these days. • every now and then, we hear about how good and bad caffeine is for us. • Today I'd like to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body. • It may or may not cause you to change your coffee consumption but at least you'll be better informed about what you are putting into your body. • What is caffeine? • Caffeine is a drug that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants. • It's also produced artificially and added to certain foods such as candy, soda and energy drinks. • Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness. • Today, I'm going to talk about where caffeine comes from, the beneficial effects of caffeine and the negative effects of caffeine. • More than 80% of the adult population drink coffee regularly. • Children also have caffeine intake as they also consume chocolates, sodas and iced teas. • It is estimated that an average person can consume up to 70 mg of caffeine per day. • So, where to do we get it? Where does caffeine come from? • Although most caffeinated beverages have a dark color, caffeine is actually a white, bitter-tasting, crystalline substance. ...

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Caffeine Report

...EXTRACTION CAFFEINE FROM TEA PURPOSE: This experiment is designed to introduce students to the use of another separation technique, which is the solvent extraction. In this experiment you will isolate a compound from a natural source. You will extract caffeine from the tealeaf by using both solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions. INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a natural product found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate.  The tea and coffee leaves are composed of approximately 4% of caffeine. Caffeine can also be isolated from natural sources. Extraction is a chemical method of separating a specific component of a solution from the rest of the solution. Caffeine was chosen in this experiment because caffeine is relatively easy to extracts from tea leaves. The reasons are there is approximately 5% of caffeine by weight of dry tea leaves, which is a large amount for a natural product. And the bulk of the tea leaf consists mostly of cellulose, which is a water-insoluble polymer of glucose. Caffeine is also soluble in both hot water and dichloromethane. In this experiment, all caffeine dissolves in the tea when the tea leaves are extracted with boiling water, which is the first extraction. The second extraction uses dichloromethane to separate the caffeine from the polar inorganics in the water. This is done two times; therefore, there is a minimal amount of caffeine left in the discarded tea. Sodium sulfate will serve to absorb the small amount of water from......

Words: 612 - Pages: 3

Article Review on Chronic Caffeine

...The name of this article was “Chronic caffeine intake reverses age-induced insulin resistance in the rat: effect on skeletal muscle Glut4 transporters and AMPK activity”. The hypothesis of this study was that chronic caffeine intake reverses aging-induced insulin resistance in rats. The study included other aspects in order to rule these other aspects out of the cause of the insulin sensitivity. This meant that nothing else could be the cause of the insulin sensitivity. Wistar rats were used to test whether caffeine intake affected aging-induced insulin resistance. The experimental groups were three groups of rats treated with caffeine. These three groups were of different ages: 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months. The control groups were three groups of the same ages used in the experimental groups, but these were not treated with caffeine. The manipulations occurred in separating the rats into age groups and separating them into groups that get caffeine and those that do not get caffeine. Everything else in this study was constant including the amount of caffeine given and the amount of time it was administered. This was an accurate test of the hypothesis. The hypothesis wanted to test caffeine intake and aging induced insulin resistance. This required groups of different ages to be tested. These groups also needed to each have their own control group to be able to determine any difference in what was being tested. The dependent variable was glucose disappearance and the...

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Behavioral and Side Effects of Caffeine

...Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive drug in the world (Solinas et al, 2002). Caffeine has been known to have many side effects on hour external behavior and our internal physiological behavior. We use caffeine in our lives to sometimes stay awake to study or just get through the day. Caffeine decreases the blood flow to the brain by constricting the blood vessels but can also increase blood flow after continuous intake that may cause headaches (Kalat, 2004). Caffeine has a tendency to block adenosine (A1-, A2A-, A2B-, A3), which increases throughout the day to allow us to sleep and then decreases as we sleep which allows us to wake. Thus, if caffeine blocks adenosine we are unable to sleep when feeling the urge or wanting to sleep, which may cause us to decrease our caffeine intake. Caffeine acts to antagonize adenosine receptors, which then affects cell populations because it counteracts many adenosine effects. The caffeine mainly has an effect on the A2a adenosine receptors which then elevates the energy metabolism in the brain and also causes a decrease in cerebral blood flow (Cameron,et.al, 1990; Ghelardini, et.al, 1997; Nehliget.al,1992; Neuhauser-Berthold et.al, 1997). Along with caffeine affecting the adenosine it also has an effect on GABA receptors and the release of dopamine (Nehlig et.al, 1992). Caffeine not only blockades adenosine it also releases intracellular calcium, inhibits phosphodiesterases and......

Words: 2086 - Pages: 9

The Norwegian Rat

...The Norwegian Rat by Naguib Mahfouz Fortunately we were not alone in this affliction. Mr. A.M., being the senior householder in the building, had invited us to a meeting in his flat for an exchange of opinions. There were not more than ten people present, including Mr. A.M., who, in addition to being the oldest among us, held the most senior position and was also the most well off. No one failed to show up--and how could they, seeing that it had to do with the rats and their likely invasion of our homes and their threat to our safety? Mr. A.M. began in a voice of great gravity with "As you all know..." and then set forth what the papers had been reiterating about the advance of the rats, their vast numbers, and the terrible destruction that would be wrought by them. Voices were raised around the room. "What is being said is quite beyond belief." "Have you seen the television coverage?" "They're not ordinary rats; they're even attacking cats and people." "Isn't it likely that things are a bit exaggerated?" "No...no, the facts are beyond any exaggeration." Then, calmly and with pride in being the chairman, Mr. A.M. said, "It has in any case been established that we are not alone. This has been confirmed to me by the Governor." "It's good to hear that." "So all we have to do is carry out instructions meticulously, both those that come directly through me and those that come by way of the authorities." "And will this cost us a great deal?" it occurred to one of us to......

Words: 2041 - Pages: 9

Rat Disection

...Kidneys Trachea Trachea Stomach Stomach Spleen Spleen Heart Heart Lung Lung Diaphragm Diaphragm Liver Liver Caecum Caecum Large intestine Large intestine Small intestine Small intestine Discussion : The purpose of this experiment was to have a look at the interior and external body organs. As all mammals have very similar organs and bodies. They share very common transport and digestive systems. Rats compared to humans the only major difference is that the heart is 3 chambers humans have 4.The rat has had latex injected into it. So the blood vessel was easily seen and colorized. The rat's fur actually did not stay in its normal colour. It changed to a brownish yellowish fur. It may have something to do with the chemicals that it was soaked it.By doing this rat dissection we not only gain experience on how to do dissections but we also help us to study and learn about the digestive system and transport system in rats. Instead of reading off charts we can see and figure out for ourselves, we are also able to memorize the different sorts of organs in the rat easily. (Michael Kent, 2000) The digestive system is the body system which breaks down large food particles into smaller units, which can be used by the body to promote growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Humans and most predators have a relatively simple digestive system. In the case of predators, this stems from their diet of primarily meat, which is rather easy to digest. In the case of humans, this......

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Caffeine Extraction

...Abstract Caffeine is an alkaloid stimulant with a cyclic backbone structure analogous to the purine structures of DNA. Caffeine is found in numerous applications and can stimulate different parts of the body, possibly causing addiction, insomnia, and headaches. Using the proper extraction methods, the caffeine within a tea bag could potentially be isolated to yield a pure solid; the mass of this solid would reflect the actual yield of caffeine in the tea. Introduction Caffeine belongs to a large class of organic compounds called alkaloids, which vary widely in structure and reactivity. These nitrogen based compounds are found in plants and often taste bitter 2. Alkaloids can be found in different forms such as nicotine, morphine, or cocaine. The structure of caffeine is shown below along with the purine ring. Figure 1: Structure of purine and caffeine Caffeine is found in a number of foods and beverages. Such has chocolate, soda, and over the counter medication. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate caffeine that is found in tea by using the techniques of extracting, separating, drying, and sublimation. To do so, caffeine must be introduced to a solvent that is both volatile and insoluble to water; a perfect example is dichloromethane. Caffeine has a greater affinity for dichloromethane and will easily dissolve in this solvent over water; however, caffeine is not the only organic substance found in tea that is capable of reacting with dichloromethane.......

Words: 732 - Pages: 3

The Effects of Caffeine

...Case Studies 2 Caffeine is a popular central nervous stimulant currently found in over sixty plants. There are approximately 90% of individuals who use caffeine regularly in their day to day lives. Caffeine has been added to several items to include food, drinks and even medications to either relieve drowsiness or enhance the effect of pain killers. If not careful with the intake of this stimulant it can cause side effects that may result in serious short or long term complications. Because it targets the central nervous system, the effects may be seen in as little as 15 minutes and should be limited by those who suffer from certain medical conditions or pregnant women as it can result in low birth rate and even miscarriage. Individuals who ingest caffeine regularly and suddenly stop often suffer from caffeine withdrawals within 12-24 hours which leads to symptom such as irritability, temporary depression, and headaches (Mandal,2014). Caffeine Consumption: How much is too much? Caffeine is found in our most favorable consumables to include chocolate, colas, and coffee; these three very rich substances also account for the daily caffeine intake. According to the BBC, an individual should not exceed more than 400mg. of caffeine per day. Since caffeine is a chemical produced from various plants, it was originally designed to kill insects and bugs that tried to eat them which in-turn stimulate a humans central nervous system, respiration, and heart rate. Caffeine can affect......

Words: 990 - Pages: 4


...explanations for the association between caffeine intake and spontaneous abortion are that “caffeine beverage consumption causes chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion” and “higher caffeine levels in spontaneous abortion pregnancies are a correlate, or a consequences, not a cause, of spontaneous abortion”. Behaviors pregnant women exhibit is related to the consumption of caffeine. In this study researchers want to inquire about the correlation of caffeine intake and spontaneous abortion. ​For this research, pregnant women in their sixteenth week of gestation and are planning to give birth at the Yale-New Haven Hospital were recruited. Due to different factors and requirements needed for accurate results and also participant choices such as women in their seventeenth week of pregnancy and women who did not want to be interviewed at all. Participants were condensed to 2,967, which is 86% were able to complete the interview. ​These pregnant women were interviewed in their homes are asked about their lifestyles from the beginning of their pregnancy, the questions were geared toward the amount and frequency of caffeine intake from soda, tea, and coffee. Hospital information regarding these women were obtain from physicians, and delivery logs; there were 2,714 singleton live birth and 135 miscarriages. Out of the analysis were still-births, live born twins or triplets, and induced abortions, but was excluded from the study. ​The relations between caffeine exposure and known......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Effects of Caffeine

...Physiological Effects of Caffeine: (Note that the doses of caffeine required to produce such effects, and the severity of those effects, varies between individuals.) CARDIOVASCULAR (-) Caffeine is a vasoconstrictor and stimulant. (-) Caffeine often increases blood pressure by contracting the heart and blood vessels in non-habitual users. Effects usually subside after 3 – 4 h. (-) Caffeine changes the electro-physiological activity of the heart, increasing conductivity, even in limited doses. (-) Heavy caffeine consumption raises (by about 2 mmol/L)the plasma levels of homocystine, a risk factor for heart disease. (-) Caffeine raises plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in non-habitual users. (-) Coffee intake may raise serum cholesterol levels. Intakes of 5+ cups of unfiltered have been shown to raise cholesterol levels by 0.5 – 1.0 mmol/L (20 – 40 mg/dL). GASTROINTESTINAL (-) Caffeine stimulates gastric secretion. Some individuals are sensitive to caffeine and suffer ill effects such as acid indigestion, heartburn, abdominal pain, gas or constipation to varying degrees. (-) Coffee can cause emesis (vomiting) (-) Caffeine inhibits vassopressin, it acts as a powerful diuretic (it increases urination.) (-) Liver metabolism is effected by methylxanthines such as caffeine. It increases the levels of cyclic AMP and decreases the level of branched chain and aromatic amino acids in plasma. MUSCULAR/SKELETAL (-) Caffeine can mobilize calcium from cells and may......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2


...Another type of drinks that also very popular and loved by customer is energy drinks such as Monster, Redbull, and RockStar. These drinks became very popular not only because of the taste of them, but also because of the stimulant inside the drinks which is caffeine. Caffeine is a stimulant can damage the nervous system if it’s used too much. Caffeine can also lead to some serious problem such as risk of disease, addiction and sleep loss. One of the most common effects of caffeine is sleep loss. If one uses too much of caffeine, he won’t be able to go sleep. Some of the teenagers use this effects of caffeine to helps stay awake to study or do homework. While some of them use caffeine just because they like the feeling that caffeine gives them. In the article named Energy-Drink Alert written by Cody Crane, Crane mentioned about Quinn Jacobson, a 17 year old teenager of Towson, Maryland who loves using energy drinks when he feels tired. Quinn said that he mostly drink energy drinks at night and these drinks made him feel supercharged and help him stay awake, but they made his morning very miserable. According to Crane, the reason that made Quinn’s morning miserable is because of the caffeine contained in those energy drinks. The caffeine made Quinn couldn’t get enough sleep, making it hard for him to get up for school and stay alert in class. Beside Quinn, Crane also found that these energy drinks are common lunch time beverages for many students in Quinn’s high school. These......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7

The Life of a Rat

...The Life of a Rat I ratted myself out and it changed my life. I was on the AB honor roll in the ninth grade. This was true until I met a girl, who I thought was my friend, named Megan. By the end of the first semester, I had dropped out of volleyball, glee club and had started ditching classes and smoking in the restroom. One day we heard the band was out on a field trip so we went to their personal bathroom to smoke and hang out, just the two of us. Turns out, she wanted to be nosy. She started going through the teacher’s desk and papers. I admit I took a cool looking pen from his desk. We were laughing and playing around. Megan opened a file cabinet drawer and pulled out an envelope, full of money. The band had been having car washes and other fundraisers to raise money. I felt a lump in my throat. I knew what was happening, and I couldn’t stop it. She put the envelope in her shirt and ran back to the bathroom. I had no idea how much was in it, and a part of me did not want to know. Locking the door behind us, Megan reached in the envelope and pulled a small amount out and shoved it in my hand and said, “Here, now, do not say a word and no one will ever know it was us.” I had such an uneasy feeling, about all of it. The bell rang and we went to our lockers and then to lunch. With the money (which was only $120, but back then was like having $1,000 when you’re that young) in my sock the intercom came on and was telling us to all head to the gym. The whole school......

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5


...Caffeine is the most-widely consumed psychoactive substance by human beings throughout the world (Reid, 2005). This report will detail its natural origins, chemical structure (as well as those of similar substances), and the methods and dosages in which it is rendered into its usable form. Additionally, this report will detail caffeine's various biological pathways within the human body, including access to the brain and various neurotransmitter pathways. Caffeine is a chemical that occurs naturally in over 100 plant species throughout the world (Steffen, 2000). Perhaps the most widely recognized of these plants is the coffee tree, whose small seed (commonly referred to as a "bean") is roasted and then crushed into a fine powder (Weinberg and Bealer, 2001). Caffeine also occurs naturally in cocoa beans, tea leaves, kola nuts, and gurana seeds, and mate. Some of these plants, such as tea, actually bear a distinct, but similar chemical to caffeine (i.e. theophylline); these chemicals will be discussed further in the chemistry section (Steffen, 2000). Caffeine is chemically known by two names. The first is 1,3,7 -trimethylxanthine; the second is 3,7,-Dihydro-1,3,7- trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione. Historically, caffeine has also gone by the name of methyltheobromine, as well as thein (Weinberg and Bealer, 2001). The chemical formula of caffeine is C8 H10 N4 O2. The molecular weight for this chemical is 194.19 atomic units. Its......

Words: 2122 - Pages: 9


...College Moreno Valley Campus Administration of Justice – ADJ 15 Narcotics Spring 2012 Caffeine By: Dennis Bustamante With revenues of over 11 billion dollars last year alone and nearly seventeen thousand shops in 40 countries, Starbucks is clearly the world's top coffee retailer. The coffee house has become so well known by their endless list of delicious drink that they no longer have to print their name on the cups and people will still know the logo. The average Starbucks customer visits the store 6 times per month while a loyal 20% of customers go to the stores 16 times per month. But what is it about this coffee that has customers constantly coming back for more? It’s not only the delightful taste, or the pick-me-up that it provides, but it’s addictive use of caffeine in the ingredients. Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in many plant and seed species such as the cocoa leaf, coffee beans, and tea leaves which explains why it is found in many drinks such as coffee, tea, soda, energy drinks and even chocolate. Caffeine has been found to have addictive tendencies and can also lead to different psychological illnesses. Caffeine was first isolated from coffee in 1820 by the German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, and then independently in 1821 by French chemists Pierre Robiquet. Although caffeine was discovered in early 1800’s people have been drinking coffee as far back as the early......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6