Phased Retirement

In: Business and Management

Submitted By paniz
Words 6071
Pages 25
‫59‬
‫ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﻮﻳﺖ ﺷﻬﺮ/ ﺳﺎل دوم/ ﺷﻤﺎره 3/ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﺰ و زﻣﺴﺘﺎن 78‬

‫اﺻﻮل ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﻫﺪﻓﻤﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﻮرﻫﺎي دﻳﺪ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﺷﻬﺮي‬
‫**‬

‫دﻛﺘﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ رﺿﺎ ﭘﻮرﺟﻌﻔﺮ* ، ﻣﻬﻨﺪس ﻋﻠﻲرﺿﺎ ﺻﺎدﻗﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻘـﺎﻟﻪ: 10/80/78‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ: 01/11/78‬

‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪه:‬
‫در ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﺷﻬﺮي و در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ، ارﺗﻘﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺼﺮي-ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺪي ﻋﺮﺻﻪﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺷـﻬﺮ از ﺟﺎﻳﮕـﺎه‬
‫واﻻﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار اﺳﺖ. ﻟﺬا ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ آﮔﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ و ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ از ﻣﺤﻮرﻫﺎي دﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮي ارزشﻫﺎي ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﺑﺼﺮي، در ارﺗﻘـﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴـﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺼﺮي-ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺪي ﻋﺮﺻﻪﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﻘﺸﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻧﻜﺎر دارد. در اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎر ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺷـﻨﺎﺧﺖ و اراﺋـﻪ اﺻـﻮل ﺣـﺎﻛﻢ ﺑـﺮ‬
‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ آﮔﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ و ﻫﺪﻓﻤﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﻮرﻫﺎي دﻳﺪ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ درون ﺷﻬﺮي، از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ روش ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﺘـﻮاﻳﻲ ﻣـﺮور ﻣﺘـﻮن و‬
‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﺳﻨﺎد ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮي، ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎزﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ وﻳﮋﮔﻲﻫﺎي ﻣﺸﺘﺮك ﻣﺤﻮرﻫﺎي دﻳﺪ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﺟﻬﺎن ﭘﺮداﺧﺘﻪ ﺷـﺪه اﺳـﺖ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه ﻣﺤﻮر دﻳﺪ در ﺗﺤﻘﻖ اﻫﺪاف و ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻈﺮي ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﺷﻬﺮي ﻣﻮرد ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪاﺳﺖ. ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ از اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬
‫اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺿﺮورت ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﭘﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ و اﺧﺘﻼف ﺳﻄﺢﻫﺎ، ﻣﺤﺼﻮرﻳﺖ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب، ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻜـﺎن رﻓﺘﺎرﻫـﺎ، ﺗﻘﻮﻳـﺖ‬
‫ﺣﻀﻮرﭘﺬﻳﺮي از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ وﺟﻮد ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﺧﺎص در ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻲ و اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻛﻮﻟﻮژﻳـﻚ ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻤﻨـﺪ، در ﻃﺮاﺣـﻲ و‬
‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﻣﺤﻮرﻫﺎي دﻳﺪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد.‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ واژه ﻫﺎ: ﻣﺤﻮر دﻳﺪ، ﺳﺎزﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﺑﺼﺮي، ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﺑﺼﺮي-ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺪي، ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺼﺮي-ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺪي ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬

‫* داﻧﺸﻴﺎر و ﻣﺪﻳﺮﮔﺮوه ﺷﻬﺮﺳﺎزي داﻧﺸﻜﺪه ﻫﻨﺮ و ﻣﻌﻤﺎري داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺪرس ﺗﻬﺮان‬
‫** داﻧﺶآﻣﻮﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﺎري و داﻧﺸﺠﻮي ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ارﺷﺪ ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﺷﻬﺮي داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺪرس ﺗﻬﺮان‬

‫‪Email:Pourja_m@modares.ac.ir‬‬
‫‪Email: arsadeghi@modares.ac.ir‬‬

‫69‬
‫دﻛﺘﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪرﺿﺎ ﭘﻮرﺟﻌﻔﺮ و ﻣﻬﻨﺪس ﻋﻠﻲرﺿﺎ ﺻﺎدﻗﻲ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫اﻣﺮوزه ارﺗﻘﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ در ﻋﺮﺻﻪﻫﺎ و ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺷﻬﺮي )ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎي ﺑﺎز، ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎي ﺷﻬﺮي، ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎي ﺳﺒﺰ( 1ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮدن ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺣﻀﻮرﭘﺬﻳﺮي اﻳﻦ ﻋﺮﺻﻪﻫﺎ، در دﺳﺘﻮر ﻛﺎر ﻃﺮاﺣﺎن ﺷﻬﺮي ﻗﺮار دارد. اﻳﻦ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺣﻀﻮرﭘﺬﻳﺮي، از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻏﻨﻲﺗﺮ ﻛﺮدن ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺣﻀﻮر ﺷﻬﺮوﻧﺪان در ﻋﺮﺻﻪﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺻﻮرت ﻣﻲﭘﺬﻳﺮد. ﺣﻀﻮرﭘﺬﻳﺮي ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﺮﺻﻪﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ، از‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ زﻣﻴﻨﻪﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي اﻳﺠﺎد ﺧﺎﻃﺮهاي ﻓﺮدي و ﺟﻤﻌﻲ ﻟﺬت…...

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Planning for Retirement

...Planning for Retirement   Planning for retirement doesn’t usually cross the minds of young people who feel as if they have the rest of their life ahead of them. What they don’t realize is that life “happens” and then you realize you should have started planning for retirement many years ago. When you start planning for retirement at an early age, you are able to take advantage of investing and the power of compounding interest over the years, which will add up when you are ready to start using your retirement account. If you withdraw from your retirement account before age 59 ½ then you will be penalized by having at least 20 percent taxes taken out and you will be assessed a penalty fee when you file your taxes next year. Before you withdrawal any money from your retirement account, weigh the pros and cons and if it is for a major life event or because you want to purchase a midlife crisis toy. While one is planning for retirement, the best way to figure out what you will need when you retire is to conduct a financial analysis. You may want to start by looking to see what assets you possess. Assets are defined as cash, personal property, personal possessions and investments; cash in your checking and savings accounts, a house, car, television, etc. (Kapoor, Dlabay, & Hughes, 2010). When you retire, a house will probably be the most valuable asset you own. If you purchase a house in the early years, there is a possibility that you have only a......

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