Organizational Behaviour Study Notes

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OB EXAM STUDY NOTES
Motivation
Motivation – the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal
- Effort, persistence, direction
Intrinsic motivation – self applied, form the inside, stemming from the direct relationship between the worker and the task
Extrinsic motivation – stemming from the work environment external to the task, usually applied by others (managers), not long lasting
Content theories of motivation – WHAT motivates (Maslow’s theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory)
Process theories – focus on the underlying processes involved in motivating employees – HOW motivation occurs (Expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting theory)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs – food, water, warmth, rest
Safety Needs – security, safety
Belongingness and Love Needs – relationships, friends
Esteem Needs – prestige and feeling of accomplishment
Self Actualization – achieving one’s full potential, including creative activities
- Once a need is satisfied, attention is turned to the next highest level (the satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator, except self actualization)
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
1. Existance Needs
2. Relatedness Needs
3. Growth Needs
- The more lower level needs are gratified, the higher level need satisfaction is desired
- The less higher level needs are gratified, the more lower level need satisfaction is desired
McClelland’s Theory
Need for Achievement
- Prefer work where they can take responsibility for outcomes, set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risk, obtain feedback
Need for Affinity
- Desire to establish friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships, social networks, avoid conflict
Need for Power
- Desire to have strong influence over other people
- Effective managers are low need for affinity, high need for power…...

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