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Submitted By nicoevans

Words 3232

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Words 3232

Pages 13

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

FRIDAY 08TH MARCH 2012

C38FN 2012-2013

CORPORATE FINANCIAL THEORY

WORDCOUNT: 2874

Abstract

This essay will discuss the net present value (NPV), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) approaches for a project evaluation. It is often said that NPV is the best approach investment appraisal, which I why I will compare the strengths and weaknesses of NPV as well as the two others to se if the statement is actually true.

Introduction

To start of, the essay will attempt to explain the theoretical rationale of the net present value approach to investment appraisal as well as its strengths and weaknesses. From there, introduce the payback period method and then internal rate of return approach, as well as to consider their strengths and weaknesses. After outlining and explaining the three different approaches, it will finish up with comparing the different three and in a conclusion.

NPV

Net present value or NPV is an approach used to determine the value of an investment today (present) compared to the value of the investment in the future after taking the inflation and return into account. In simpler words, it compares the value of 1 pound today with the same pound in the future. Net present value is used in capital budgeting to analyze the profitability of an investment. It is usually calculated using tables and spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel, but the main formula used to calculate net present value looks like this:

Where

C0 = Cash outflow at time t=0

Ct = Cash inflow at time t r = The discount rate

As Ross (2013) states in his book, a project should be accepted if the NPV is greater than zero and rejected if it is less than zero. This is known as the NPV rule. However, if the NPV is equal to zero, the manager of the company has to decide whether to accept or reject depending on…...

...Abstract The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Modified Internal Rate (MIRR) of Return are imperative to understanding the investment on a project and the expected returns or profitability. Under the valuation method of IRR is to accept the project which has the greater number of required rate of return, or otherwise, reject the project. However, MIRR is better indicator of the project’s true profitability IRR v. MIRR Valuation Methods The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is defined as the rate of return that would make the present value of future cash flows plus the final market value of an investment or business opportunity equal the current market price of the investment or opportunity. The Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) assumes that positive cash flows are reinvested at the firm's cost of capital, and the initial outlays are financed at the firm's financing cost. Therefore, MIRR more accurately reflects the cost and profitability of a project. (inestwords ) Valuation methods can be used to appropriately allocate the needed resources. This can improve timing and the quality of the allocated funds. The invested projects are expected to be profitable in the forecasted time frame. It is best if organizations make the profit faster than expected time frame, because going beyond that timeline can create losses. The underlying principle of IRR is to present the expected rate of return of the project. If the IRR exceeds the cost of funds used to......

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...The NPV and IRR methods would in certain situations give the same accept-reject decision. But they may differ in the sense that the choice of an asset under certain circumstances may be mutually contradictory. The two methods would give consistent results in terms of acceptance or rejection of investment proposals in certain situations such as conventional investments or independent proposals. A conventional investment is one in which the cash flow pattern is such that an initial investment is followed by a series of cash inflows. Thus, in the case of such investments, cash outflows are confined to the initial period. The independent proposals refer to investments the acceptance of which does not preclude the acceptance of others so that all profitable proposals can be accepted and there are no constraints in accepting all profitable projects. However, in certain situations they will give contradictory results. This is so in the case of mutually exclusive investment projects. The examples of such projects are technical exclusiveness and financial exclusiveness. The term technical exclusiveness refers to alternatives having different profitabilities and the selection of that alternative which is the most profitable. Thus, in the case of a purchase or lease decision the more profitable out of the two will be selected. The mutual exclusiveness may also be financial. If there are resource constraints, a firm will be forced to select that project which is the most profitable......

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..."-75,000" should be in the row for Year 1; 2,000 should be in the row for Year 2, and so on. The "-75,000" is entered because that is the amount spent/invested in the business. The other numbers are positive because the hope is that there will be a positive, increasing return on the investment. 4 Enter "=irr" in Row 12. 5 Select the "Cash Flow" column values for the calculation. 6 Enter "0.2" as a guess. The guess is that the return on the investment is 20 percent. Then enter the closing parenthesis of the formula. If the guess portion of the formula is omitted, Excel assumes the guess is 0.1, or 10 percent. 7 Press "Enter." The internal rate of return for the investment is 34 percent. This means that the return on the $75,000 investment is 34 percent over the course of the 10-year business. The above example uses Microsoft Excel 2007. However, the formula and concept are the same for other versions of Excel. Compare the rate of return on a project with rates of return on other projects and use this as a factor in budget/expense decisions. The rate of return on a project or investment may not always be positive. In those cases, the IRR will be a negative percentage. NPV Present value is the result of discounting future amounts to the present. For example, a cash amount of $10,000 received at the end of 5 years will have a present value of $6,210 if the future amount is discounted at 10% compounded annually. Net present value is the present value of the cash......

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...-75,000 95,000 -38,000 57,000 6,33,000 359181.1997 -520000 -7,20,000 16000 15,00,000 -13,00,000 2,00,000 -30,000 -75,000 95,000 -38,000 57,000 16000 15,00,000 -13,00,000 2,00,000 -30,000 -75,000 95,000 -38,000 57,000 73,000 16000 15,00,000 -13,00,000 2,00,000 -30,000 -75,000 95,000 -38,000 57,000 73,000 51959.95809 16000 15,00,000 -13,00,000 2,00,000 -30,000 -75,000 95,000 -38,000 57,000 73,000 46392.81972 -7,20,000 -7,20,000 -1,39,092 73,000 65178.57143 58195.15306 Internal Rate of Return NPV @ 5% NPV Year 0 -7,20,000 34,826 Taking IRR at 5% and 12% IRR Traditional Formula = LR + { NPV @ LR/NPV @ LR - NPV @ HR} X (HR-LR) IRR 0.064017186 6.401718635 Year 1 Year 2 69523.80952 66213.15193 Year 3 63060.14469 Year 4 60057.28066 Year 5 495972.0634 Therefore Internal Rate of Return for this Project is 6.69600 A) Payback Period Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Future Cash Flows -7,20,000 73,000 73,000 73,000 73,000 6,33,000 PV of FCF Accumulated NPV on FCF 65178.57143 58195.15306 51959.95809 46392.81972 359181.1997 -6,54,821 -5,96,626 -5,44,666 -4,98,273 -1,39,092 Pay back Period Cannot be caluculated as it is taking more than 5 years to beak even Profitability Index: PI = PVCF/ Intial Investment Present Value Initial Investment 580907.7 7,20,000 Profitability Index 0.806816 Fact File: Machine A Machine B SP 2,00,000 3,00,000 12 50,000 60,000 40,000 60,000 Year 0 Investing Activities Initial Investment Depreciation Tax Salavage value......

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...Value and Internal Rate of Return by Harold Bierman, Jr Executive Summary • • • Net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) are two very practical discounted cash flow (DCF) calculations used for making capital budgeting decisions. NPV and IRR lead to the same decisions with investments that are independent. With mutually exclusive investments, the NPV method is easier to use and more reliable. Introduction To this point neither of the two discounted cash flow procedures for evaluating an investment is obviously incorrect. In many situations, the internal rate of return (IRR) procedure will lead to the same decision as the net present value (NPV) procedure, but there are also times when the IRR may lead to different decisions from those obtained by using the net present value procedure. When the two methods lead to different decisions, the net present value method tends to give better decisions. It is sometimes possible to use the IRR method in such a way that it gives the same results as the NPV method. For this to occur, it is necessary that the rate of discount at which it is appropriate to discount future cash proceeds be the same for all future years. If the appropriate rate of interest varies from year to year, then the two procedures may not give identical answers. It is easy to use the NPV method correctly. It is much more difficult to use the IRR method correctly. Accept or Reject Decisions Frequently, the investment decision to be made is......

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...When cash inflows are even: |NPV = R × |1 − (1 + i)-n |− Initial Investment | | |i | | In the above formula, R is the net cash inflow expected to be received each period; i is the required rate of return per period; n are the number of periods during which the project is expected to operate and generate cash inflows. When cash inflows are uneven: NPV = | |R1 |+ |R2 |+ |R3 |+ ... | |− Initial Investment | | | |(1 + i)1 | |(1 + i)2 | |(1 + i)3 | | | | |Where, i is the target rate of return per period; R1 is the net cash inflow during the first period; R2 is the net cash inflow during the second period; R3 is the net cash inflow during the third period, and so on ... Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value (PV). Then they are summed. Therefore NPV is the sum of all terms, [pic] where [pic] – the time of the cash flow [pic] – the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment in the financial markets with similar risk.); the opportunity cost of capital [pic] – the net cash flow i.e. cash inflow – cash outflow, at time t . For educational purposes, [pic] is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as (minus) the investment. The result of this formula is multiplied with the Annual Net cash in-flows and reduced by Initial Cash outlay the present value but in cases where the cash......

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...Present Value: Net present value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows. NPV compares the value of a dollar today to the value of that same dollar in the future, taking inflation and returns into account. NPV is calculated using the following formula: NPV= -C0 + C11+r+ C21+r2+…+ Ct(1+r)t - C0 = initial investment C = cash flow r = discount rate t = time If the NPV of a prospective project is positive, the project should be accepted. However, if NPV is negative, the project should probably be rejected because cash flows will also be negative. Example of Net Present Value To provide an example of Net Present Value, consider a company who is determining whether they should invest in a new project. The company will expect to invest $500,000 for the development of their new product. The company estimates that the first year cash flow will be $200,000 the second year cash flow will be $300,000, and the third year cash flow to be $200,000. The expected return of 10% is used as the discount rate. The following table provides each year's cash flow and the present value of each cash flow. Year | Cash Flow | Present Value = FV(1+r)t | 0 | - 500,000.00 | -500000/(1.10)^0 = -500000.00 | 1 | 200,000.00 | 200000/(1.10)^1 = 181,818.18 | 2 | 300,000.00 | 300000/(1.10)^2 = 247,933.88 | 3 | 200,000.00 | 200000/(1.10)^3 = 150,262.96 | NPV = -500000.00 +......

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...Key differences between the most popular methods, the NPV Method and IRR Method, include: * NPV is calculated in terms of currency while IRR is expressed in terms of the percentage return a firm expects the capital project to return; * Academic evidence suggests that the NPV Method is preferred over other methods since it calculates additional wealth and the IRR Method does not; * The IRR Method cannot be used to evaluate projects where there are changing cash flows (e.g., an initial outflow followed by in-flows and a later out-flow, such as may be required in the case of land reclamation by a mining firm); * However, the IRR Method does have one significant advantage – managers tend to better understand the concept of returns stated in percentages and find it easy to compare to the required cost of capital; and, finally, * While both the NPV Method and the IRR Method are both discounted cash flow models and can even reach similar conclusions about a single project, the use of the IRR Method can lead to the belief that a smaller project with a shorter life and earlier cash inflows is preferable to a larger project that will generate more cash. * Applying NPV using different discount rates will result in different recommendations. The IRR method always gives the same recommendation. (Wilkinson 2013) It makes this adjustment using a "discount rate" that takes into account inflation, the risk of the project and the cost of capital -- either interest paid...

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...Contents 1. Assignment Part A Prepare the case, with recommendations to be presented to the Board of Directors of ProGen. Assess the viability of the project using the NPV, IRR, and Payback methods. 2. Assignment Part B “The IRR rule is redundant as an investment criterion because the NPV rule always dominates. Discuss this statement giving examples where possible. 3. Conclusion “The IRR rule is redundant as an investment criterion because the net present value (NPV) rule always dominates it.” 4. Bibliography References Assignment Part A This report evaluates the viability for marketing and distribution of genetically engineered soya seeds developed by a biotechnology firm. The firm will supply seeds and permit ProGen to market and distribute them under a licence. The evaluation methods used for this proposal are net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and Payback methods. Assumptions used for this analysis are summarised below • Marketing cost is assumed to be a sunk cost and therefore not included in the calculation • Cash flow will be considered over 5 years as this is the lifecycle of the product • An annual licence fee included at 1M per annum • Capital investment for vehicles £650k is an upfront payment and therefore not discounted • Year 5 will see a cash inflow of 120K assumed a realistic......

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...firm needs to evaluate it with a process called capital budgeting and the tool which is commonly used for the purpose is called IRR. This method tells the company whether making investments on a project will generate the expected profits or not. As it is a rate that is in terms of percentage, unless its value is positive any company should not proceed ahead with a project. The higher the IRR, the more desirable a project becomes. This means that IRR is a parameter that can be used to rank several projects that a company is envisaging. IRR can be taken as the rate of growth of a project. While it is only estimation, and the real rates of return might be different, in general if a project has a higher IRR, it presents a chance of higher growth for a company. NPV This is another tool to calculate to find out the profitability of a project. It is the difference between the values of cash inflow and cash outflow of any company at present. For a layman, NPV tells the value of any project today and the estimated value of the same project after a few years taking into account inflation and some other factors. If this value is positive, the project can be undertaken, but if it is negative, it is better to discard the project. This tool is extremely helpful for a company when it is considering to buy or takeover any other company. For the same reason, NPV is the preferred...

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...Capital Allowance – required to do the assignment * Broad idea of assignment Part A : understanding the method Part B : theoretical method NO TAX requirement ! Valuation method .. NPV, IRR , Payback method. NPV – A rule that company use whether accept or reject the project. Based on discount factor , interest rate. Study guide! – NPV (number of calculation, examples) IRR – a discount rate that gives a zero NPV… cash flow tend to zero. NPV you know initial initial investment , cash flow, discount rate IRR you know initial initial investment , cash flow, but predict your discount rate You cant rely excel ! (don’t use the functioin) Pay back method : how long it takes your initial investment … ? 2 years etc Pay back period --- every company can decide their payback period. Whether they accept and reject the project. Two companies in the same sector.. they may have two payback period. Evaluation method.. accounting measure. NPV rule : accept investment project which cash flow worth more than the cost of financing the projects. IRR rule : accept the project if IRR Is greater than the cost of capital. If your IRR higher than discount rate , accept the project. Pay back : payback period is less than specified payback period. | If se NPV .. you should accept the project..and IRR rule.. but payback period not really.. it depends to the company Depreciation vs capital allowance. (not related to assignment) Depreciation: using the asset, reducing the value. (non......

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...Less Initial Investment 125.000 NPV 23.298 NPV @ 12% = £23, 298 Project B: £000 Year NCF 1 43 2 43 3 43 4 43 5 43 Discount Factor 12% PV 0.893 38.399 0.797 34.271 0.712 30.616 0.636 27.348 0.567 24.381 Total PV 155.015 Less Initial Investment 125.000 NPV 30.015 NPV @ 12% = £30,015 Yes, they should be accepted because both projects have a positive NPV, therefore it indicates the increase in the market value of the shareholder’s funds. For both projects the company will recover the initial outlay and earn a return greater than 12% per year on the investment. 4 Question E According to Colin Drury, the most straightforward way of determining whether a project yields a return in excess of the alternative equal risk investment in traded securities is to calculate the net present value (NPV). This is the present value of the net cash inflows less the project’s initial investment outlay. If the rate of return from the project is greater than the return from an equivalent risk investment in securities traded in the financial market, the NPV will be positive. Alternatively, if the rate of return is lower, the NPV will be negative. A positive NPV therefore indicates that an investment should be accepted, while a negative value indicates that it should be rejected. A zero NPV calculation indicates that the firm should be indifferent to whether the project is accepted or rejected. Question F 1) If the cost of capital increases, the NPV would be reduced and......

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...the purchase based on (1) a given rate of return of 15% (Task 4) and (2) the firm’s cost of capital (Task 5). Task 4. Capital Budgeting for a New Machine A few months have now passed and AirJet Best Parts, Inc. is considering the purchase on a new machine that will increase the production of a special component significantly. The anticipated cash flows for the project are as follows: Year 1 $1,100,000 Year 2 $1,450,000 Year 3 $1,300,000 Year 4 $950,000 You have now been tasked with providing a recommendation for the project based on the results of a Net Present Value Analysis. Assuming that the required rate of return is 15% and the initial cost of the machine is $3,000,000. 1. What is the project’s IRR? (10 pts) 2. What is the project’s NPV? (15 pts) 3. Should the company accept this project and why (or why not)? (5 pts) 4. Explain how depreciation will affect the present value of the project. (10 pts) 5. Provide examples of at least one of the following as it relates to the project: (5 pts each) a. Sunk Cost b. Opportunity cost c. Erosion 6. Explain how you would conduct a scenario and sensitivity analysis of the project. What would be some project-specific risks and market risks related to this project? (20 pts) Task 5: Cost of Capital AirJet Best Parts Inc. is now considering that the appropriate discount rate for the new machine should be the cost of capital and would like to determine it. You will assist in the process of......

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...Discuss the NPV decision rule, and how it relates to the goal of maximizing shareholders’ wealth. To make sensible investment decisions, a good financial analyst should use a method that considers all of the costs and benefits of each investment opportunity, and makes a logical allowance for the timing of those costs and benefits. The net present value (NPV) method provides for these investment assessment criteria. The NPV is a financial valuation concept that is essential to all financial modeling projects. The NPV of an investment is the present value of its cash inflows minus the present value of the cash outflows. Why would $100 to be received in a years time be as unequal in value to $ 100 to be paid immediately? The 3 major reasons are: • Interest Lost • Risk • Effects of inflation The steps involved in computing NPV are: 1. Identify all cash flows 2. Determine, r, the discount rate 3. Using discount rate, find PV 4. Sum all PVs 5. Apply NPV rule. If NPV is positive, investor should undertake it else not undertake This simplified formula illustrates the NPV method: PV of the cash flow of year n = Actual cash flow of year n / (1+r) ^ n The basic rule for NPV is that if the project shows a positive NPV, we need to accept the project. This is because the underlying rule is that if a project has a positive NPV it increases the shareholder wealth because all money goes to investors. The NPV decision rules are: • Projects with positive NPV should be......

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...1.NPV NPV(Net Present Value), is the present value of a project's cash flow minus the present value of its cost, it means that how much the project could create to shareholders' wealth, the more the NPV, the more value the project makes and the higher the stock's price. If NPV equal to zero means the cash flow which the project makes can compensate for the cost of investment, the rate of return equal to required rate of return. If NPV exceeds zero, the part of exceeded belongs to shareholders. Accept the project which has a positive NPV will create positive economic value added and market value added. In this case, it can be seen clearly from Table 1, SSW and CCS both has a positive NPV, they all create value and wealth for the company. What should be mentioned is that, the NPV of SSW is higher than CCS, it means SSW could add more value than CCS. Table 1. the NPVs of SSW and CCS SSW CCS NPV 240,796.39 226,897.07 2.IRR IRR(Internal Rate of Return ) is the discount rate that make the inflows to equal the initial cost, in other word, it makes NPV to equal to zero. IRR is an estimate of expected project's rate of return. If this return exceed the cost of the capital used to the project, the part of difference is a dividend to shareholders and causes the stock's price to rise. If the IRR is less than cost of capital , shareholders have to make up. In this case, the cost of capital of these two restaurants both equal to 10%, the Table 2 shows that the IRR of SSW is......

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