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Words 2280

Pages 10

Introduction to Net Ionic Equations

This tutorial will give you an algorithm for writing net ionic equations for aqueous reactions in general chemistry. Knowledge of the solubility rules is necessary to complete this tutorial. A list of solubility rules is provided at the end of the tutorial for review. Net ionic equations are necessary in chemistry for several reasons:

1. They show only those species undergoing chemical change – “spectator” ions are removed.

2. They must be used in any equilibrium calculation.

3. They allow chemical reactions to be combined properly.

4. Used when balancing half-reactions in oxidation-reduction chemistry.

To take a chemical reaction in molecular form and rewrite as a net ionic equation is straight forward if you follow the steps given below. We will cover each step in detail using a common gas forming reaction from chemistry 1A.

1. Write the correct reactant and products – DO NOT BALANCE!

The first step is to write the correct chemical formulas for the reactants and products, DO NOT

BALANCE. The reaction will be balanced once the net-ionic equation is complete. As an example reaction, we will look at the aqueous reaction of sodium carbonate with acetic acid.

Na2CO3 + HC2H3O2 ! NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO2

(skeleton equation)

The above reaction is called the skeleton equation; it contains only the correct chemical formulas of each reactant and product. Do not balance this equation!

2. Add phase symbols to EVERY reactant and product.

This next step is crucial! You need to add the correct phase symbols to each reactant and product.

You must rely on the solubility rules to assign the phase symbols. The phase symbols are

• (s) solid - for insoluble salts. Check the solubility rules!

• (l) liquid - for pure liquids like water.

• (g) gas – for gaseous reactants and products.

• (aq)…...

...God’s Equation Being one the most astounding formulas in mathematics, Euler’s identity is popularly called God’s equation. Some people also go as far as calling it the mathematical equivalent of Da Vinci's Mona Lisa or Michaelangelo's David. Named after Leonhard Euler, the formula establishes the deep relationship between trigonometric functions and complex exponential functions. According to the formula, for any real number x, In the above formula, e is the base of the natural logarithm, i the imaginary unit. Cos and Sin are trigonometric functions (the arguments are to be taken in radians and not degrees.). The formula applies even if x is a complex number. Particularly with x = π, or half a turn around the circle, e^iπ = cos π + i sin π Since cos π = -1 and sin π = 0, It can be deduced that e^iπ = -1 + i0 which brings us to the identity The identity successfully links five fundamental mathematical constants: 1. The number 0(the additive identity). 2. The number 1(the multiplicative identity). 3. The number pi (3.14159265…). 4. The number e (base of all natural logarithms, which occurs widely in mathematics and scientific analysis). 5. The number i (the imaginary unit of the complex numbers) The formula describes two equivalent ways to move in a circle. One of its major applications is that in the complex number theory. The interpretation of the function eix can be that it traces out the unit circle in the complex......

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...CHEMESTRY LAB SUBJECT: CHEMESTRY TEACHER: MISS MUGANAMBUGA STUDENT: Levi Blaides TITLE: Investigating the properties of ionic and covalent substances INTRODUCTION: Certain characteristics such as solubility polar and non-polar solvents, melting point and conduction of electricity can be used to distinguish between ionic and covalent substances. AIM: To determine whether a substances is ionic or covalent in nature by observing its melting point, solubility and conductivity. APPARATUS/MATERIALS SODIUM CHLORIDE, SUCROSE, NAPTHALENE, COPPER (II) OXIDE, CALCIUM AND COPPER (II) SULPHATE ,6 TEST TUBES ,6 SPATULAS ,TEST TUBE HOLDER ,BUNSEN BURNER ,2 (100CM3) BEAKERS ,LOW VOLTAGE BATTERY ,CONNECTING WIRES ,ELECTRODES ,CURRENT DETECTING DEVICES METHOD: Two spatulas of naphthalene were placed in two test tubes heated for about one minute , gently at first then strongly until no further change occurred. Procedure was repeated and characteristics were record and it was stated whether the substances were: A) DOES NOT MELT AT THE TEMPERATURE OF THE BURNER. B) MELTS WITHOUT DECOMPOSITION WHEN GREATLY HEATED C) MELTS WITHOUT DECOMPOSITION WHEN STRONGLY HEATED D) DECOMPOSES WHEN HEATED. SOLUBILITY: Two beakers were filled, one with 50ml of ethanol and the other with 50 ml of distilled water. Two cups of distilled water were added and two spatulas of naphthalene and stir. Observations were recorded by stating if the substance was: * IS-INSOLUBLE ...

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...“The Project” An Unknown Ionic Compound in the Landfill Introduction Upon discovery of an unknown solid ionic compound in a landfill by the Chemistry 1146 laboratory group, precautions were immediately taken and rigorous experimentations were begun to determine the identity of the compound. Determining the identity of this compound was very crucial for the safety of the community. The chemical and physical properties of the compound could then be identified and environmental hazards addressed. Questions that needed to be answered in relation to this unknown compound included: Is it a risk to people living nearby? What if it gets in the water supply? Does it contaminate the air? Is it reactive? Over a three week time-span the chemists experimented with the unknown compound to report the findings back to the community. After the unknown compound was identified, the chemists studied its properties and confirmed the identity by synthesizing the compound in the lab and comparing it to the unknown. Experimental Week 1 After a sample of the unknown compound (#21) was retrieved, various experiments were carried out to determine the chemical formula. An anion analysis was first performed on the unknown compound. A solution of the unknown compound was prepared by taking a small amount of the solid on the end of a scoopula and dissolving it in 2 mL of distilled water (DI water) in a test tube. The compound was then tested for the sulfate ion by placing 1 mL of the solution in a......

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... Accounting Equation Franklin Weatherspoon ACC/300 OCTOBER 26, 2013 Dr. M Moczynski, CPA, CGFM Accounting Equation In the business world an individual cannot understand a balance sheet, income statement nor transaction recordings within a general ledger, until he or she understands the basic accounting equation: Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity (Barclay, 2013). Following is a discussion on the relationship of accounting equation and the components of a balance sheet; along with examples showing the affect of each (University of Phoenix, 2013). Relation in Components The accounting formula is the way double-entry bookkeeping is formulated. The accounting formula, which is known as the balance sheet equation, signifies the connection between the assets, liabilities, and owner's equity of a small company (Peeler, 2013). The accounting formula basically expresses a company’s assets, which is obtained either by liabilities or by the company’s capital. The equation has to balance since the company’s entirety, which is known as assets are brought with something like liability or the company’s capital (Peeler, 2013). The effect of one another The company’s equity is affected by capital, functioning as stock. The company has income, which is revenue minus expenses, and gains minus loses, and sometimes extra capital and withdrawals are known as dividends. When the closing of the month approaches, each item will......

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...Accounting Equation ACC 300 April 28, 2014 Accounting Equation The accounting equation is an important part of a financial statement. It gives, at all times, proper information because it gathers the appropriate numbers that explain a company’s assets. A balance sheet portrays the financial situation of a company at any given point. The accounting equation is known as: Assets equals Liabilities plus Owner’s Equity. Assets refer to the resources that the business owns, such as accounts receivable, machinery and equipment, land and buildings, inventory, cash at hand and bank and prepaid insurance. It is evident from the accounting equation that the total amount of assets is obtained by summing liabilities and owner’s equity (McLaney & Atrill, 2007). Liabilities refer to the obligations of the business, which are the amounts that the company owes. Liabilities are mostly accounts payable including loans payable, creditors, salaries and wages payable, interests and income taxes payable. Liabilities can be perceived in two dimensions, which include claims by creditors against the assets of the business, and as a source along with the capital (Warren & Reeve, 2011). Owner’s or stockholders equity, sometimes known as capital, refers to amount left after subtracting liabilities from assets. It usually denotes the amount of investment plus the cumulative net profit of the business that has not been withdrawn by the owner or distributed to the stockholders in the case......

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...Action Equation Michele Riazzi Grand Canyon University/LDR645 May 27, 2014 Action Equation Plan Do: What do you need employees to do? * Employees must enroll a minimum of 5 students * It is preferable for students to begin closer to the beginning of the month * Enrollment counselors should be listening by asking open ended questions * Direct students to take an action by beginning the application * Ask for referrals each month with new and existing students * Try to have all students for the month registered by the 15th to begin the next month Know: What do employees need to know to take action? * Know what to do and why we do it * Enrollment Counselors need to understand how the revenue stream is affected by monthly expectations. * Database management is critical to create the most opportunities with the inquiries provided. * Enrollment Counselors need to set clear expectations with student from the initial conversation. They, students and enrollment counselors, must follow through on the enrollment process. * Enrollment counselors must ask all students and potential students for referrals. This may be accomplished by speaking with current students on a weekly basis. Feel: What do employees need to feel to take action? * Enrollment counselors are usually the first impression potential students have of Grand Canyon University. This is a valuable role and must be taken seriously. * The enrollment counselor’s...

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...Chapter 2: Equations and Inequalities MAT 1103: Fundamentals of Mathematics 2.1 Equations 1) Equation Statement indicating that 2 quantities are true. Example: Solution set: 3x − 2 = 10 values of variable that satisfy equations. 2) Restricted values a. Fraction: 1 , x≠a x−a b. Radical: c. Logarithmic: x−a, x≥a log( x − a) , x > a 3) Solve Linear equation in 1 variable ax + b = 0 Example 1: Solve a. (a and b are real numbers and a ≠ 0) 2x + 3 = 0 b. 3( x + 2) = 5 x + 2 c. 3y 2 1 − = y 2 3 5 1 Chapter 2: Equations and Inequalities MAT 1103: Fundamentals of Mathematics 4) Solve Rational Equations Example 2: Solve a. 3 7 + =2 5 x+2 b. 3x 5 − =3 x −1 x + 3 2.2 Applications of Linear Equations 1) English-mathematics vocabulary Mathematical operator + x English words More, greater, add, sum, exceeds, increase, higher, total, extra Less, difference, lower, minus, decrease, fewer Times, multiple Mathematical ratio 2x 3x 1/3 x ¼x English words Double Triple One third One quarter 2) General guideline for solving word problem a. Read the problem. b. Read the problem again. c. Draw a picture / table / flow chart. d. Find and label the unknowns that you are looking for. e. Find and label the known quantities. f. Write down all the formulas and relations between the known and unknown. g. Solve the problem. h. Check the answer & reply in words. 2 Chapter 2: Equations and Inequalities MAT 1103:......

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...NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE GRAVITY EQUATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE: AN EXPLANATION Thomas Chaney Working Paper 19285 http://www.nber.org/papers/w19285 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 August 2013 I want to thank Fernando Alvarez, Michal Fabinger, Xavier Gabaix, Sam Kortum, Bob Lucas, Jim Tybout, Jon Vogel and seminar participants in Berkeley, Bilkent, Bocconi, Boston University, Chicago, Erasmus, Hitotsubashi, LBS, Louvain-CORE, LSE, the NY Fed, Oxford, Princeton, Rochester, Sciences Po, Toulouse, UBC Vancouver, Yale and Zurich for helpful discussions, and NSF grant SES-1061622 for financial support. I am indebted to Jong Hyun Chung, Stefano Mosso and Adriaan Ten Kate for their research assistance. During the last year, I have received compensation for teaching activities from the Toulouse School of Economics, as well a research grant from the National Science Foundation (SES-1061622), in excess of $10,000. The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and comment purposes. They have not been peerreviewed or been subject to the review by the NBER Board of Directors that accompanies official NBER publications. © 2013 by Thomas Chaney. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full......

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...A linear equation In this lesson you can learn how to solve a simplest equation with one unknown variable. I will start with the following example. Solve an equation 5x - 8 + 2x - 2 = 7x - 1 - 3x - 3 for the unknown variable x. The left side of the equation is an expression, which is to the left of the equal sign. The right side of the equation is an expression, which is to the right of the equal sign. In our case the left side of the equation is 5x - 8 + 2x - 2, while the right side is 7x - 1 - 3x - 3. Terms containing variable x are called variable terms; terms containing the numbers only are called constant terms, or simply constants. The equation under consideration is called a linear equation, because its both sides are linear polynomials. The solution of an equation is such a value of the variable x that turns the equation into a valid equality when this value is substituted to both sides. I am explaining below how to solve this linear equation, in other words, how to find the unknown value of the variable x. The first step you should do is to simplify both sides of the equation by collecting the common terms containing variable x and the common constant terms separately at each side of the equation. Let us do it. By collecting common terms with the variable x at the left side, you will get 5x + 2x = 7x. By collecting common constant terms at the left side you will get -8 - 2 = -10. Thus, now the left side is 7x - 10. Making similar calculations...

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...There are numerous aspects to the accounting equation and each has its own set of criteria. In order to maintain proper balance of the account equation, assets equaling liabilities plus shareholder’s equity there are several things to consider which include recordable transactions and financial statements. A transaction is any event that has an impact on the financial statements of the business. In order for a transaction to be recorded it must result in assets equaling liabilities plus shareholder’s equity. Examples of recordable transactions include; the sale of merchandise to a customer, a purchase of supplies or equipment, and borrowing funds from a lender. The aforementioned equation assets = liabilities + shareholder’s equity is the fundamental accounting equation. For an account to have a transaction post to it both sides of the equation must remain equal. You could not for example increase assets without subsequently decreasing liabilities or shareholder’s equity. There are four primary financial statements in accounting; Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Statement of Retained Earnings, and Statement of Cash Flows. A Balance Sheet is a statement that shows all of a business’s assets, liabilities, and equity for a point in time. The function of a balance sheet is to show a company’s liquidity and calculate net worth. An Income Statement is a statement that measures a company’s financial performance over a given period, a year for example. The primary function of......

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...formula of copper (I) bromide? Cu+ Br- CuBr 5) How many electrons does the iron ion have when it forms the ionic compound FeCl3? --------- 29 electrons 6) One example of an ionic compound is – a) F2 b) HBr c) ZnCl2 d) CCl4 7) A sodium atom has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1. If the sodium atom becomes ionized, its new electron configuration will be the same as which element? Neon 8) How do Ba2+ and phosphate, (PO4)3- combine to make an electrically neutral compound? i) Three Ba2+ ions combine with two (PO4)3- ions. ii) Two Ba2+ ions combine with three (PO4)3- ions iii) You add all of the electrons together and divide by two. iv) Three Ba ions combine with two P ions and eight O ions [pic] 9) Identify the polyatomic ion in the above picture. b) Write the name of the compound. trisodium phosphide c) What is its chemical formula? Na3P Circle or underline the best answer [pic] An alien astronaut landed on Earth and created the periodic table shown. The astronaut was trying to determine what type of bond would be present in several compounds. The type of bond in a compound containing G and E would be – a) Ionic bond b) Covalent bond c) Metallic bond d) nonmetallic bond 9) [pic] The data above......

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...Accounting Equation Essay ACC/300 Lucinda Degarmo November 30, 2015 Professor Brandy Havens The accounting equation is a simple formula used to measure a company’s financial position. There are three elements that make up an accounting equation; Assets, Liabilities, Equity. There are two types of accounting equations, one for a sole proprietorship and one for a corporation. The accounting equation used for the sole proprietorship is as follows: Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity. The accounting equation used for a corporation is: Assets = Liabilities + Stockholder’s Equity. Assets are considered to be the company’s resources, basically the things a company owns. These are things such as cash, accounts receivable, inventory, prepaid insurance, investments, equipment, land, buildings. The accounting equation tells us that the amount of Assets must be equal to the company’s liabilities plus owner’s or stockholder’s equity. Liabilities are considered to be the obligations that the company owes. Liabilities would be considered things like accounts payable, salaries, loans payable, income taxes payable, interest payable. There are two ways to view liabilities the first view is as a claim by creditors against the company’s assets, or a source along with the equity of the company’s assets. Equity whether it be Owner’s Equity or Stockholder’s Equity is considered the amount left over when the liabilities are deducted from the company’s assets. ......

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...Differential Equations by tarungehlots Concepts of Differential Equation Consider a variable that might denote the per capita capital stock level in an economy. When convenient, we can recognize that the level of capital depends upon time by addition the time argument. Doing so, we would write the per capita capital stock level as , rather than just writing . If we think of time as unfolding continuously, we can also think of capital as being a continuous function of time, and we can assume that the function has derivate . This derivative is the instantaneous change in per capita capital. In many presentations, is written as , but we will here use the more familiar notation . By writing the derivate as , so that we include the time argument, we are emphasizing that the value of the derivative may change with time. Because it is typically cumbersome to repeatedly write down the argument, we can also write the derivative as just , while remembering that its value may change with time. A differential equation is an equation that relates the time derivative of a variable to its level. An example is the equation (1) . The variable is called a state variable because it gives the state of the system at any given point in time. In our example, gives the state or level of per capita capital stock. 2. A Dynamic System The basic dynamic principle is the idea that “the way things are determines the......

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...Liabilitiesm Year 3 2652 (436) 039 4065 Assets Year 1 2249 (619) 3279 3742 Category Current Liabilities Net Working Capital Deferred Liability Net Worth Net Fixed Assets Misc. Assets Intangible Assets Category Current Assets Year 2 2308 (559) 3688 3974 Year 1 2868 Year 2 2867 Year 3 3088 5394 840 168 5527 1298 278 6300 1071 297 10756 9970 9270 Total Total 9270 9970 10756 Date: College of Agricultural Banking, RBI, PUNE 7 Measures of Liquidity • • • • • Net Working Capital Current Ratio Quick Ratio Net Working Capital/Net Assets Net Working Capital/Current Assets Date: College of Agricultural Banking, RBI, PUNE 8 Net Working Capital • Gross Working Capital ( GWC) • is the investment required to be made by the borrower in Current Assets • How • From own contributions • From creditors, borrowings • Other short term resources Date: College of Agricultural Banking, RBI, PUNE 9 Gross Working Capital • • • • Gross Working Capital How funded From own resources and other long term sources Short fall if any from short term resources Date: College of Agricultural Banking, RBI, PUNE 10 Short Term Resources • Short term resources constitute what are known as ‘ Current Liabilities’ • Current Liabilities should be lower than Current Assets • Excess o0f Current Assets over Current Liabilities is Net Working Capital • Contribution from long term resources applied to financing of......

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...accounting equation, using 100 to 150 words. There are many different rules, regulations and requirements in accounting. However it does not matter how complex an area of accounting may look because accounting is based on one elemental principal which is Assets = Liability + Owners (shareholder) Equity. The key to remember is in any transaction there is always at least two sides and each side of the equation always stays balanced with each other. An asset is something in value a company owns. Examples would be Assets make up cash, property, office equipment, inventory and accounts receivable. Liabilities are existing debts and obligations that are owed by a company. Examples would be salaries, finaning a purchase, notes payable. Owners equity is the owners right to the assets of an entity after all liabilities are paid. Examples would be retained stock, cash invested in the business and paid in capital. Even though there are many different rules, regulations and requirements in accounting. These are the fundamental principals of accounting. ❖ Complete E1-5 on p. 34 of Financial Accounting Assets Cash Cleaning Equipment Cleaning Supplies Accounts Receivable Liability Notes Payable Salaries Payable Accounts Payable Owner Equity Commerce Stock |CheckPoint 2 |10.0 |10.0......

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