Microbio West Nile

In: Science

Submitted By cdailey001
Words 1921
Pages 8
Microbiology Biology 299

West Nile Virus

The height of the summer months brings high temperatures in late afternoons. We are all smacking, swatting and spraying - knowing it’s that time of year for mosquitoes. Mosquito bites are a nuisance. Many people fear contracting the West Nile Virus. A virus is described as “a genetic element that contains either RNA or DNA and that replicate only in host cells; has an extracellular form.” (Brock Biology of Microorganism’s) A virus is also an ultramicroscopic infectious agent which replicates itself only within cells of living hosts. (Webster Dictionary) Along with being classified as a virus West Nile shows that it only infects certain and specific cells [Secondary Source]. Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describes a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 viruses have been described in detail. [Secondary Source] Although there are millions of different types, viruses also undergo cycles in order to reproduce and harm and/or help organisms. There are two types of viral cycles known to men, the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle. In the lytic cycle the virus attaches itself to the host cell and nucleic acid is inserted into the cell. Next it makes copies of DNA and capsid and more viruses are assembled. Finally the viruses are released by bursting the cell and destroying it. The lysogenic cycle is slightly different than the first cycle only by a few characteristics. During the lysogenic cycle the virus also attaches and inserts nucleic acid into the cell, but instead of creating new viruses and let them be released, viral DNA is made along with the cell's DNA. That is called Provirus and the nucleic acid replicates with the cell. After that the cell can go to the lytic cycle at any time. While in the…...

Similar Documents

Blue Nile

...1. How strong are the competitive forces confronting Blue Nile and other online retail Jewelers? Do five-forces analysis to support your answer. There are 27,000 jewelry stores in the United States making this industry fiercely competitive. The rival competitors have high fix costs and this is due to the fact the jewelry is expensive because of its luxury. The competitiveness stemmed from highly fragmented sales amongst local and other retail stores and the fact that there are many avenues in which one can purchase jewelry. Because of all of these factors, Blue Nile had to compete with online and offline traders. During the recession, Blue Nile was able to continue functioning because of its strategy. If an order came in online, then would the diamonds be purchase and order was then fulfilled and quickly delivered to the client. The Supplier bargaining power in this particular industry is weak. Blue Niles competitive advantage over other leading vendors is its economical supply chain and it low operating all with keeping a comparable product in terms of quality. Blue Nile negotiated arrangements that allowed for diamond and gem suppliers to have their products on their website. This arrangement s was multi-year contracts and only included certain diamonds on their site. Another advantage was that they never order large quantities of diamonds or gems to keep in stock. They simply placed orders as needed by a client and this drastically reduced cost that other jewelers......

Words: 1569 - Pages: 7

Blue Nile

...engagement rings. The national average for an engagement ring is $3,200 but Blue Nile exceeds this number by having a $5,600 average price1. Using the B2C EC model with no physical stores, no intermediaries and offering products four times cheaper than rivals, Blue Nile has proven to be a successful online retailer. Blue Nile is directly competing with both online diamonds retailers and physical stores diamonds retailers. Physical stores selling diamonds have tried to persuade customers that buying a diamond is an exciting experience that can only be realized in stores (and not online). They have emphasized the idea of seeing, touching and comparing diamonds that is exclusively possible in a store. Blue Nile has many dangerous competitors such as Tiffany and Co, Diamonds.com, and Zale Jewelers Stores. After doing some research on Blue Nile, I thought about different ways the company could improve its online business. I observed some opportunities for the company that could be developed to raise their competitiveness in the diamond retailing sector. Blue Nile is not yet a well recognized brand in the United States. The company could raise its brand awareness through advertising for instance. The company mainly sells rings. It could expand its business by offering more diverse diamonds products such as sunglasses, purses, wallets, etc… Few years ago, many people believed that jewelers will never be able to sell any products online because of the difficulty to......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

River Nile

...Introduction The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching approximately 6,700 km from its remote headwaters in eastern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile and its tributaries flow through Eleven countries and the river basin drains over three million square kilometers (one tenth of Africa’s total land mass) and is home to more than 300 million people (many of them are among the world’s poorest). Because of its size and variety of climates and topographies, the Nile is one of the most complex river basins in the world. The Nile originates from its major source, Lake Victoria forming the White Nile that flows generally North through Uganda and into Sudan where it meets the Blue Nile at Khartoum, from the confluence of the White and Blue Nile, the Main Nile River flows northwards into Egypt and to the Mediterranean Sea. The Eastern Nile includes the countries of Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt, and encompasses the sub-basins of the Baro-Akobo-Sobat, the Blue Nile, the Tekezze-Settit-Atbara, portions of the White Nile in Sudan, and the Main Nile. All flows in the Nile are the result of rainfall upon the Ethiopian highlands and the Equatorial lakes region. While this rainfall is usually plentiful, it is not always consistent from year to year. The annual average rainfall over the entire Nile basin is approximately 600 mm, ranging from 1200-1600 mm at the headwater regions to near zero at the most northern part of the basin. The seasonal fluctuations of rainfall...

Words: 6762 - Pages: 28

Request for Proposal - West Nile Virus

...Proposal for: Consumer Sleeve Length Preference In Relation to the West Nile Virus Threat(s) Relational (Explanatory) Hypothesis The hypothesis for our management dilemma is based on the implication that there is a shift in consumer sleeve length preferences based on the on-going West Nile Virus threat. News of an on-going and/or fresh West Nile Virus outbreak may continue and intensify consumer preferences during the next summer season. Variables Based on the relational or explanatory hypothesis that news of an on-going and/or fresh West Nile Virus outbreak may continue and intensify consumer preferences during the next summer season reveals that the variables in this study are identified as follows: * Independent variable is the on-going and/or fresh West Nile Virus threat * Dependent variable is the shift in consumer preferences Research Design Experimental research design is appropriate when one wishes to discover whether certain variables produce effects on other variables. Experimentation provides the most powerful support possible for a hypothesis of causation. With an ex post facto design, the investigators have no control over the variables in the sense of being able to manipulate them. It can only be reported of what has happened or what is happening. Researchers are limited by holding factors constant with judicious selection of subjects with strict sampling procedures and by statistical manipulation of findings. In an experiment,......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

West Nile Presentation

...West Nile Presentation Comm110 9/27/2012 West Nile Presentation As of Wednesday September 12th 2012 the CDC reported the worst outbreak of West Nile virus ever to hit the United States. The current total of 2,636 cases is still growing. Of those reported cases there have been 118 deaths. These are the highest totals since it was first detected in the United States in 1999. It was first identified in Uganda in eastern Africa in 1937. Nearly all fifty states have reported cases, but the majority (2/3) was reported in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, South Dakota, Michigan, and Oklahoma. Texas has by far been the hardest hit, accounting for 40% of the total. As of September 09,2012 in Texas there were 1219 reported cases, and 57 deaths. Vermont, Alaska, and Hawaii are the only states with no reported cases. These numbers are expected to grow until sometime in October. Past records show that late august is usually the peak for the season. So at this time the worst is behind us. Those most at risk to developing a severe form of the virus are: • Those with weakened immune systems (transplant or chemo patients, people with HIV) • Pregnant women • If over 50 years of age, you are in a higher risk group. • Adults with health issues such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney disease • Very young children Of the people infected, about 80% show few or no symptoms. Some 20% develop minor symptoms like: • headaches • abdominal......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Nile Perch

...Nile Perch in Lake Victoria By Introduction Lake Victoria is largest lake in Africa, seventh largest in the world by volume. And second largest freshwater lake in the world. (PRINGLE, 2005) The lake is surrounded by three different country’s Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. Figure 1 depicts Lake Victoria and the surrounding countries. All three countries share the lake and its resources, but one of the biggest issues is that the governing laws involving the resources and the lake regulations are different in each country. (Lowe-McConnell, 1994) As an economic stand point the lake produces an annual catch of roughly 400-500,000 tons of fish bringing in around US$250,000-500,000. (Blake, 2005) The lake itself has around 2 million people that either directly or indirectly depend on fishing activities to support their lives. Lake Victoria is the head waters to the Nile River. The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) can be distinguished by their silver coloring and blue tint. They have sharp black eyes which are surrounded by a luminous yellow outer ring. The juvenile Nile perch can be seen with very dark markings beaming from their eyes with extensive dark markings on their body which in time will fade with age. (Blake, 2005) The female Nile perch generally grows larger than the male. Certain bones such as the pre-opercle and pre- orbital are guarded with spines. The Nile perch is known to grow extremely fast during the first year of existence. (Blake, 2005) The......

Words: 1912 - Pages: 8

Blue Nile

...Blue Nile Corporate Strategy 1. Prepare a five-forces model of competition in the online retail jewelry industry. Conclude as to the strength or weakness of each force as well as the attractiveness of the industry overall. Rivalry Among Competing Sellers- There are many competitors in the online retail jewelry industry with overlapping characteristics in their business models. A very similar competitor that Blue Nile faces is Diamonds.com. Diamonds.com has expert gemologists. They offer "more than 40,000 loose diamonds" in a selection of settings. (Page 326) Their customers have the option to customize their purchases. They provide their customers with widespread educational knowledge for purchasing a diamond. They have excellent customer service by providing free shipping, an appraisal of the diamond, and non-customized orders receive 30 days to return the purchase after delivery. (Page 327) Diamonds.com offers substitute diamonds that are readily available and easily accessible to their customers. Another competitor in the diamond industry is Whiteflash.com. They too provide their customers with the option to customize jewelry. One service that they provide that is unique from their competitors is their diamond trade-up policy. This policy provides customers with a less expensive option to purchase a new Whiteflash diamond by trading in or exchanging their old diamond for a new, more expensive one. Their customer service features are not as high as Blue Nile......

Words: 4551 - Pages: 19

Blue Nile

...Introduction Blue Nile is the largest online retailer of diamonds in the United States. The company offers more than 60,000 diamonds on its website. The national average for an engagement ring is $3,200 but Blue Nile exceeds this number by having a $5,600 average price1. With no physical stores, no intermediaries and offering products four times cheaper than rivals, Blue Nile has proven to be a successful online retailer. Blue Nile is directly competing with both online diamonds merchants and physical stores diamonds retailers. Physical stores selling diamonds have tried to encourage customers that buying a diamond is a sensational experience that can only be realized in stores (and not online). They have highlighted the idea of seeing, touching and comparing diamonds that is exclusively possible in a store. Blue Nile has many competitors such as Tiffany and Co, Diamonds.com, and Zale Jewelers Stores. (Blue Nile. (n.d.)). These companies have tried to demonstrate that the price of the diamond is worth the unique and exclusive experience offered only in stores. Organizational background Everything started in 1999, when Mark Vadon, a consultant at Bain and Co. went to a Tiffany and Co. store in San Francisco, looking for an engagement ring for his future fiancée. He was a casual man wearing casual cloth. Vadon said that Tiffany and Co. salesperson ignored him and did not help him finding a ring because he did not look like a potential and interesting customer. After this...

Words: 1882 - Pages: 8

The West

...Farhang Hesami Document 17-1 A. Summary This article includes an appeal written by a Chinese merchant named Pun Chi to Congress asking help against the anti-Chinese sentiments which was growing, especially in the West. In the first part of the appeal Chi talks about how American ship-masters went to China and encouraged people to immigrate to California during the Gold Rush. He mentions that those Americans would tell them about the beauty of Americans kind and friendly manners. But, when they came to the West they faced a complete different situation. He complains about the brutal violence against their race and that they would not have the basic human rights with no guilt. Pun Chi has addressed 6 major issues in this appeal, which we can read 4 of them in this article. In first part, he talks about the virtue and morality. That people of China would value the virtue a lot and it is not right to be evil to them. He believes Chinese are very kind heart people and it is not important if they are poor. Wealth with no morality is worth nothing. He also mentions Jesus Christ and the importance of virtue in Christianity. In the next parts of the appeal he writes about pf the perpetual vexations of the Chinese. He asks that why his people should be the target of verbal and physical violence. He also questions the justice system. In that time Chinese would not have the right to have testimony at courts and Chi sees that as a reason for whites giving themselves the right......

Words: 674 - Pages: 3

Blue Nile

...retailing industry: Blue Nile, Zales, and Tiffany. Blue Nile’s supply chain structure is geared toward a pure centralized e-business; Zales sells merchandise primarily through stores but recently added an online channel; and Tiffany also uses an online channel but most of its diamond and other high-end products are sold through stores. The case is designed to foster discussion of the three supply chain structures and encourage students to evaluate the firms’ performance in terms of components of customer service such as response time, product variety, product availability, customer experience, order visibility, and returnability, coupled with cost factors that include inventory, transportation, information, and facilities. 1. What are some key success factors in diamond retailing? How do Blue Nile, Zales, and Tiffany compare on those dimensions? As with most retailing, the key success factors in diamond retailing can be measured by customer service factors and cost factors. Given the varied supply chain components and supply chain costs. Blue Nile has a distinct advantage in product variety and product availability since customers can “build their own ring” by choosing from an inventory of about 75,000 stones. Customers purchasing at Tiffany and, until recently, at Zales have been limited to the inventory available at the store. Customers who are comfortable making large purchases online will find the low-pressure purchasing experience at Blue Nile, supported by......

Words: 2513 - Pages: 11

West Nile Virus

...West Nile Virus ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE West Nile Virus West Nile infection is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes. People get West Nile virus from the bite of a mosquito that has fed on an infected bird. Mosquitoes can't transmit the virus from one person to another. Tampa Bay Times has reported that as of Aug. 28, there have been 23 positive tests for West Nile Virus in sentinel chickens from Pinellas County Mosquito Control coops. As a result, the risk of transmission to humans in the county increased. Sentinel chickens in Pinellas County tested positive for the West Nile Virus. A 32 year old man as recently tested positive for the West Nile Virus. Is this the first confirmed human case in the mosquito born illness this year according to the local health officials. The chickens are located at Clearwater Nursery, near Lake Maggiore in St. Petersburg and Walsingham Park in Seminole. Sentinel chickens are used as an early-warning detection system for some mosquito-borne diseases. They signal that mosquitoes carrying the diseases are present in an area. West Nile virus is an illness that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Most people who contract it exhibit no symptoms, but some people will develop fevers, with other symptoms such as headaches, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rashes. Those older than 50 are the most likely to become severely ill with West Nile and should take special care to avoid mosquitoes, according to the CDC. Animals and......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

The West

...Why the West Rules for Now Part Three Written by Ian Morris In this part, the author focuses more on the future and social development. It starts out by explaining that biology is not the answer to why the west rules for now, it is social development. The key to social development is that the west had the more favorable geography. This gave the west several generations ahead of the east, but the imbalance of progress was able to give the east more time to catch up with the west in terms of development. Because of the ability to farm, and because people are more of the same, westerners had an advantage. The point is that geography made it easier for westerners to advance in social development. After Morris explains a brief look in the past he then focuses on our time and the future we have ahead if trends continue to occur. And according to all the information we know now, the East will catch up to the West in about 2103. But, only if western society stays the same as it is. Morris chooses this estimate because of past trends. He uses an elaborate scoring system that gives a rough estimate to show the amount of change now as opposed to the past. And he concludes that change has occurred 4 times faster now than social development in the past. The world is changing very dramatically and he calls the 21st century of period of time called the singularity. The singularity is the theory that innovations are occurring so fast that it appears to be instant and that...

Words: 974 - Pages: 4

West Nile Virus Brochure

...nesha a Ad ria no, Pa tric k All rights reserved. 2016 W EST NILE VI RUS Do you know wha t 's bi t i ng you? WHAT IS WEST NILE VIRUS? SYMPT OMS TREATMENT West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) most commonly spread by infected mosquitoes. West Nile virus can cause febrile illness, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). Most people who are infected with West Nile virus will not get sick. About 1 in 5 people infected will have mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and body aches. Even fewer, about 1 in 150 people infected, will have more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms may include headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, paralysis, and coma. If you have any of these symptoms, contact your health care provider. There are no medications to treat or vaccines to prevent West Nile virus infection. Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to reduce fever and relieve some symptoms. How is West Nile virus disea se dia gnosed? Vector a nd a nima l hosts It was first isolated in a woman in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937. It was identified in birds (crows and columbiformes) in Nile delta region in 1953. How do people get infected with West Nile virus? Most people get infected with West Nile virus by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Blue Nile

...its products at much lower prices than the competitors. The company had 183 full time employees, 5 part-time employees, and 1 independent contractor. | 2. BRIEF SUMMARY OF CASE SITUATION Business or Industry DescriptionBlue Nile had grown to become the world’s largest online retailer of certified diamonds and fine jewelry. | Blue Nile’s Current SituationBlue Nile reported $302 million in 2009. In 2010 Blue Nile management was concerned about the lingering effects of poor economic condition in the United States on the diamond jewelry industry and how it should pursue expansion in international business. | 3. INDUSTRY AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS Industry Macro-Environmental Characteristics-According with U.S Department of commerce U.S jewelry sales totaled $58.8 billion by 2009.- Diamond jewelry sales were particularly hard hit by the recession, with industry sales declining from $32.5 billion in 2005 to an estimated $29.5 billion in 2009.- The Jewelry Board of Trade estimated that there were some 22,415 specialty jewelry firms in the U.S in 2009, down from 26,750 specialty jewelry retailers in 1999. | Strategic Group MAPBlue Nile Zale Tiffany Others C U S T O M E R S | Industry Driving Forces-Internet: With Blue Nile and online jewelers, it gives them the ability to reach any single person who has internet access. In amassing product offerings, these online jewelers do not have to carry inventory. They are able to display tens of thousands of......

Words: 2110 - Pages: 9

Blue Nile

...purchasing an existing diamond dealer website that later became Blue Nile. By 2009 Blue Nile has become one of the largest online retailers of diamonds. Selling diamonds is not all that Blue Nile offers, amongst their diamond jewelry there are plenty of other gold, platinum, silver and pearl pieces for purchase. In addition to selling diamonds, it also offers platinum, gold, pearl, and sterling silver jewelry. Blue Nile is a publicly traded company that operates in 25 different counties. It is headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Blue Nile offers its products through its United States, Canada and the United Kingdom websites for all product distribution. Lastly, Blue Nile has received several accomedations such as “Forbes Favs 2000-2005”, “Best Online Jewerle Jewelry ,Personal Fiance 2006”(1) The mission of Blue Nile is simple become the number 1 name in jewelry industry, which will be achieved through using high quality products with compelling values while providing customers with outstanding shopping experiences. Also while educating their customers and providing guidance to the way that Blue Nile offers it shopping experience. Many of the goods that Blue Nile offers aren’t actually held in house until a specific order has been placed. Compared to their competitors Blue Nile has an operating advantage through contracts with suppliers that allow them to sell at discount prices.(1) Executive Summary Since Blue Niles inception they have had their share of success.......

Words: 1172 - Pages: 5