Marx & Mill

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Yaribon
Words 534
Pages 3
Klass(medvetande) x -revolution-staten x -samhälleliga skiften
Klassbegreppet är en väldigt central del i Marx text. Han argumenterar utifrån klassolikheter och menar att hela samhällshistorien har varit en historia om klasstrider (Hallberg et al. red. 2009: 161). Marx menar på att under historien har det alltid funnits klasser som kämpar mot varandra och exemplifierar med hur det såg under romarriket eller medeltiden. Vår tid, bourgeoisiens epok eller i förenklat uttryck borgarna skiljer sig från de tidigare strukturerna. Det som skiljer vår tids klassystem är att det bara består av två fientliga klasser proletariat och borgoise eller borgarna och den moderna arbetarklassen.
John Stuart Mill lägger inte lika stort fokus på klasser. Han utgår utifrån individens perspektiv och ser inte samhällsklasser på samma sätt. Mill beskriver att ett rådande klassystem finns och att de olika klasserna under ständigt och fientlig uppsikt. Han menar att dessa klasser agerar och ställer frågor utifrån av vad som förväntar sig utav dem och inte vad de själva vill. Vidare skriver Mill att det finns rådande klasser men att dagens system görs att dessa närmar sig (Hallberg et al. red. 2009: 197). Han beskriver också samhället utifrån andra typer av skikt som medelmåttor och genier och de sistnämnda bör man låta vara.

Marx fokuserar gällande klassbegreppet på produktion. Produktionen är borgarnas existens och menar att produktion är borgarnas vapen (källa). De som kommer få bära vapnet är den moderna arbetarklassen, proletariat. För dess överlevnad måste proletariat sälja sin arbetskraft till borgarna.

Strukturen i dag skylls på borgarna. Borgarna har spelat en revolutionär roll och förstör allt de rört sig vid (sid 159). Proletariatet är underkastade marknaden (162). De ska kämpa och stå upp. De ska sammansluta och bli en klasskamp, en politisk kamp. Proletariatet är en…...

Similar Documents

Marx

...Marxist theories of education. • Find out about one or more of the following Marxist writers and add notes or annotated downloads to your folder: Karl Marx Louis Althusser Pierre Bourdieu Antonio Gramsci Jurgen Habermas Useful websites and sources of information (AO1): You should use the website of the NgfL Cymru and look at the ebook to develop your notes http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/eng/sociology-as-ebook Karl Marx's life and influence are summarised here http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/marx_karl.shtml Summaries of Marxist thinking http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/sociology/as_sociology/marxism.asp http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-marx.htm http://www.sociology.org.uk/ffmarx.doc http://www.sociology.org.uk/tmmarx.pdf http://www.mrthirkill.com/resources/marxism.doc There is an activity lesson on this website that should ensure your notes are good: http://www.educationforum.co.uk/sociology_2/basesuper.htm There is material that could be very useful on the pages of the Earlham Sociology pages http://www.earlhamsociologypages.co.uk/edtraintitle.htm Really detailed Marxism can be seen at http://www.marxism.org.uk/ AO1 Knowledge and understanding Who was Karl Marx? What do Marxist believe about society and how it is structured? What do Marxists believe about education? What is the link between......

Words: 2278 - Pages: 10

Marx

...KARL MARX Karl Heinrich Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, sociologist, historian, political economist, political theorist and revolutionary socialist, who developed the socio-political theory of Marxism. His ideas play a significant role in both the development of social science and also in the socialist political movement. Marx's theories about society, economics and politics, which are collectively known as Marxism, hold that all society progresses through class struggle. He was heavily critical of the current form of society, capitalism, which he called the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy middle and upper classes purely for their own benefit, and predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, it would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system, socialism. Marx polemic with other thinkers often occurred through critique, and thus he has been called "the first great user of critical method in social sciences. Fundamentally, Marx assumed that human history involves transforming human nature, which encompasses both human beings and material objects. Humans recognise that they possess both actual and potential selves. Marx had a special concern with how people relate to that most fundamental resource of all, their own labour power.[120] He wrote extensively about this in terms of the problem of alienation. Refers to the......

Words: 1217 - Pages: 5

Karl Marx

...Karl Marx: Sociologist of the 19th Century Karl Marx: Sociologist of the 19th Century Karl Marx was a man who was way ahead of his time. He was born in modern day Germany in 1818. He came from a long line of rabbis but decided not to follow that lifestyle. At the age of 17 he decided to attend Bonn University. He was taking law classes at Bonn University, but a year later he enrolled at the University of Berlin. While attending Berlin Karl Marx joined a group called Young Hegelians. This was a radical group full of students who criticized religion and politics. This was really the first noted time that Marx questioned authority, but would not be the last. Karl Marx graduated from school with his doctorates in 1941 at the age of 23 years old (Wolff 2003) In 1842 Marx got his first real job as an editor for the newspaper Rheinische Zeitung (Parsons 1964.) A year after acquiring this job the government ordered suppression of the newspaper, which caused Marx to quit. Shortly after resigning as editor Marx got married to his long time fiancé. They two of them moved to Paris in 1843. While in Paris, Marx worked for a paper while also working on a political journal. The writings Marx had in this newspaper got him expelled from France. (Wolff 2003) The first political journal that Marx worked on was titled Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher. There was only one issue of this published before Marx and his co-writer got into a disagreement and decided to not continue...

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Durkheim and Marx

...4 February 2013 Durkheim and Marx Throughout time sociology has been created and built upon. It has been edited and revised over and over again and even though there’s more that needs to be worked on and more bricks to be added, some credit has to be given to two of the many people who laid the first bricks, Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim. Knowing each one of their point of views is important to understand them and how they are similar and how they differ. Marx focused on class division and how it shapes society. He focused on the business aspects and how children grow up to be like their parents. If a child is born into a family who lives off welfare, then they are most likely going to be on welfare. Marx opinion on the working class was as quoted in the article, written by Shaun Best, “Working-class people are said to hold values, ideas and beliefs about the nature of inequality.” (49). He states that the more money a person has, the more power they have in a society. He found that they separate themselves from other classes. Durkheim didn’t just focus on the business aspects but took it further out on the people. Durkheim was a functionalist. “Durkheim argued that we should treat social facts as things.” (Best) (17). That quote means we need to study sociology as if it were an object we can dissect. The working class makes up 99% of the society and people have the choices to conform or not to conform to the ways of the society. He really studied suicide and the...

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Marx

...Social Stratification in modern South Africa by Jabu Banda 512424 Introduction Max Weber viewed social stratification from three dimensions (Wright, EO): economic class, social status and power (party). According to Weber each of these dimensions had its own stratification: the economic, represented by income and access to goods and services, the social, represented by prestige and honour and the political, represented by power .Unlike Marx Weber paved the way for us to incorporate race and ethnicity dimensions in relation to social stratification. South Africa has always been and still is very much a society divided along racial lines. There has however been a gradual but undeniable shift from a society divided along race under apartheid towards division along economic class post 1994. We can attribute this shift largely to the significant political landscape change but we still need a deeper understanding of the forces driving this shift. This paper will therefore attempt to analyze modern day South African society in relation to Weber’s model of social stratification with the view establish its validity and relevance in a local context. We are presented by opportunity to perhaps explore impact this shift has had economically. In other words what the impact has been on access to products and services, media, health, education and so forth. The dimension of power and politics was very central to Weber’s theory, it is therefore natural that we examine the impact the shift...

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Marx

...Karl Marx was a very intriguing philosopher and had a lot of strong opinions that he was not shy about voicing. His ideas on change and how he thougth the world could seriously change were very strong. Marx was a philospher that had many beliefs and stood strongly by each one. From him believing that reality and histroy should be dialectally veiwed, to his beliefs that only a large scale in an econimic system can bring about real change. His beliefs of communism and all other things became its own and is referred to as Marxism. Marxism is defined as the political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, later developed as the basis for communism according to Merriam online dictionary. Marx was influenced by many, its said that his ideas of how the structure of this society should be ran stemmed from the orginal philosophies of Georg Hegel. Hegel was once his professor, and I beleive Marx's strong politcal beliefs all started after hearing the views Hegel held close to him. Marx was bold, argumentative and very critical. Critical is a bit harsh but he got most of his points across through critique. According to an untitled article Marx was the first great user of critical method in social sciences and with this tool he'd pursue the job of sharing his strong deep rooted beliefs voiced in a philosophical way to ensure that the public thinks about what exactly is being said. Marx has many things published, such as the Communist Manifesto. He did a......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Marx

...chapter 4 ap- peared as "'Hours for What We Will': Work, Family, and the Movement for Shorter Hours' in Feminist Studies 35, no. i (Spring 2009) and is reprinted here with the permission of the publisher. INTRODUCTION The Problem with Work Though women do not complain of the power of husbands, each complains of her own husband, or of husbands of the her friends. It is the same in all other cases of servitude, at least in the commencement of the emancipatory movement. The serfs did not at first complain of the power of their lords, but only of their tyranny. JOHN STUART MILL, THE SUBJECTION OF WOMEN oñe One type of work, or particular job, is contrasted with another type, experienced or imagined, within the present world of work; judgments are rarely made about the world of work as presently organized as against some other way of organizing it. C. WRIGHT MILLS, WHITE COLLAR Why do we work so long and so hard? The mystery here is not that we are required to workthat we are expected to or devotemuch time and so energyto its pursuit, but rather that there is not more active resistance to this state of affairs. The problems with work todaymy focus will be on the United Stateshave to do with both its quantity and its quality and are not limited to the travails of any one group. Those problems include the low wages in most sectors of the economy; the unemployment underemployment, andprecarious employment suffered by many workers; and the......

Words: 116847 - Pages: 468

Marx

...although Marx believed religion, was created by the bourgeoisie I tend not to agree with this theory. Religion was created long before the bourgeoisie. As we know religion has roots to the beginning of time. It is not to use to keep people in line as explained by Marx. People have used religion for various reasons whether it is for an explanations for why things happen, for a spiritual well being or for attaining eternal life. I do not believe it can be used a trickery so to speak to keep people in line. Of coarse I am sure it can be if one tries to manipulate it. I guess you may see this within some cults. But Marx was talking about society as a whole not just about some cult. Onto Marx contention, that it is an enemy to his socialist revolutionary state. I like the end result for Marx theory on his socialist state. Although I know it will never be achieved it is a good theory. But as to whether it was sedating I can’t see that. Religion may be uplifting but in my opinion it is not sedating. As far as misdirecting, I believe Marx is correct that religion can and is misdirecting. This is because religion has a different meaning for different people. This can be seen by all the different faiths of religion there are. Although they are similar in many ways each has its own individual belief. This is because each group of individuals believes different things. But then it could because religion is an individual choice. Overall I do not believe religion is exploitive as Marx......

Words: 512 - Pages: 3

Marx

...Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844. Karl Marx Estranged Labour ||XXII| We have proceeded from the premises of political economy. We have accepted its language and its laws. We presupposed private property, the separation of labor, capital and land, and of wages, profit of capital and rent of land – likewise division of labor, competition, the concept of exchange value, etc. On the basis of political economy itself, in its own words, we have shown that the worker sinks to the level of a commodity and becomes indeed the most wretched of commodities; that the wretchedness of the worker is in inverse proportion to the power and magnitude of his production; that the necessary result of competition is the accumulation of capital in a few hands, and thus the restoration of monopoly in a more terrible form; and that finally the distinction between capitalist and land rentier, like that between the tiller of the soil and the factory worker, disappears and that the whole of society must fall apart into the two classes – property owners and propertyless workers. Political economy starts with the fact of private property; it does not explain it to us. It expresses in general, abstract formulas the material process through which private property actually passes, and these formulas it then takes for laws. It does not comprehend these laws – i.e., it does not demonstrate how they arise from the very nature of private property. Political economy throws no light on the......

Words: 5275 - Pages: 22

Marx

...race is a constant urge to improve and innovate. Another distinctive feature of our humanity is an urge to critique our own human behavior. Enter Leo Marx. Leo Marx believes that our world is taking a wrong turn. Before the industrial revolution, technological progress was a means to improve society for the greater good of man. Now, Leo Marx claims, technology is just a way of improving efficiency, with no regard to issues like political and social liberation. Leo Marx shares the same views as famous Enlightenment thinkers such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. The Enlightenment period represents a time when technology was a tool for transforming society and improving the overall quality of life. Jefferson was vehemently against developing a society of American factories. He claimed the economic benefits of industrialization were not worth the social consequences. He preferred to maintain a slightly lower material standard of living, but a higher level of happiness in the country. Likewise, Franklin refused to betray his moral obligations to his country. As an example, he declined to patent his stove. He looked past the material wealth he could gain, and decided to make his invention public domain for the benefit of all. During the American Industrial Revolution, a new breed of thinkers was created: the Technocrats. Marx claims that the Technocrats (primarily Webster, Edison, Taylor, and Carnegie) are more interested in technology for brute machine power than for......

Words: 605 - Pages: 3

Marx

...need of. Marx further explains the four things we are alienated from. Alienation from the object and product, activity itself, co-workers, and objectification are all factors of alienation Marx states are relevant in our day to day lives. Marx describes the term alienation as separating yourself and transferring the idea of self-control to someone else. A great example Marx uses is the alienation from others at work and bosses. Bosses hold a high level of authority at the work place and we alienate ourselves by allowing them to control us. We then develop a hostile and strange relationship. While alienation from object and work place are related, alienation of species being is one that stood out to me the most. Marx describes this one as humans being their own species and exactly what distinguishes us from other beings. As humans Marx believes we do things that are for entertainment purpose and do not necessarily aide in survival. For example art, and hobbies are things we do aside from other beings. However in order to participate in things that make us feel “human” we must have leisure time and without it we are living like animals. In addition to the concept of alienation, Marx introduces the differences between “Realm of Freedom,” and “Realm of Necessity.” Realm of Freedom, is “any activity that us an end in itself,” meaning there is no obligations to being perfect at it. It is something you enjoy doing and is not a must. Contrary, Realm of Necessity, Marx......

Words: 296 - Pages: 2

Marx

...classification of it. Basically, one’s social class is determined by his relationship to the means of production. People who owned the means of production were considered bourgeoisie and people who did not own the means of production were considered to be of the proletariat class. However, I feel that Marx’s definition of class left out an important factor: social mobility. Marx’s argument that the proletariat class will only continue to struggle and become poorer and poorer as they work ignores the possibility of social mobility. The chance that a member of the proletariat can move across social classes and become a member of the bourgeoisie by becoming an owner and owning his own means of production through many years of labor is ignored. Marx assumes that the only direction in which social classes move is down. That is not true because throughout history, there have been many examples of new social classes that emerge. There are never only two separate classes. Also, Marx’s idea that eventually, the proletariat would eventually overthrow the bourgeoisie has proven to be unrealistic as currently, the world still struggles from class conflict and is not the world without borders or boundaries that he imagined. Instead, it is evident that a new class has emerged to replace the bourgeoisie; however the proletariat class still struggles. This week, I read an article called, “Social Status and How the Elected Vote” written by John Sides from the NY Times. The article itself......

Words: 432 - Pages: 2

Karl Marx

...Heather Jones Contemporary Political Thought Dr. Pickell November 24, 2015 Karl Heinrich Marx Throughout history many ideologies have been created and many philosophers have explained their thoughts and ideas. It has been over a century since Marx’s death, but he still remains to be one of the most highly influential figures (Prychitko). Karl Marx was not known as a 19th century philosopher, yet he was known as a German journalist, revolutionary socialist, and revolutionary communist. Not only did he discuss political and social issues, but he also inquired about history. Karl Marx was born to Heinrich and Henrietta Marx in Trier, on May 5, 1818 and was one of nine siblings. According to Ball, Dagger, and O’Neill, his father Heinrich was a Jewish, wealthy lawyer in Trier, but was forced to convert to Christianity because the government did not allow Jews to practice law. He was privately educated prior to going to college, and because Marx’s family was wealthy, he went to study law at the University of Bonn. There his grades began to deteriorate because he dedicated himself to his friends, alcohol, and trouble instead of his studies. As a consequence, his father made him relocate to University of Berlin, and while studying philosophy and pursuing law here he was introduced to the ideas Hegel and Feuerbach. In 1941, Marx graduated with a doctorate in Philosophy, but later turned to journalism because with his radical way of thinking he was unable to find an......

Words: 1844 - Pages: 8

Karl Marx

...February 27, 2012 SOC 200 Karl Marx Growing up in communist Romania in the 70’s and 80’s, deprived of the most basic liberties, as young children we were indoctrinated with communist ideas and schools were used merely as platforms in which curriculum strictly controlled with the purpose of instilling in youth communist principles. Karl Marx’s portrait would hang in every classroom above the old blackboard and his theories were studied and celebrated in every history book, literature book, economics, or any book for that matter. Sociology and Psychology were considered pseudo-sciences under the communist reign and therefore forbidden in schools. As Romanian history books were altered from the truth, describing only his greatest achievements and never the flaws, for the purpose of this project I was rather intrigued to research Karl Marx – I hated him for so many years - and take a really close look at who he actually was, and how he impacted the study of Sociology. I knew that he established the basis of communist ideology, and I have lived for twenty years through the atrocities committed by his followers, but I never really had the interest ( until now) to understand what influenced and drove him into envisioning and writing his proposals for change. Karl Marx was born in 1818 in the German Rhineland (Prussia). He was a philosopher, journalist and economist and even though he produced little that earned him money or recognition......

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Karl Marx

...proletariat.” (Marx 204) If there is a movie that represents exactly what Karl Marx said about society being split into two very drastic classes, it is The Hunger Games. Besides being one of the most popular trilogies of our time right now, The Hunger Games, represents a strict division of social classes and how after years of repression, the working class finally decides to come together and unite against the owners of the means of production. Karl Marx explains the clear difference between the bourgeoisie and the proletariats. The bourgeoisie are the ones who own the means of production and the proletariats are the ones who worked and did all the manual labor and whose hard work would only end up benefitting the bourgeoisie. In The Hunger Games, we see Marx’s representation of the bourgeoisie being the rulers of the two social classes, just like the people of the Capitol were, and the people in the districts were the proletariats. In The Hunger Games, the concept of family and unity is present to us because we see it through Katniss, Primrose, and her mother and as well as other families in the districts. There seems to be, however, no unity between all the districts. The only form of communication between them and the Capitol was for the exchange of goods and services. Likewise, the proletariats had no communication or business with the bourgeoisie other than anything having to do with the waged work they performed for them. Another major point that Karl......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3