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Hierarchy of Needs Theory In the 1940s, Abraham Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs theory,45 which is based on four major assumptions: (1) Only unmet needs motivate. (2) People’s needs are arranged in order of importance (hierarchy) going from basic to c omplex needs. (3) People will not be motivated to satisfy a higher-level need unless the lower-level need(s) has been at least minimally satisfied. (4) Maslow assumed that people have five classifications of needs, which are presented here in h ierarchical order from low to high level of need. Hierarchy of Needs The hierarchy of needs theory proposes that people are motivated through five levels of needs—physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization: 1. Physiological needs: These are people’s primary or basic needs: air, food, shelter, sex, and relief from or avoidance of pain. 2. Safety needs: Once the physiological needs are met, the individual is concerned with safety and security. 3. Belongingness needs: After establishing safety, people look for love, friendship, acceptance, and affection. Belongingness is also called social needs.
1. Content motivation theories focus on explaining and predicting behavior based on employee need motivation.
A. Hierarchy of needs theory proposes that employees are motivated through five levels of need—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. B. Two-factor theory proposes that employees are motivated by motivators (higher-level needs) rather than maintenance (lower-level needs) factors. C. Acquired needs theory proposes that employees are motivated by their need for achievement, power, and affiliation.
2. Process motivation theories focus on understanding how employees choose behaviors to fulfill their needs.
A. Equity…...

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