Integrated Circuits

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By moenira3
Words 309
Pages 2
Raymond Moenich III
IC

IC stands for Integrated Circuits. An IC is a semiconductor circuit that has more than one component on the same substrate material. Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby are both credited with the invention of the integrated circuit in 1958 and 1959. ICs are also called chips and are used for a variety of applications, including audio and video equipment, microprocessors, and automobiles. ICs are classified by the number of electronic components they contain. SSI stands for small-scale integration and contain up to 100 electronic components per chip. MSI stands for medium-scale integration and contain 100 to 3,000 components per chip. LSI stands for large-scale integration and contain 3,000 to 100,000 components per chip. VLSI stands for very large-scale integration and contain 100,000 to 1,000,000 components per chip. ULSI stands for ultra large-scale integration and contain more than 1 million components per chip. The very first prototype IC was made by Kilby in 1958 and contained only one transistor, several resistors, and a capacitor on a single slab of germanium, and had fine gold “flying wires” to interconnect each component. This design was not pratical to manufacture because each flying wire had to be individually attached. Noyce came up with a better design, in 1959, called a “planar” design. In a planar IC all the components are etched on a silicon base, including a layer of aluminum metal interconnects. The first planar IC was constructed by Fairchild in 1960, consisting of a flip-flop circuit with four transistors and five resistors on a circular die. Today we are in the fourth generation of computers and ICs like the Intel Core i7 quad-core processor have 731 million transistors, as well as many other components.
References
Computer Structure and Logic, Pearson Certification Team.…...

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