Gene Marker Identification Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (Tlr4), Breast Cancer 1 (Brca1), and Adenosine Triphosphatase 1 Alpha 1 (Atp1A1) Genes: Assessing Their Association with Subclinical Mastitis Cases in Dairy Water Buffaloes, Bubalus Bubalis

In: Science

Submitted By calyx15
Words 7544
Pages 31
Gene Marker Identification Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), Breast Cancer 1 (BRCA1), and Adenosine Triphosphatase 1 Alpha 1 (ATP1A1) Genes:
Assessing Their Association With Subclinical Mastitis Cases in Dairy Water Buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis

Thesis Proposal

Cyndi Candelaria Biendima
Patricia Malapit Cabatit

Submitted to the
Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
University of the Philippines Manila
Padre Faura, Ermita, Manila

In partial fulfilment of the requirements for
Undergraduate Thesis (BIO 200)


Title Page1
Table of Contents2
Review of Related Literature6
Proposed Methodology14
Presentation of Results20
Literature Cited22
Line Item Budget26
Project Timeline27


1.1 Background of the Study

Cases of intramammary infections such as mastitis in water buffaloes contribute to large annual losses in milk production and net profit for smallholder farmers in the Philippines. Social and economic factors might prevent households from diagnosing, treating, and eliminating from circulation those animals or animal products, such as milk, that are afflicted with mastitis or which came from individuals afflicted with mastitis; this is especially true in the case of the asymptomatic subclinical mastitis, which tends to become chronic and difficult to eradicate by conventional antimicrobial therapies (Brouillette & Malouin, 2005; Ng et al., 2010).

With the advent of technology comes new techniques in identifying and treating diseases such as mastitis through more rapid, accurate, and efficient means, such as fluorescent dye staining or the utilization of electrical fields (Dohoo & Meek, 1982). By far, genetic approaches to the treatment of this disease have been of great interest, primarily because of the lack of information regarding their application in…...

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