Fundamental Rights

In: Social Issues

Submitted By uploader
Words 620
Pages 3
A brief note on Fundamental Rights given to a citizen in Constitution of India.

The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution act as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lives in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.
In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in successfully abolishing the "untouchability"; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions.
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that "No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law." Freedom of speech and expression, generally interpreted to include freedom of the press, can be limited "in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.”

The following are the six fundamental rights as…...

Similar Documents

Fundamentals

...Fundamentals Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole as opposed to microeconomics, which is the study of the economy within smaller sectors. It is a wide and varying subject. In order to grasp the subject there are some fundamentals that one needs to be familiar with. They are the gross domestic product (GDP), real gross domestic product (GDP), nominal gross domestic product (GDP), unemployment rate, inflation rate, and interest rate. These are the basics and interact with each other to determine the condition of the economy at any given moment. Domestic Products The gross domestic product is the total of everything produced within the US economy during a given period of time. It is the market value of all FINAL products. This means that only when an item is ready for consumer purchase is it tallied into the GDP. The individual pieces of the product are not counted before production. The GDP is used to get the real gross domestic product (GDP) and the nominal gross domestic product (GDP). The real GDP is what the GDP itself is actually worth as opposed to what it cost. The nominal GDP is the face value of the GDP. In other words, what it is actually going to sell for. Rates The unemployment rate is the number of people who are able, available to work, and actively seeking employment but who are not actually working. Inflation rate is the rate prices rise in a given period and interest rate is a percent of what one is charged when he or she charges an item....

Words: 702 - Pages: 3

Meter Fundamentals

...Semiconductor Application Note Document Number:AN4364 Rev. 1, 01/2013 Glucose Meter Fundamentals and Design by: Miriam Garcia Yanez Contents 1 Introduction This application note shows a basic glucometer using Freescale products to determine approximate concentration of glucose in blood. This glucometer can be implemented with K53 microcontroller of the Kinetis family and with MCF51MM and S08MM128 MCUs, part of the Flexis MM family. It includes Freescale USB stack to show data through a graphic user interface (GUI) in a PC. This application note is for anyone with an interest in glucometers as a medical electronic application, such as biomedical engineers, physicians, medical equipment developers, or someone out of those fields but with an interest in the operation of a glucometer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B Introduction..............................................................1 Glucometer fundamentals.........................................1 Glucometer implementation......................................2 Software model.........................................................7 Running MED-GLU demo.....................................14 References...............................................................25 Software timer........................................................25 Communication protocol.........................................27 2 Glucometer fundamentals This section provides basic explanation of blood glucose regulation process in a human......

Words: 6551 - Pages: 27

Fundamentals of Design

...FUNdaMENTALS of Design Alexander H. Slocum Pappalardo Professor of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA slocum@mit.edu ™ FUNdaMENTALS of Design Pappalardo Series in Mechanical Engineering This book was made possible by a generous gift from Neil and Jane Pappalardo Support for this book was also provided by the Cambridge-MIT Institute, and iCampus the Microsoft-MIT Alliance ©2007 Alexander H. Slocum ABOUT This Book A college student challenged a senior citizen, saying it was impossible for their generation to understand his. "You grew up in a different world," the student said. "Today we have television, jet planes, space travel, nuclear energy, computers..." Taking advantage of a pause in the student's litany, the geezer said, "You're right. We didn't have those things when we were young; so we invented them! What are you doing for the next generation?"1 This book is about helping people to learn how to create their own future! It does this by taking advantage of the fact that the reader’s LEFT brain sees the LEFT side (FUN) of the book. The RIGHT brain sees the (MENTAL) side of the book. Its simply FUNdaMENTAL! This in itself is a key feature of this book: It seeks to train the brain to think by many a link. Creating things is NOT done by following a monotonous recipe... The ability to create can be learned by anyone who has a yearn to learn! But the eye must be quick to sort and pick! Embedded inside,......

Words: 3308 - Pages: 14

Fundamentals of Macroeconomics

...Fundamentals of Macroeconomics ECO 372 Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper – Part 1 * Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period, though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis. It includes all of private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports less imports that occur within a defined territory.  * Real GDP – An inflation-adjusted measure that reflects the value of all goods and services produced in a given year, expressed in base-year prices.  * Nominal GDP- A gross domestic product (GDP) figure that has not been adjusted for inflation.  * Unemployment Rate – The percentage of the total labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment and willing to work. * Inflation Rate – The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, and, consequently, purchasing power is falling. * Interest Rate – The amount charged, expressed as a percentage of principal, by a lender to a borrower for the use of assets. Interest rates are typically noted on an annual basis, known as the annual percentage rate (APR). Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper – Part 2 There are many examples of economic activity, and each activity has a different effect on government, households, and businesses. Purchasing groceries has a huge effect on the government. ......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Fundamentals

...Assignment 1: Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace Professor BUS 100 – Introduction to Business May 13, 2014 I work for a defense attorney, and I experience effective communication on a daily basis via email with co-workers and clients. However, I do feel that face-to-face communication is highly effective and important. With face-to-face meeting, the co-workers and clients directly receive the message, and feedback is instantly provided. Resolutions can be made easier during a face-to-face meeting rather than via email or phone conversations. About six months ago I was part of a financial turn around that was a result of successful face-to-face communication. The firm’s office that I work for is called McCallum Law Offices, and my position in the department is senior paralegal and office manager. We work closely with the justice department and handling the financial and critical situations of our client’s lives. A main part of my job was to reconcile financial reports, and have the senior attorney approve them, and then submit them for reimbursement. We were having major issues with the financials and how they accounts were being handled. As with most offices now communication is usually handled via e-mail. When you start having issues like we were, there is only one way to handle this and that is for everyone to be face to face. So if there are any issues they can be resolved immediately. Attorney offices can become very......

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Fundamental Rights and Duties of Indian Citizens

...What are the fundamental rights of every citizen of India ? SAPTARSHI DUTTA Our Constitution gives us some other rights which are known as Fundamental Rights. These rights cannot be taken back in normal times. The Constitution gives us six fundamental rights. The following are the fundamental rights given by our Constitution. 1. Right to Freedom: Right to freedom is an important fundamental right. Every one is free to express his thoughts and ideas through speeches, writing or through newspapers. He is free to criticize and speak against the policies of the Government, if he does not agree with them. He is free to move about and carry on any trade or business in any part of India. 2. Right to Freedom of Religion: The State has no religion. It does not favor any religion. All religions are equal before the law. Every citizen is free to practice, propagate and worship any religion he likes. The State does not interfere with anybody's faith. 3. Right to Equality: All citizens are equal before the law. There is no discrimination between the rich and the poor, high or the low. There is no discrimination of caste, creed, religion, sex or place of birth. Every citizen can get the highest office for which he has the ability and the required qualifications 4. Right to Education and Culture: Every child is tree to receive education in any educational institution without distinction of caste, creed, religion and sex. He is free to receive education up to any......

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Fundamentals of Macroeconomics

...1 Gabriel Cathey ECO/372 September 15, 2014 Instructor: W. Eric Hogan 2 Fundamentals of Macroeconomics When one speaks on economics, there are certain factors to consider simply from a financial bases. The first thing that needs to be done is having an understanding on what is economics? There exist many different parts economics and how it relates to society from all walks of life. The purpose of this article is to give a brief incite into the fundamentals of macroeconomic. Defining What is Economics The word "economics" derives from Greek which means the managing of a household. Economics came about as a discipline from the 18th century which was considered the branch of moral philosophy. Economic is also known as the political economy and studies issues of labor and production, and relationship to law and government. The term "economics" by the 19th century was displaced by "political economy," although the either is still used. Harvard economist Greg Mankiw states the economics is like managing a household that involves dFundamentals of Macroeconomicsecisions on what tasks are done , by who should they be done such as to whom raises the children,who does the chores and who supports the family . All these things down within a household as stated by Greg Mankiw, requires decisions to allocate resources, time and people in household management. Economics expands the the economics term beyond the......

Words: 1057 - Pages: 5

Fundamentals of It

...Universal College of Parañaque 8732 Dr. A. Santos Avenue, Parañaque City College of Information Technology Term Paper for Fundamentals of I.T. Topic: "HOW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AFFECTS THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS" Submitted By: Arellano, Kervin John Q. Gutierrez, Kathina Angela C. Mallorcha, Acrh Emmanuel C. Miralles, Robbie T. Morico, Justine Mae V. Obiedo, Diamond Joseph Sampilo, Nikko J Submitted To: Engr. Gil Delas Alas Jr. Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 2 A. Background 2 B. Problem 2 C. Objective 3 CHAPTER 2: DATA ANALYSIS 3 A. In what aspect does computer help you? 4 B. For what purposes do you connect to internet? 4 C. Which of the following settings do you most frequently use a computer to access the Internet? 5 CHAPTER 3: OBSERVATION AND CONCLUSION 6 A. OBSERVATION 6 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION A. Background For billions of people around the world, the Internet has become an essential component of their everyday social and business lives. And though they seldom give it a moment’s thought, the search engines that help them navigate through the plethora of pages, images, video clips, and audio recordings found on the World Wide Web have also become essential. Search technology—shortened simply to “search” in the IT world and referred to as such in the rest of this report—is only two decades old, but it is a cornerstone of the Internet economy. B. Problem The Problem is that if using......

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Fundamental Analysis

...■ Fundamental Analysis: Fundamental analysis is a technique that attempts to determine a security’s value by focusing on underlying factors that affect a company's actual business and its future prospects. On a broader scope, you can perform fundamental analysis on industries or the economy as a whole. The term simply refers to the analysis of the economic well-being of a financial entity as opposed to only its price movements Fundamental analysis serves to answer questions, such as: • Is the company’s revenue growing? • Is it actually making a profit? • Is it in a strong-enough position to beat out its competitors in the future? • Is it able to repay its debts? • Is management trying to "cook the books"? The term fundamental analysis is used most often in the context of stocks, but we can perform fundamental analysis on any security, from a bond to a derivative. As long as we look at the economic fundamentals, we are doing fundamental analysis. For the purpose of this tutorial, fundamental analysis always is referred to in the context of stocks. Intrinsic Value of Fundamental Analysis: Intrinsic value is one of the primary assumptions of fundamental analysis is that the price on the stock market does not fully reflect a stock’s “real” value. In financial jargon, this true value is known as the intrinsic value. For example, let’s say that a company’s stock was trading at $20. After doing extensive homework on the company, we determine...

Words: 3957 - Pages: 16

Fundamentals

...Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Zachary Evans University of Phoenix ECO/372 Write a 700- to 1,400-word paper summarizing the results. Consider the following examples of economic activities:• Purchasing of groceries• Massive layoff of employees• Decrease in taxes Describe how each of these activities affects government, households, and businesses. Describe the flow of resources from one entity to another for each activity. Relate at least one current event to the activities. Fundamentals of Macroeconomics [The body of your paper uses a half-inch first line indent and is double-spaced. APA style provides for up to five heading levels, shown in the paragraphs that follow. Note that the word Introduction should not be used as an initial heading, as it’s assumed that your paper begins with an introduction.] [Heading 1] [The first two heading levels get their own paragraph, as shown here. Headings 3, 4, and 5 are run-in headings used at the beginning of the paragraph.] [Heading 2]1 [To add a table of contents (TOC), apply the appropriate heading style to just the heading text at the start of a paragraph and it will show up in your TOC. To do this, select the text for your heading. Then, on the Home tab, in the Styles gallery, click the style you need.] [Heading 3]. [Include a period at the end of a run-in heading. Note that you can include consecutive paragraphs with their own headings, where appropriate.] [Heading 4]. [When using headings, don’t skip levels. If you......

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Communication Fundamental

... Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace Deanna Suntaree Strayer University BUS 100- Introduction to Business Professor: Dr. Theodore S. Gorczyca November 7,2014 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace Effective communication skills are essential in the workplace. The definition of effective communication is by sent to the sender through a communication channel to a receiver, or to multiple receivers. The sender must encode the information message appropriately to have the receivers to decode the message to understand what its meaning and significance. Communication involve with good listening skill as well as the behaviors, verbal & non-verbal communication, by using channel. According to Business Communication Chapter, “The key issue of effective communication is noise because the message you send to be different from the message your audience understands. Some experts define noise in terms of communication barriers, due to the communication barriers.” It is also the effective communication challenge. (Kelly/Mcgowen/Williams, 2013) My administration assistant job has continued to provide me with plenty of opportunities to learn and grow in my business communication skills. I usually communicate with many different people in the International Organization. Some are aggressive people who speak louder than others, interrupting others, bullying, Using sarcasm, patronizing or intimidating body language. Some are passive-aggressive......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Fundamentals

...Macroeconomics Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper Lisa Goodman ECO/372 8/20/2015 Laurie Klosk-Gazzale Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper Massive layoff of employees is huge problem skyrocketing the unemployment rate because companies are globalization which increase their profits and save the consumer money by giving jobs international instead of locally where minimum wage is higher. Calabresi (2015) “In an unhealthy economy, a single lost job becomes infectious, combining with others and spreading through family, neighborhood and community. Widespread cutbacks in spending by families mean lower demand for businesses and lower tax revenues for the government. This belt-tightening means fewer car sales and thus fewer jobs for car-part makers. It means less government spending on infrastructure and other public services, including economic development” (para, five). Decrease in taxes can be seen if we measure the nation’s wealth. We would look at the GNP (Gross national product. This look at how taxes affect output. We then would look at the aggregate demand equation. * C = consumption spending by individuals * I = investment spending (business spending on machinery, etc.), * G = government purchases * NX = net exports Cloutier (2015), “Consumer spending typically equals two-thirds of GNP. As you would expect, lowering taxes raises disposable income, allowing the consumer to spend additional sums, thereby, increasing GNP. Reducing taxes,......

Words: 621 - Pages: 3

Evaluate the Situation in Your Country Whether Fundamental Human Rights Are Conflicting with Long Established Cultural Norms and Values.

...In a country like Jamaica human rights are conflicting with long term established values and norms. Stone (1992) states that “Values define for a society the things people strive for and attach great meaning and significance to.  Norms set rules of behaviour designed to express a commitment to the society’s underlying values.”  The United Nations in their article on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights define human rights as “rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status.” We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. The International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) states in its preamble, "in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his or her economic, social and cultural rights, as well as his or her civil and political rights". Jamaica is widely perceived to be the most homophobic country in the Caribbean and, by some accounts, the world (Padgett 2006). Sexuality-based oppression in Jamaica is institutionalized throughout the legal system, health and social welfare institutions, popular culture, religion and through extreme forms of social stigma (White and Carr 2005). Poverty and......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Rights

...4/22/2012 POS 111 Unit 4, Question 3 Visit the websites below and then write an essay explaining the distinction between civil rights and human rights. Should the United States be bound by international law concerning human rights? The Merriam-Webster dictionary describes Civil Rights as the nonpolitical rights of a citizen especially the rights of personal liberty guaranteed to the United States citizens by the 13th and 14th amendments to the constitution and by acts of Congress. Our country has been dealing with the issue of civil rights since its existence. The first Civil Rights Act was passed in 1875 which allowed equal rights for African Americans but it was struck down in 1883 because the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution can’t tell private businesses or any individual who to discriminate against. So the struggle for civil rights had to be fought harder. The promises that were made to protect civil rights in the Thirteenth Amendment were first kept then broken. Many states found their way around the flimsy wording of the Fourteenth Amendment. The case of Strauder v. West Virginia, the Supreme Court overturned a law keeping African Americans from jury duty but they refused to extend the amendment so that it contained a more narrow interpretation. One of the biggest segregation problems of our time led to a new era for civil rights which was the integration of the public school system. The NAACP, which is the National Association for the Advancement......

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Fundamental of Marketing

...Marketing I (Fundamentals) Week 2 Marketing Orientation Marketing Management Ø The analysis , Planning , Implementation and Control activities of management with regards to marketing. Marketing Management Philosophies 1. Production Concept Focus on production and distribution efficiencies Consumers will favour products that are available and affordable 2. Product concept Focus on product improvement Consumers favour better products 3. Selling concept Focus on more selling and promotion Consumers won’t buy unless you persuade them 4. Marketing Concept Focus on satisfying target markets needs and wants better than competitors as a way to achieve organisational goals. 5. Societal Marketing Concept Ø Same as marketing Ø But do it in a way that the society’s well-being is maintained or improved. The pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between consumer short-run wants and consumer long-run welfare –e.g. fast food. The societal concept seems appropriate bin an age of: • • • • Environmental problems Resource shortages Rapid population growth World-wide economic problems 1 Marketing I (Fundamentals) • Neglected social services Marketing Challenge into the Next Century 1. Growth of nonprofits marketing 2. The information Technology Boom 3. Rapid globalisation 4. The changing world economy 5. The call for move ethics and social responsibility 6. The new marketing landscape The 4ps 1. Product • • • The product can be tangible or intangible The right product......

Words: 2491 - Pages: 10