Factors Effecting Cardiac Output

In: Science

Submitted By cocabug
Words 1690
Pages 7
The Factors that effect cardiac output The Cardiovascular system is responsible for the transport of blood, oxygen and nutrients, to the tissues in the body. There are two components that are important to the system the heart, which pumps the blood, and arteries and veins that transport the blood to and from the tissues. The function of the system is crucial during exercise. Studies involving cardiovascular system focuses on the responses and adaptions of the cardiovascular system to exercise, such as the effects of the structure and function of the blood vessels and the relationship between exercise and neurological control of the heart i.e. cardiac output. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in a minute. Cardiac output is determined by the equation Q = HR x SV, the amount of blood expelled with each beat (stroke volume) in combination with the number of beats per minute (heart rate), the amount of blood return, and the resistance to blood flow through vessels. During exercise the heart rate usually increases causing an increase of cardiac output and bringing more blood to the muscles. However, heart rate alone doesn’t improve cardiac output, but along with muscle demand of oxygen. The demand for more oxygen causes vasodilation, allowing an increase in blood flow and the return of blood back to the heart. Some factors that facilitate improvement in cardiac output for performance are intensity, duration, and aerobic/anaerobic exercises. Different levels of exercise intensity require specific needs from the body. For example, the physical activity of taking a brisk walk through a park requires less expenditure and overall cardiac output compared to activities like hill sprinting or soccer. Sprinters and soccer players are trained athletes that can demonstrate and maintain higher levels of cardiac output. When an individual…...

Similar Documents

Factors Effecting Airlines

...Factors influencing customer preferences while choosing between budget airlines Applied Research Project Report On Factors Influencing Consumer Preferences while choosing between Budget Airlines Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of Global Masters in Business Administration(GMBA) Information Technology Specialization Submitted by Zarine Susan George GNOV10IT066 Under the guidance of: Mr. Thanneermalai Lakshmanan 1 Factors influencing customer preferences while choosing between budget airlines DECLARATION I hereby declare that the contents of this report titled “ Factors Influencing customer preferences while choosing between budget airlines” is the result of the study carried out by me. I declare that this is my original work and has not been published anywhere before. This Project Work has been carried out for the sole purpose of submission in partial fulfilment of Global Masters in Business Administration (GMBA) in Information Technology Management at S P Jain Center of Management, Dubai-Singapore. The above is true to the best of my knowledge and information. Name : Zarine Susan George(GNOV10IT066) Signature: GMBA Batch 10, Hyderabad road Singapore 2 Factors influencing customer preferences while choosing between budget airlines Acknowledgement I would like to express my sincere thanks and gratitude to all those who helped make this project a reality. This project has been an extremely enriching experience both in......

Words: 12458 - Pages: 50

Analysis of Factors Effecting Decision on Demand Loan in Government Bank

...ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEPUTUSAN PERMINTAAN KREDIT PADA PT BANK TABUNGAN NEGARA CABANG MEDAN Arlina Nurbaity Lubis1 dan Ganjang Arihta Ginting2 1 Staf Pengajar FE-USU 2 Alumni FE-USU Abstract This research aim to know and analyze factor influence level of interest rate KPR and customer service to demand decision of KPR at Bank Tabungan Negara, Co.Ltd Branch of Medan, and know factor having an effect on most dominant to demand decision KPR at Bank Tabungan Negara, Co.Ltd Branch of Medan. The research method applied is descriptive analytical method and multiple regression analytical method. Sample applied in this research is client using product KPR at Bank Tabungan Negara, Co.Ltd Branch of Medan are 73 by using purposive sampling. The Result of this research indicates that independent variable applied that is factor of interest rate credit and customer service simultaneously has significant influence to variable dependent that is demand decision of KPR at Bank Tabungan Negara, Co.Ltd Branch of Medan. The Result of this also indicates that customer service factor is which most dominant influences demand decision of KPR at Bank Tabungan Negara, Co.Ltd Branch of Medan. Keywords: demand decision of KPR, interest rate, and service A. PENDAHULUAN membutuhkan rumah. Pada sisi lain, sebagian masyarakat tidak mampu membeli rumah secara tunai, Latar Belakang sehingga ini menjadi peluang......

Words: 3177 - Pages: 13

Factors Effecting Divine Chocolate Ltd

...1. One factor influencing Divine Chocolate Ltd’s pricing decisions is the fact Kuapa Kokoo owns 45% of Divine Chocolate Ltd and influences the company’s decisions and receives a share in the profit. This means that the company will have to think about what price to make the chocolate bar in order to still receive a good amount of profit after Kuapa Kokoo takes their share of it. If they don’t consider this, they make not make much profit, if any at all, and their business will be unsuccessful leading to loss of sales and no profit. A second factor affecting their pricing decisions is the competition they have with Cadbury’s. Cadbury’s bars of chocolate cost 82p and Divine Chocolate Ltd’s chocolate bars are 81p. They have to consider their pricing because Cadbury’s is a well known brand which is very popular so if they had their chocolate bar more expensive than Cadbury’s then customers are more than likely going to purchase the Cadbury’s bar because not only is it more popular but it is cheaper too. So in order for Divine Chocolate Ltd to do well, they have to make sure they are cheaper than their competitors. 2. A rivalry of two or more businesses that target the same customers. Business competition tends to result in increased efficiency as firms attempt to reduce expenses. One advantage to show that Divine Chocolate Ltd has become more competitive is the cheaper prices they offer. If customers see a chocolate bar, that would probably taste the same as a Cadbury’s bar,......

Words: 588 - Pages: 3

Factors Effecting Organisations Approach to Attracting Talent

...Resourcing Talent The objective of this report is to identify and assess four factors that affect an organisations approach to both attracting talent and recruitment and selection. I will also be looking at attracting and retaining a diverse workforce and the different methods of recruitment and selection. One of the main factors that influence the organisations approach is cost. The recruitment of a new employee would affect the overall budget of the organisation. Often an organisation will try to share the work between other members of staff before turning to recruiting a new role to keep the costs down. The cost is not just for a new employees wage but for the advertisement and preparation behind the employment, including new computer and the equipment required for the role. The second factor which affects the recruitment process is the time scales involved in the initial advertising and recruitment of new staff. First of all a decision needs to be made by management of the applicant required and the role to be filled. Upon a decision a job description would be written and agreed and the role would then be advertised to the general public. Upon receipt of the application forms the line manager would short-list appropriate candidates and interviews would be organised. After the interviews, letters would be sent to unsuccessful applicants and the appropriate candidate would be informed. The introduction procedure to the office and workstation and the companies......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Cardiac

...Cardiac Catheterization Paper 11/17/2011 1) Describe the procedure of cardiac catheterization: Cardiac Catheterization (Cath) is a specialized study of the heart during which a catheter, or thin hollow flexible tube, is inserted into the artery of the groin or arm. Under x-ray visualization, the tip of the catheter is guided to the heart. Pressures are measured and an x-ray Angiogram (Angio) movie of the heart and blood vessels are obtained while injecting an iodinated colorless "dye" or contrast material through the catheter. Coronary angios are obtained by injecting the contrast material into the opening or mouth of a coronary artery. The iodinated solution blocks the passage of x-rays. X-ray movie pictures taken during the injection of the contrast material allow the coronary arteries to be visualized. In other words, coronary arteries are not visible on x-ray film. However, they can be made temporarily visible by filling the coronary artery with a contrast solution that blocks x-ray. (Heartsite) 2) Discuss the rationale for catheterization. Cardiac catheterization allows the doctor to see the heart as it pumps blood. He is able to view the expansion and contraction of the chambers of the heart; the opening and closing of the heart valves; and the flow of blood through the coronary arteries. As compared to other diagnostic tests, cardiac catheterization provides more accurate and detailed information. This......

Words: 800 - Pages: 4

Cardiac

...Running head: CARDIOVASCULAR PAPER 1 Cardiovascular Paper: R.G.’s Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease CARDIOVASCULAR PAPER 2 Cardiovascular Paper: R.G’s Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease In almost every year since 1900, cardiovascular disease has been the number one cause of death in the United States. Nearly 2300 Americans die of CVD each day, and average of one death every 38 seconds. This disease kills more people than the next four causes of death combined, including cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents and diabetes. Of particular concern is that CVD is the leading cause of death for women (Ignatavicius and Workman, 2013). Risk Factors Gender According to, Huether and McCance (2012) more women in the United States die from coronary artery disease and stroke than from all cancers combined. Women have a higher rate of CAD related mortality than men, in part because of under diagnosis and treatment. Menopause is associated with increased exposure to risk factors and poor endothelial healing. Endogenous estrogen is said to be protective of vascular function and when this is reduced after menopause hits the risk of CAD increases. Postmenopausal women are two to three times more likely than premenopausal woman to have CAD. Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is an extremely important risk factor for CAD. Insulin resistance and diabetes have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system including endothelial damage, thickening...

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

3 Factors Effecting Customer Satisfaction Towrds Atm

...MP A R Munich Personal RePEc Archive Factors affecting on customers’ satisfaction an empirical investigation of ATM service Kumbhar, Vijay Abasaheb Marathe College, Rajapur (Maharashtra) India, Shivaji University, Kolhapur Dist- Kolhapur (Maharashtra) India 01. March 2011 Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/32713/ MPRA Paper No. 32713, posted 09. August 2011 / 17:44 IJBEMR                         Volume 2, Issue 3 (March, 2011)            ISSN 2229‐4848    The Journal of Sri Krishna Research & Educational Consortium INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Internationally Indexed & Listed Referred e-Journal    FACTORS AFFECTING ON CUSTOMERS’ SATISFACTION: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF ATM SERVICE VIJAY M. KUMBHAR* *Rayat Shikshan Sanstha Satara’s Abasaheb Marathe College Rajapur (Maharashtra) India 416702 E-mail: vijay.kumbhar9@gmail.com  ABSTRACT The present empirical study focuses on identifying key factors that have influences customers satisfaction in ATM service provided by public and private sector banks. For the purpose of the study primary data were collected using schedule and collected data from March to November 2010. Results of factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis show that a cost effectiveness, easy to use and security and responsiveness in ATM service were most important factors in customer satisfaction. KEYWORDS: Effectiveness. E-service Quality, ATM, Customer Satisfaction,......

Words: 4799 - Pages: 20

Cardiac Output

...Unit 2. Assignment 1. Cardiac Conduction, Cycle, and Output Trace the flow of the blood through the heart: -Blood enters the Right Atrium -Travels through the Tricuspid Valve to the Right Ventricle -Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries -Pulmonary capillaries aka the lungs is where blood loses CO2 and gains O2 -Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood -Blood enters Left Atrium -Enters the Left Ventricle via the Mitral Valve -Through the Aortic Valve into the Aorta and systemic arteries -Systemic capillaries, where blood loses O2 and gains CO2 -Superior/Inferior Vena Cava Physiology of Cardiac “Contraction” The action potential initiated by the SA Node travels along the cardiac conduction system and spreads out to excite the contractile fibers of the atria and ventricles. 1. Depolarization: When a contractile fiber is brought about by an action potential from the surrounding fibers, its Na+ channels open. Because the Na+ concentration is higher in the interstitial fluid this inflow produces a depolarization. 2. Plateau: A period of maintained depolarization. It is due to opening of Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma. The increased Ca2+ concentration in the cytosol triggers contraction. The plateau phase lasts about 0.25 seconds. 3. Repolarization: The recovery of the resting membrane potential The electrocardiogram is used as a diagnostic tool by recording electrical charges that accompany the heartbeat. Like Billy the heartbeat kid =) As action......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Cardiac Muscle

...Cardiac Muscle Tissue and It’s Function There are different types of muscle tissue in the body. I will be focusing on cardiac muscle tissue and its functions. Cardiac muscle is located in the heart wall and its major function is to pump blood throughout the body. If you were to put cardiac muscle and skeletal side by side you would see that cardiac muscle fibers are shorter in length and less circular. They are described as: “Branched striated fibers with usually only one centrally located nucleus (occasionally two). (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) Cardiac muscle fibers connect to each other by intercalated discs. Intercalated disc are “Transverse thickenings of plasma membrane called intercalated disc which contain desmosomes and gap junctions.” (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) Desmosomes are the glue of the cardiac muscle they hold it together even through constant athletic movement. For example exercise, if there were no desmosomes in the cardiac muscle it would simple fall apart then minute you jumped on a treadmill or began and exercise routine. “Desmsomes strengthen tissues and hold fibers together during vigorous contractions.” (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) Gap junctions make it possible for action potentials to move through one muscle fiber to the next. “Gap junctions provide route for quick conduction of electrical signals throughout heart.” (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) We don’t have to tell our cardiac muscle to contract it does this all...

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Cardiac Rehab

...important to encourage or enlist these patients in a health promotion programme post-surgery. The main aspects I would focus on include a behavioural change and an educational programme. Patient education programme The first aspect to be discussed with these patients will be based on: The concepts of atherosclerosis and its risk factors The reason for this is to help the patient understand why they have underwent the surgery. This will enable them to understand the disease process, which will provide a foundation for the rest of their choices. At this point I would also encourage the patient’s partner or next of kin to attend these educational sessions. These sessions may potentially have a duration of an hour during which, they will be informed of CAD risk factor modification and what is CABG. Risk Factors for CAD – The majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified, such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight/obesity, tobacco use, lack of physical activity and diabetes, (World Heart Federaition,2015). The negative effects of these risk factors and modification will be discussed with the patients. E.g. * High blood pressure – controlling blood pressure, with prescribed medication and limited dietary intake of sodium. * Cholesterol – dietary intake and physical activity, limiting intake of saturated fats. * Overweight/obesity – strategies to lower weight,......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6

Effects of Cardiac Output

...Exercise on Cardiac Output May 3, 2015 Predictions 1. During exercise HR will increase. 2. During exercise SV will increase. 3. During exercise CO will increase. Materials and Methods 1. Dependent Variable EDV, ESV, and cardiac cycle length 2. Independent Variable level of physical activity(resting or exercise) 3. Controlled Variables age, weight, height 4. What instrument was used to measure cardiac volumes? Cardiac Volumes were measured by a MRI 5. Does the instrument used to measure cardiac volume use X-Rays? Explain. The instrument uses magnet that generates sectional images of the body being scanned. Results Table 2: Resting and Exercising Cardiac Cycle Length, EDV, and ESV Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 Averages Resting Values Exercising Values Cardiac EDV (mL) ESV (mL) Cardiac EDV (mL) ESV (mL) cycle length cycle length (msec) (msec) 832 142 67 371 144 34 814 136 65 436 145 40 814 135 68 414 140 35 138 67 143 36 Resting and Exercising HR, EDV andESV 1. Resting and exercising cardiac cycle length -a. What was the average resting cardiac cycle length? The average resting cardiac cycle length was 820 msec b. What was the average exercising cardiac cycle length? The average exercising cardiac cycle lenght was 407 msec. c. The range of normal resting cardiac cycle length is between 818 and 858 ms. Did average cardiac cycle length increase, decrease, or not change with exercise? The average......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Cardiac Conduction

... Cardiac Conduction To complete this worksheet, select:         Module:  Distribution         Activity:  Animations         Title:  Cardiac Conduction 1. What is the function of the Conduction System? All cells must contract in a specific sequence. This sequence is determined by the pathway known as the conduction system. 2. Cardiac cells are connective and autorhythmic. What does this mean? Connective cells, action potentials, (excitatory signals) can propagate from one cell to another via gap junctions. Autorhythmic cells can excite themselves spontaneously without stimulation of the nervous system and contract at a regular rhythm. 3. Cells from different parts of the heart’s conduction system have different natural rhythms. What are the average beats per minute at each of the following parts of the heart? a. Sinoatrial Node (SA) 100 bpm b. Atrioventricular Node (AV) 40-50 bpm c. Ventricles 20-40 bpm 4. What is the function of the SA Node? Describe how this happens. The healthy heart’s pacemaker, SA node triggers contraction because it depolarizes at a faster rate than other parts of the conduction system. 5. The AV node starts a series of events that leads to ventricular contraction. Describe this series of events. The AV node is the only connection between the atria and ventricles, once the signal passes the AV node, it propagates through the......

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Cardiac Notes

...unsuccessful. INCOMPATIBLE WITH LIFE. ASSESSMENT OF THE CARDIAC SYSTEM * Angina is located in the substernal or retrosternal region. It radiates to the neck, jaw, epigastrium, shoulders & arms (particularly the LEFT arm) * Characteristics: pressure, burning, squeezing, tightness, heaviness, and indigestion * Onset/Duration is < 10 min (gradual & ↑ intensity with activity) * Aggravated by exercise, cold, stress, or after meals * Relieved by rest or nitroglycerine (or other vasodilators) and O2 * MI: precordial, substernal, and may radiate like angina * Characteristics: heaviness, crushing pressure, burning, and constriction. * Onset/Duration: sudden onset and lasts longer than 15 min * Unrelieved by nitroglycerine * Associated Manifestations: dyspnea, sweating, weakness, N/V, severe anxiety, and lightheadedness ANGINA | MI | Neck, Left Arm | Radiates | Rarely lasts > 15 minutes | Lasts longer than > 15 minutes | Pressure, burning, squeezing, tightness | Heaviness, crushing pressure | Relieved by nitroglycerine | Unrelieved by nitroglycerine | * Atypical MI: affects 30% of people (Diabetes, elderly); presents with different symptoms * Nitroglycerine dilates coronary arteries * Unstable angina will progress to MI * ST elevation is consistent with ischemic heart muscle * Central (circumoral) cyanosis is associated with severe cardiac disease * Palpitations: fast,......

Words: 2474 - Pages: 10

Cardiac Function

...Case Studies on Cardiac Function This is the first case study that is required for the class. Please submit a paper (doesn’t have to be long; you could even give me bullet-point answers to the questions listed below) that answers all of the questions posed after Case Study 1. I have included an easy second case study, which if you complete it, will be worth extra credit. Answers to the first Case Study are worth 25 points and responding to Case Study 1 is required work for the course. The extra credit, which is not required, will be worth a total of 10 points. Please check the syllabus for the due date. Case 1 A.O. is an 89-year-old woman with a long history of systolic heart failure secondary to a large left ventricular infarct when she was in her 70s. She had poor activity tolerance and required assistance with activities of daily living. Even minimal activity was associated with moderately severe dyspnea and exertional chest pain, which was relieved by rest. A.O. also exhibited marked pedal edema bilaterally. She is being treated with digitalis, furosemide (Lasix), KCl, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Discussion Questions 1. Which type of heart failure (left or right sided) is usually associated with dyspnea? What other clinical findings are likely to be present with left-sided heart failure? • A.O. has left-side heart failure, since she suffered a ventricular infract on that side when she was 70 years-old. Other clinical findings that are likely to be......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Task 7 Group Behaviour and Factors Effecting Group Behaviour.

...terminated. 4.2 Factors that promote development of effective teamwork in organizations There are different factors that promote development of effective teamwork in an organization. These factors can be internal or external factors. The factors that promote development of effective teamwork are, 1. Communication; for effective and efficient teamwork to happen there has to be effective communication. This is because the individuals must know the responsibilities and targets of the business so when a challenge or conflicts arise, teams will use effective communication to engage and overcome the challenge or conflict. 2. Diversity; this factor promotes innovation and creativity and it raises awareness. Here teams embrace the diversity of cultures, personalities and talents. However due to the differences of the individuals can raise conflicts and if these conflicts aren’t managed properly it can be harmful. 3. Leadership; Leadership supports teamwork. This is because individuals are motivated by leaders and decisions are taken based on 4. Team-building exercises; 4.2.1 How to Promote Effective Teamwork in the Workplace. Effective teamwork in an organization achieves more than an individual who does work on his/her own. This is because due to arising of challenges in work tasks and in order to resolve this you have to depend on different people with a wide range of expertise. However in these kind of organizations factors such as......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4