Expert Witnes

In: Other Topics

Submitted By appleg
Words 1570
Pages 7
What is the role of the expert witness in the trial and to what extent do such witnesses fulfil this role?

In understanding what expert witnesses do, one has to first establish the definition of an expert witness. An expert witness can be defined as “a person who can provide information and opinion from the body of knowledge that makes up their own expertise.” An example of an expert witness would be a psychologist. As a general rule laid by Lord Mansfield in Folkes v Chadd, “the opinion of scientific men upon proven facts may be given by men of science within their own science. In this essay, the term expert witness is going to be put under the microscope, divulging into the many aspects and rules of an expert witness and the opinion they give. A

In the Criminal Procedure Rule, it terms an expert witness a person who is required to give expert evidence for the purpose of criminal proceedings, including evidence that is to determine the fitness to plead or for the purpose of sentencing. For example one may call on a police officer that is experience in collision investigations may offer his expert opinion on how the accident transpired. There are also times when an expert witness is not required, where a judge or jury can form his or her own views and inferences without the help of an expert. Expert witnesses can be called to testify on a variety of issues, such as DNA analyses, engineering, architecture, handwriting, fingerprints, psychologists, pathologist, etc. “When knowledge of a technical subject matter might be helpful to a trier of fact, a person having special training or experience in that technical field, is permitted to state his or her opinion concerning those technical matters even though he or she was not present at the event.”

Expert witness will give an opinion of the facts that are presented in the relevant court case. It is known as…...

Similar Documents

Erp and Expert Systems

...Expert Systems Hema Rohira IT-620-8035-Info Resource Management-01/2013 01/13/2013 Professor: Carol Farabee, Abstract Expert systems (ESs) are applications of artificial intelligence, that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. ESs are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert (Wikepedia). There are expert systems that can diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, and schedule routes for delivery vehicles. Some expert systems are designed to take the place of human experts, while others are designed to aid them. The first ESs was the Logic Theorist developed in 1956 .In 1970s, with the introduction of two AI languages ,LISP and Prolog ,ESs were brought out of the lab in to the businesses. In the 1980s, expert systems proliferated as they were recognized as a practical tool for solving real-world problems. Universities offered expert system courses and two thirds of the Fortune 1000 companies applied the technology in daily business activities. [Durkin, J. Expert Systems: Catalog of Applications. Intelligent Computer Systems, Inc., Akron, OH, 1993.). To avoid re-inventing the wheel, expert system shells were created that had more specialized features for building large expert systems. ESs are ideal for domains that are well defined, in which there is a large corpus of human expertise and knowledge, yet the knowledge is mainly heuristic and uncertain. Although expert systems do not necessarily......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Accommodation System Expert

...Table of Contents Introduction 3 Accommodation System 3 Identification and Literature Surveys 3 The need for the system 4 Aims and Benefits 4 Domain Expert and Users 5 Users 5 Knowledge Acquisition 5 Strategy 5 Process of acquiring knowledge 5 Problems and solutions 5 Solution 6 Evaluation of prototype don`t do 6 Expert opinion 6 Performance/Achievement 6 Further Improvement 6 Special features 8 Variable 8 Tags 9 References 11 Apendices 12 Program Code 12 User Manual 15 This software will ask you your name and then you continue being friends. 15 INTRODUCTION APIIT/UCTI ACCOMMODATION SYSTEM EXPERT T he system provides apartment type accommodation located close to the campus with full condominium facilities, which includes swimming pool, launderettes, clubhouses, restaurants, 24 hr security and etc. All units are furnished with basic amenities, including a living room set, dining room set, air conditioning, washing machine, kitchen and bedroom furniture. Internet Access and Satellite TV are complementary for Deluxe Accommodation. Student can also rent apartments at their own. Rental of a 3-bedroom furnished apartment unit at Vista Komanwel Apartments ranges from RM1, 500 to RM1, 800 per month. On a six-student per unit sharing basis, rental for each student ranges between RM 350 to RM 500......

Words: 2501 - Pages: 11

Expert

...The purpose of this paper is to provide my reflection of the results of The Nursing expertise self-report scale and how the results will be used to improve communication skills in health care settings. The scale used in this assignment, developed from Patricia Benner’s model of clinical competence, measures self perception by a nurse progressing from novice to expert. Her model suggests a link between experience and expertise using a scoring method. “The nurse-expertise self report scale has 20 items scored using a Likert Scale from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree” (Hansten & Jackson, 2009, p. 178). Based on the scoring of those 20 items as determined by a point value assigned to expert and novice, this writer scored 85 out of a possible 100. This score, according to Benner’s system, reflects experience resembling closer to expertise rather than novice. Acquiring 28 years of nursing experience, I would expect to have evolved closer to expert than novice in patient care, however; I know with each new day and each patient or situation, an opportunity exists to learn something new. I have often identified communication skills as an area that I could improve upon. In the early stages of my career, communicating with my patients seemed easier than communicating with my peers and superiors. Over time, I have become a more confident communicating with my peers and not necessarily with superiors and some physicians. In my current position, I am required to......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Expert Systems

...QUESTION 1 a. Describe how expert systems perform inference [4 marks] Inferencing is the reasoning process of AI. It takes place in the brain of an AI process. The brain of an expert system is the inference engine that provides a methodology for reasoning about information in the knowledge base. Inference can be performed using semantics networks, production rules, and logic statements. b. Describe generic categories of Expert Systems applications [16 marks] Diagnosis. These are mainly used in the medical field to recommend remedies to illnesses, trouble-shoot electronic or mechanical problems or as debugging tools. Repair. Expert systems that define repair strategies are also very common. As well as diagnosing the problem they can suggest a plan for the repair of the item. The repair plan typically contains a scheduling structure and some control structure to validate the repair process. Such systems have been employed in the automotive repair field and similar areas. Instruction. They are mainly used in the training of pilots . Instructional expert systems have been used for individualised training or instruction in a particular field. The system presents material in an order determined by its evaluation of the user’s ability and current knowledge and monitor’s the progress of the student, altering the sequence depending on this progress. Interpretation. Interpretive expert systems have the ability to analyse data to determine its significance......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

An Expert Witness

...than process, analyze and compare evidence. The scientist must be qualified as an expert witness. Your individual work will explore the question, "What is an expert witness?" | The Supreme Court in the 1960’s wanted police to place a greater need on finding evidence that was scientifically evaluated. This led to a growth in the forensic laboratory department. Drug abuse and DNA profiling are also a reason the growth has happened. While the growth of crime and drug use has rocketed, so has the technology used to identify a person as well as the chance to identify a drug and what it is used for or where it was made. Drug abuse cases still outnumber DNA cases, but the DNA experts have made it possible to identify someone based on a bloodstain, semen stains, hair and saliva residues left behind on stamps, cups, bite marks and so on (Saferstein, 2009). Different communities offer different services based on the employees they have and what their experience is in. This is because of the variation in local laws, different capabilities and functions of the organization to which the laboratory is attached and budget and staffing limitations. This is the reason for independent laboratories. Some scientists that work for these laboratories are required to testify about the methods used and conclusions to the evidence at a trial or hearing. When this happens, they have to be considered an expert witness; they could be the ultimate deciding factor in a person’s guilt or......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

The Expert

...of the leagues best while playing with the Rotts organization. One can only assume that this will bring out the best in both teams. The Rotts still need to figure out which direction they will be going in as far as offense is concerned, but don’t ever question the defense because they still remain consistent. This next matchup might be the highlight of the weekend. Doom/Empire promises to catapult one team from a team going well this season to a team that gains the respect of the league. The Doom defense is strong, but the Empire team has proven parts that will not lay down. This promises to be a great matchup this weekend. Will the secondary of Doom continue its dominance or will Brent Favre and the Empire boys pick them apart? The Expert Picks Picks for the week: 8th & Jefferson, Bandits, DPT, Northside, Wolves, Goonz, Kings, Morrison, Rotts, Pure Athletes, Dallas Empire, Got Em Coach, Sho-Tyme, Franchise, All Day, Playmakers, Hotboys...

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Expert Systems

...Expert System Robert Savageau CIS 501 ABSTRACT In the creation of an Expert System the knowledge base is in the center of it all. Understanding the process which is done through identifying, conceptualizing, formalizing, implementing, and testing followed by reiterating the stages thereby insuring knowledge acquisitioned is in its totality. There are many knowledge elicitation techniques and their success is in choosing the right method(s) used for the knowledge being acquired. The five general stages of knowledge acquisition will be discussed, as will a few knowledge elicitation methods. It is not the intent of this paper in giving a complete listing and discourse of elicitation methods, rather an introduction of knowledge acquisition design steps and methods of elicitation. Knowledge Acquisition is extracting the knowledge from any source and Knowledge Elicitation deals with attaining that knowledge specifically from people (Burge, 1998). There five general stages in knowledge acquisition giving knowledge engineers (KE) certain activities preparing the knowledge /deliverables from that stage to be used as input in the next (Marakas, p246). Hayes-Roth (1983) as referenced by Marakas (2003) and by De Kock (2003) views knowledge acquisition as consisting of five stages, having the output from one stage becoming the input for the next consecutive stage. The five stage model is a reiterative process of constant improvement and fine tuning to ensure the systems......

Words: 3216 - Pages: 13

Novice to Expert

...Theory Paper On Novice to Expert Abstract The profession of nursing is an experience where there is much professional growth and development to be gained. This being said it starts at the beginning with what is learned from teachings to students to what is taught to the professional nurse, taking that information and applying it to the skills in the nursing profession. Having the competency gives a nurse the confidence to take care of their patient with confidence. With the increased patient acuity and the least amount of time for the patient hospitalization, technology has to be proficient and user friendly. Technology today has come so far from ten years ago, that the nursing professionals that graduated do not have the skills that are required today with out the teachings of another. To develop the competency is only the first step to becoming an experienced nurse, this is developed over the years through teachings and support of others. But even with this help many nurses become stressed and being incompetent and search else where for employment. Patricia Benner used a theory of developmental skills, using five different stages to establish a clinical development in the practice of nursing. Here she takes into account increments in skilled performance based upon experience as well as education (Brenner, 1982). “Dr. Patricia Benner introduced a concept saying that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a......

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Expert System

...Expert Systems This paper will explain what Expert Systems are about, how it works the benefits and detriments and give an example about the system. Experts Systems is a man-made cleverness program that has expert level knowledge about a particular area and knows how to use its knowledge to respond properly. In all aspects the expert systems should replace a human expert. As defined by Edward Feigenbaum, “expert system is a wise computer program that uses knowledge and reading procedures to solve problems that are difficult to require major human expertise for their solutions.” (Robin, 2010) Additionally expert systems are usually considered to have six major components which give detail information about how the system works. It is obvious that expert systems must work behaviorally with system users in assisting them in making better decisions. The system interacts with the user by constantly asking for information until it is ready to make a decision. Once the system has gathered the information needed, an answer is returned to the user. It is important to remember that not only must the system assist in making the decision itself; it must also provide the user with reason it employed to reach its decision. The reading engine processes the date the user inputs to find matches with the knowledge base. The knowledge base is where the expert’s information is deposited. The user interface is what allows the user to communicate with the program. The explanation...

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Expert Systems

...T.C BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ DEVELOPING AN EXPERT-SYSTEM FOR DIABETICS BY SUPPORTING WITH ANFIS Master Thesis ALİ KARA İSTANBUL, 2008 T.C BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEVELOPING AN EXPERT-SYSTEM FOR DIABETICS BY SUPPORTING WITH ANFIS Master Thesis Ali KARA Supervisor: ASSOC.PROF.DR. ADEM KARAHOCA İSTANBUL, 2008 T.C BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE COMPUTER ENGINEERING Name of the thesis: Developing an Expert-System for Diabetics by supporting with ANFIS Name/Last Name of the Student: Ali Kara Date of Thesis Defense: Jun .09. 2008 The thesis has been approved by the Institute of Science. Prof. Dr. A. Bülent ÖZGÜLER Director ___________________ I certify that this thesis meets all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adem KARAHOCA Program Coordinator ____________________ This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that we find it fully adequate in scope, quality and content, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Examining Committee Members Assoc.Prof.Dr. Adem KARAHOCA Prof.Dr. Nizamettin AYDIN Asst.Prof.Dr. Yalçın ÇEKİÇ Signature ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ii To my father ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis is dedicated to my father for being a role model in front of my educational life. I would like to express my gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adem Karahoca, for not only being......

Words: 6346 - Pages: 26

The Expert Witness

...lack of customer trust to the extent this area is not properly addressed. Describe the Expert Witness Trap, i.e. cause, problems generated, and how to prevent it. In litigation, we typically assume that there are two types of witnesses: the fact witness who has direct knowledge of the issues in the case and the expert witness who will use his/her specialized knowledge, skill and experience to assist the judge and the jury to understand the evidence. Most of the time these two witnesses are changed into an expert in a particular field who has first hand knowledge or involvement in the basic facts. This type of witness is called the expert witness. Calling in an expert witness can have pros and cons for the organization. The expert witness can be held in favor of the security manager but in the end the expert witness works for the courts. I think the key to deterrence of loss from the Expert Witness Trap is to first have the credentials and awareness to decrease or exclude the need for one in the first place. The experts should remained focused in various areas of the job and be able to easily communicate their education, experience and abilities. Then, when an expert witness is required, the Security Manager should be able to carefully review a pool of experts, interview them and eventually select ones that are appropriate for their situations. It is critical that such experts are ordered and there is a method to file complaints and pass along experiences......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Expert System

...Statiunile din zona maritima au fost clasificate dupa anumite caracteristici cum ar fi altitudine si servicii medicale(balneoclimaterice) . Tehnologii folosite CLIPS este un acronim pentru C Language Integrated Production System, o unealtă pentru construirea sistemelor expert dezvoltată de NASA în anii 1980. Sintaxa și numele au fost inspirate de OPS (sistem de producție oficial, în engleză Official Production System) creat de Charles Forgy. Primele versiuni de CLIPS au fost dezvoltate începând cu 1984 la NASA-Johnson Space Center (ca o alternativă la sistemul existent numit ART*Inference) până la începutul anilor 1990 când subvenția a încetat din cauza problemelor bugetului Federal, și a unui ordin conform căruia NASA trebuia să cumpere software comercial în loc să-l dezvolte. CLIPS este probabil cea mai folosită unealtă pentru sisteme expert deoarece este rapidă, eficientă și gratuită și incorporează un limbaj de programare complet orientat obiect. Cu toate că acum face parte din domeniul public, este încă actualizat și susținut de autorul original, Gary Riley. CLIPS incorporează un limbaj de programare orientat obiect numit COOL pentru a scrie sisteme expert. Cu toate că este scris în limbajul e programare C, interfața sa seamănă foarte mult cu cea a limbajului de programare Lisp. Se pot scrie extensii în C, iar CLIPS poate fi chemat din C. Ca și alte astfel de limbaje, CLIPS are de-a face cu reguli și fapte. În timpul rulării......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Violence Interrupters, Credible Experts?

...The Violence Interrupters are cited to have a goal in mind and that is they’re trying to save lives (The Interrupters, 2011). Violence Interrupters take the initiative in interceding before, while, or after an event of violence in order to stem violent behaviour. However, the question lies if these interrupters can be considered credible sources and experts. The documentary “The Interrupters” shows how they constantly impede upon their own purpose by engaging in uncritical arguments and reasoning. In particular, some of their offenses include arguing with the fallacy of hasty generalization, not fulfilling the criteria to be viewed as a credible expert, and becoming extremely biased in their decision-making. These are all important to take into consideration as they are contrary to the process of a logical and rational inquiry. By critically evaluating the documentary “The Interrupters”, we can come to a reasoned judgment whether or not the people or the arguments proposed were logical, coherent, and within the spirit of inquiry. It is their so-called duty as Violence Interrupters to mediate and mentor and with such a high degree of trust and responsibility, they should be held to the utmost. This means being able to critically present sound arguments and to evaluate themselves to such a degree so as to eliminate all doubts and criticisms of their techniques and practices. Ameena is an activist and a Violence Interrupter shown within the documentary “The......

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Expert Examination

...EXPERT EXAMINATION PROJECT 1. Do you think the original registered design is an innovative design? If your answer is yes please discuss the reasons. Yes,.it is an innovative design. Because it looks different than standart beds. Maybe functionality same but, consept of this design has put this product in different places in the design World. Because of its shape bedrooms will be change in all conditions. it is a creative design. 2. Do you think the original registered design has an individual character? If your answer is yes please discuss the reasons. It has an individual character. This design is including newly designed or creative elements. For example its shape not a standard rectangular bed, it has an ellipse form. Also shape added new functionality to design. Person who sleep on it can imagine his or her self rocking chair, and because of this function users can sleep easily on it. Its material is wood but connection and cutting of this material adds different look. Also usage of map of the material makes it different than the other woods. 3. Do you think that the original design and the designs claimed as counterfeited are similar? If your answer is yes please discuss the reasons. Consept of this two designs is not same. There are many ways and properties in these designs that we can say these are different. Firstly original registered one has a rectangular bed. Also it has no cover on bed. It makes user more relax without getting bored. User can get up...

Words: 419 - Pages: 2

Expert in Warefare

...Becoming experts in warfare Praise and Worship (KJV) 2 Corinthians 10:4 (For the weapons of our warfare [are] not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds;) 5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ; “The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds. We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God & we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ” ( 2 Corinthians 10 : 4,5 ). NIV In the spiritual warfare that every christian believer is involved, several invaluable weapons can be effectively used by him or her to destroy the enemy, however great or powerful the enemy be. Praise and Worship, ( praise & thanksgiving with psalms, hymns & spiritual songs and with other tongues), the Blood of Jesus, the name of Jesus, the Word of God ( Sword of the Spirit), prayers & fasting are the main weapons that every believer can use against the enemy. Faith is one important factor that is significant in the usage of the weapons for without faith one cannot please God according to Hebrews 11:6. “ And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to Him must believe that he exists and that He rewards those who earnestly seek Him”. Holiness, Obedience to God, Seperation......

Words: 643 - Pages: 3