Embedded

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By AbdullahF
Words 383
Pages 2
Embedded Systems

Software Quality and
Testing in Embedded
Systems
DR KASHIF SAGHAR
Kashif.saghar@gmail.com

Outline
Software Quality and Testing in Embedded
Systems

Embedded system
• Embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system
• Often ES are Real time Systems
• Embedded Systems are generally
– Small size
– Low Power and Price
– Rugged OS

Embedded system …
• Embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers • Embedded systems are used in various portable devices
• Embedded systems are used in transportation, fire safety, safety and security, medical applications and life critical systems
• A new class of wireless embedded devices called motes are networked wireless sensors.

Wireless sensor network (WSN)
• A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an example of a complete embedded system
– Various ES work in a distributed network
– Communicate wirelessly
– Contains independent sensors etc.

A WSN …

Embedded System : Node
• WSN is composed of various nodes
• Resource Constraints
• Network Topology and Routing

Embedded Systems
Specifications
• Specifications
WE NEED FORMALITY TO FILL THE GAPS

• Implementation

Model Checking in
Embedded System

Apply Properties

Yes OR No
If No....... Why No?



Where Modeling
Techniques can be used in
Embedded Systems?
Specification Stage
– Give a description of the system to be developed, at whatever level(s) of detail desired
– Used to guide further development activities
– Used to verify that the requirements for the system being developed have been completely and accurately specified

• Development
– Once a formal specification has been produced, the specification may be used as a guide while the concrete system is developed during the design process (realized typically in…...

Similar Documents

The Source of Psychology

...There are three types of CSS styles: Inline Styles You use inline styles to apply cascading style sheet properties to individual elements on a page. <p style="border-style: solid"> <input size="20" style="text-align: right"> * PRO – This is an easy way to manage the individual elements on a single page. * CON – If a page is linked to an external style sheet, the embedded or inline styles that you create for that page will extend or override properties specified in the external style sheet. Embedded Styles You typically use embedded style sheet when you want to define styles only for the current page. An embedded style sheet is a type of cascading style sheet that is “embedded” within the <HTML> tags of a page. Styles in an embedded style sheet can be used only on that page. * PRO – This is a way to manage the styles for the entire page. * CON – If a page is linked to an external style sheet, the embedded or inline styles that you create for that page will extend or override properties specified in the external style sheet. * <style> <!-- body { background: blue; color: white; font-family: times, serif; font-size: 10pt } a:link { text-decoration: none: } --> </style> External Styles You typically use an external style sheet when you want to apply the same styles consistently across some or all pages in your Web site. By defining styles in......

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Embedded Journalism and War Reporting

...Embedded Journalism and War Reporting Dion E Jones University of Phoenix COMM 220 Maureen, Duffy M.A. May 13, 2012 Embedded Journalism and War Reporting Journalism covers the principles of reporting in different circumstances such as the time-based news as in press conferences or untimely news of crisis, disasters and conflicts. Even though the reporting objectives are vast, and the journalists are expected to perform their duties without any fear or bias, it is the responsibility of the journalists to observe certain ethical considerations. At times, what journalists consider their responsibility may prove to be harmful for others. The policy of embedded journalism is debated mainly because, it compromises the military’s safety, security and strategy, through its bias and unethical reports; the presence of embedded journalists should not be allowed alongside fighting forces. Ethics of Journalism and War Reporting The question whether something is ethical or not, is gaining worldwide scrutiny these days. With the advent of social media, people have access to so much detail regarding the circumstances of the world. The journalists who are active through social media seem to provide all the minor details to their followers notwithstanding the ethical aspect of such information. The line between what...

Words: 2282 - Pages: 10

Embedded Sys I2C

...I2C INTERFACING Aim: Program to transmit 3 bytes of data from 8051 using I2C protocol. Program: ORG 00H SDA EQU P3.7 ;equate P2.7 as SDA SCL EQU P3.6 ;equate P2.6 as SCL MOV R2,#03H ;create counter of 3 MOV DPTR,#MY_DATA ;store the address of the 1st data to DPTR ACALL START ;start condition BB: CLR A ;clear accumulator MOVC A,@A+DPTR ;store the data to accumulator ACALL DATA_SENT ;sent data ACALL ACK ;check for acknowledgement JC BB ;if NAK, resent the data INC DPTR ;increment DPTR DJNZ R2,BB ;decrement counter, if 0 jump to BB ACALL STOP ;stop condition SJMP $ START: SETB SDA ;set SDA line SETB SCL ;set SCL line ACALL DELAY ;delay CLR SDA ;clear SDA line ACALL DELAY ;delay CLR SCL ;clear SCL line RET STOP: CLR SCL ;clear SCL line CLR SDA ;clear SDA line SETB SCL ;set SCL line ACALL DELAY ;delay SETB SDA ;set SDA line ACALL DELAY ;delay CLR SCL ;clear SCL line RET DATA_SENT: CLR SCL ;clear SCL line MOV R3,#08H ;create a counter of 8, to transmit 8 bit data AA: RLC A ;rotate accumulator left through carry MOV SDA,C ;transmit from MSB to LSB ACALL DELAY ;delay SETB SCL ;set SCL line ACALL DELAY ;delay CLR SCL ;clear SCL line DJNZ R3,AA ;decrement the counter, if =0 return RET ACK: SETB SDA ;set SDA line SETB SCL ;set SCL line ACALL DELAY ;delay CLR SCL ;clear SCL line ...

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Convert Case

...option and make-whole provisions) in the senior subordinated convertible notes (the notes) should be considered embedded derivatives. The holders of the notes can surrender them for cash or shares The principal amount must be settled in cash Convertme is required to pay a premium equal to interest that would have been payable during the lockout period if it decides to call the notes during the lockout period FAS 133, par. 12 “Embedded” derivative instruments—implicit or explicit terms that affect some or all of the cash flows or the value of other exchanges required by the contract in a manner similar to a derivative instrument. An embedded derivative instrument shall be separated from the host contract and accounted for as a derivative instrument pursuant to this Statement if and only if all of the following criteria are met: a. The economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract. _b. The contract (“the hybrid instrument”) that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not remeasured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur._ _c. A separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would, pursuant to paragraphs 6–11, be a derivative instrument subject to the......

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5

Embedded Systems

...Topic: Embedded Systems Name: Nyalala Innocent Odira College: 信息科学技术学院 Major: 计算机应用技术 Number: 2013114033 Teacher’s Name: 2014年1月 5日 | 南京农业大学教务处制 | Embedded system is a specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface like watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars etc., utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating sys-tem, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. The term paper would elaborate the history of embedded systems, the generations of its development, the components of embedded systems, its design issues and the programming languages that are used to build it. Then this paper would also include its current state of art, its uses, its current applications, the problems that have occurred in designing such kind of systems, also the steps taken to solve such problems and its future prospects. 1. INTRODUCTION These are the days when the term like embedded is increasingly becoming more and more popular in the world. We are flooded with embedded systems that seem to be everywhere. Now the question is what basically embedded systems are. We can define an embedded......

Words: 5319 - Pages: 22

Security Exploitations of an Rtos

...Systems in Embedded Systems Welton N. Spratley Southern New Hampshire University Running head: SECURITY EXPLOITATIONS OF REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS 2 Security Exploitations of Real Time Operating Systems in Embedded Systems Abstract: Real Time Operating Systems that are currently used in embedded systems around the global community has seen an increase in the number of devices that are being employed using this technology. With the implementation of IPv6 , the number of IP addresses that are now available in order to support this boom in the use of embedded systems have also seen an increase in the types of operating systems that helps to manage these systems. However, this has created another area where malicious attackers can exploit some of the security flaws that can be found in these embedded systems. This research paper will outline how microkernels and monolithic kernels that are found in these real time operating systems have been exploited due to careless source code programming in their stack and heap memory areas. Some of these flaws can lead to buffer overflow of memory core areas which can lead to memory being overwritten and being replaced with other I/O or buffer underflow of memory which can lead to memory leakage. Disaster happens when an operating system fails to prevent the unauthorized usage of resources in relation to embedded systems. Keywords: RTOS security; microkernel; memory management; stack; heap; interrupts, embedded......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Assignment Artemis

...semiconductors and embedded systems in a consistent way and therefore, for the purpose of this document, we have coined the term of “Digital Technology”, which encompasses all these notions: Hardware (semiconductors, PCs, tablets, servers, storage, peripherals) ‚‚ Software (including packaged embedded software) ‚‚ IT ‚‚ Services Internal IT ‚‚ Embedded software in products of “vertical markets” like automotive, healthcare, etc. ‚‚ Note that the scope of Digital Technology thereby covers the scope of the previous 2012 version of the Vision 2030, extended with the digital hardware on which the software-intensive systems and services and embedded systems are executed. Chapters 1 and 2 are updates of the previous 2012 version of the document. Chapter 1 describes the seven areas of major change and Chapter 2 the need for research and innovation in Digital Technology. The new Chapter 3 describes the economic impact of Digital Technology in terms of revenues and jobs [RB2013]. The global market of Digital Technology is estimated at USD 3,300 billion, corresponding to around 50 million jobs. The share of Europe in digital technologies is about 9.1 million jobs. Europe’s position is characterised by a strong presence in vertical markets. In Europe we have 0.2 million jobs in hardware, including semiconductors, and 8.9 million jobs in software and services. Within Digital Technology, ARTEMIS and ITEA are addressing innovation in Software, IT Services, Internal IT and Embedded Software,......

Words: 19271 - Pages: 78

 Tracking the Economic Value of the Embedded Technology

...* Tracking the economic value of the embedded technology: Future outlook and trends: The Embedded Digital Technology use in our everyday life is highly significant. To some estimate, around 98% of all the programmable digital devices are in some way embedded which includes the digital devices which embedded under the humans skin. Both current and future studies and trends suggests to a dramatic potential for a much bigger growth. All the future outlooks of this technology points to a much wider use based on both enhanced functionality and cost reduction. “There are now more embedded devices than people on earth. As chips and wireless communications become universal and inexpensive, an enormous potential is created for new applications and novel ways to support our society and people’s lives” said Viviane Reding The former European Commissioner for the Directorate General Information Society & Media. This study by author Geomina Turlia and conducted with the support of European Commission, focused on the inter-linked between macro and micro approach to the technology so it can support the importance of the proposed overall methodology when looking into the economic value of the embedded devices in general. However, it is as important for implementation purposes to also use other supported tools like using a European National Accounts Data so finding the correct economic value can be refined specifically when more needed sectorial or thematic studies can be further......

Words: 2370 - Pages: 10

Embedded Journalism

...Embedded Journalism COM: 235 Final Research Paper April 24, 2014 Chloe Di-Tommaso Dr. Meade “Embedded Journalism” Throughout our studies amongst media law and ethics, I have grown particularly absorbed by the weights and balances of embedded journalism within our war culture today. My research aims to evaluate both the values and drawbacks of the Pentagon’s decision to pursue embedded journalism during the war on terror in 2003. I will be offering an in-depth evaluation of the history, objectives and purposes of embedding, how embedding raises concerns with the First Amendment’s entitlements, and finally questioning the notion that embedded journalism decreases censorship and increases access. In order to understand the current iteration of embedded journalism, we must understand our nations history of war correspondents and their relations with soldiers (Mayfield, 2013). The history between the military and the media lays the foundation for embedded journalism and serves as a reminder that the absence of censorship in past wars provided the impact on todays embedded program into Iraq (Brandenburg, 2007). Military-media relations have been building up over time, it originated with the earliest correspondents in 1850 and today expands through British, French, and American military engagement with the media (Mayfield, 2013). It wasn’t until the second half of the twentieth century that America began utilizing their media to report on current warfare’s. However,......

Words: 4243 - Pages: 17

Hearts 'R Us

...us that they may be embedded derivatives which may require separate accounting under FAS 133. Major features to be considered for analysis: · Mandatory Conversion Right—at the execution of the Company’s IPO with proceeds netting at least $50 million, the Shares will be converted to the Company’s common stock (to be analyzed). · Contingent Redemption Right—shares will be redeemed for par value upon the fifth anniversary of the agreement. Redemption is conditioned up non FDA approval for the Company’s Heart Valve System Is the security mandatorily redeemable as per FAS 150? If it is, classify the security as a liability. If it is not, then the security has more characteristics of equity. FAS paragraph 150-9, A mandatorily redeemable financial instrument shall be classified as a liability unless the redemption is required to occur only upon the liquidation or termination of the reporting entity. A financial instrument issued in the form of shares is mandatorily redeemable if it embodies an unconditional obligation requiring the issuer to redeem the instrument by transferring its assets at a specified or determinable date (or dates) or upon an event certain to occur. In this case, the issued shares are not mandatorily redeemable, they are conditionally redeemable. Therefore, this provision is not applicable. Analysis of the embedded derivatives: Redemption feature If the security is contingently redeemable, the contingent feature might be an embedded derivative as......

Words: 1599 - Pages: 7

Knowledge Management Embedded in Social Media – Successful Company and Its Innovations

...Knowledge management embedded in social media – successful company and its innovations ABSTRACT The continuous market pressures and competitions pushes the organisation to be in the race of making innovations besides safeguarding the talent and information they own. The race for new products and services for the customers arises due to increasing awareness and exposure through social media. This essay focuses on studying the knowledge management jointly with social media leading to innovation. The essay seeks to examine the role of social media taking IKEA as the case of interest. It aims to further investigate how knowledge management through social media help a company in its innovations, product development and services. 1. INTRODUCTION. Knowledge management has become the buzzword in recent past in the industrial sector. Companies have become very focused on the knowledge assets that they own and the capabilities of their organisation or company and staff to utilize theses assets. Thus, knowledge can be called a resource which could be acquired, exploited and applied to achieve success and advantage for the company (Zack, 2003). However, companies that fail to manage the knowledge it has might surely be losing its capabilities, potential and brains (Denford, J. S., & Chan, Y. E., 2011). The benefits that knowledge management offers ranges from promotion and elevation of unequivocal knowledge to attain efficiency and innovation in various business practices......

Words: 3295 - Pages: 14

Embedded 3d Barcodes to Ensure Pills Are Real

...Another sort of scanner tag could be basically incorporated with a pill or other item, as opposed to simply slapped on the bundling. A group of specialists revealed the new innovation this week at the British Science Festival in Bradford, UK. Scientists from the University of Bradford and Sofmat, a hostile to extortion innovation organization, added to a framework to add infinitesimal spaces to the surface of an item. Little sticks are set to diverse statures, every encoding a letter or digit. The pins can either be inserted in the mold an item is produced using or stamped on a short time later. The subsequent code is verging on imperceptible, and excessively modest, making it impossible to feel. Be that as it may, a speedy laser sweep could demonstrate an item’s inception, which the specialists say could track and check items to battle fakes. The yearly worldwide estimation of fake merchandise has been anticipated to be more than $1.5 trillion by the International Chamber of Commerce. Fake hardware are an issue, and fake prescription can be absolute risky, containing the wrong dosage or no dynamic fixing by any means. This is particularly an issue in the creating scene. The World Health Organization evaluates more than 25 percent of the drug expended in poorer nations is fake or substandard. Existing apparatuses to battle this incorporate a check framework wherein a patient can filter the bundling of their solution and content an exceptional code to guarantee their......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

¬Introduction to Embedded C for 8051 and Implementation of Timer and Interrupt Handling

...------------------------------------------------- Introduction to Embedded C for 8051 and Implementation of Timer and Interrupt Handling Compiled by: Sivaranjan Goswami, Pursuing M. Tech. (2013-15 batch) Dept. of ECE, Gauhati University, Guwahati, India Contact: sivgos@gmail.com ------------------------------------------------- Note: It is a practical guide in which it is presumed that the reader has already learned about the hardware architecture, programming model, and assembly language programming of 8051 microcontroller. In case you are totally new to 8051 microcontroller I recommend you to read the “8051 Tutorial” available at: http://sites.google.com/site/enggprojectece/my-reading-list It has also been presumed that the reader has at least the beginner level knowledge of computer programming in C language (user defined functions, data types, header files, loops and the flow of a C program). In this tutorial first an introduction to Embedded C is given. A few examples are shown. Then the implementation of timer and interrupt are discussed. (All programs shown here are compiled and executed using Keil µVision 3) Pin Diagram of 8051 (please note the pins used for external interrupts – INT0 & INT1, Serial Port Transmitter – TxD, Serial Port Receiver – RxD, Counter input for Timer-0 – T0 and Counter input for Timer-1 – T1) Embedded C The syntax of embedded C is the same as the C language that we use for writing computer programs. The only difference...

Words: 3118 - Pages: 13

Embedded Systems Design

...Embedded Systems Design Scott DeCota Modern Operating Systems Embedded systems are all around us. They run the engine, brakes, seatbelt, airbag, and audio system in your car. They digitally encode your voice and construct a radio signal to send it from your cell phone to a base station. They control your microwave, dishwasher, and DVD player. They command robots on a factory floor, power generation in a plant, processes in a chemical plant, and the traffic lights in the city. Embedded operating systems are growing increasingly common in everyday appliances and other devices. These operating systems provide application interfaces for a wide range of different applications. The challenge for developers is to determine which operating system or programming language to use in a particular device or project, and how to utilize the parallelism and concurrency capabilities of the hardware and programming language chosen for a project to design a system of adequate timing precision and efficiency. Developers working with embedded systems need to be extremely diligent in regards to timing and optimization. Embedded systems are frequently interacting with the physical environment in which multiple sources of data may be interacting with the system simultaneously. Developers should have a solid understanding of the parallelism and concurrency capabilities of the hardware for a selected project. These features can occur in different forms that can greatly affect the timing of......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

The Final Touch

...INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FROM TATA CMC, JAMMU ON EMBEDDED SYSTEMS. Submitted in the partial fulfilment of requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering In Electronics and Communication Engineering Submitted By Ashish Gupta 258/12 Under the guidance of Ms. Sonika Mahajan IT Guide Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Mahant Bachittar Singh College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu 2015 CERTIFICATE i DECLARATION I hereby declare that the Seminar Report entitled “EMBEDDED SYSTEMS” is an authentic record of my own work carried out as requirement for the award of degree of B.E. (E&C) of Mahant Bachittar Singh College of Engineering & Technology, Jammu. Date: ................ Ashish Gupta 258/12 Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. Ms. Sonika Mahajan Ms. Neha Gupta Ms. Shalini Sharma IT Guide ...

Words: 998 - Pages: 4