Effects of Stimuli Upon Stress.

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By kjewens
Words 475
Pages 2
Background information:
B.L Frederickson (2000) first theorised a strategy for stress management, stating that “people might improve their psychological well-being… [through] cultivating experiences of positive emotions at opportune moments to cope with negative emotion”. This was developed by Folkman (1997) and W. Knight (2001), similarly claiming that the experience of positive stimuli may help to reduce chronic stress. However, Knight and Schriffin and Nelson (2008) both proposed that in the presence of positive stimuli, heart rates lower while happiness levels rise, resulting in overall decreased stress levels. Subsequently, this investigation intends to explore the effect of positive stimuli upon happiness and stress levels within participants, measured through the Oxford Happiness Index.
To investigate the relationship between heart rate and happiness levels, measured through the Oxford Happiness Index scores.
Research Design:
Method of Data Collection:
Subjective quantitative (OHI) and objective quantitative (HR).
Physical arousal and psychological state before and after exposure to stimuli.
OHI scores and heart rate.
As heart rate decreases, the OHI will increase after exposure to stimuli.
Data analysis:
Measures of the OHI were taken through pre and post exposures to the calming stimuli to establish a base-line of measurement. The mean, median and standard deviations of the data were recorded, tabulated and graphed, shown through Figure 1 and 2. A higher standard deviation results in a more varied distribution of OHI scores in response to the positive stimuli, while a higher mean presents a higher level of happiness. If a high mean occurs, stress levels are said to decrease, supporting the hypothesis. Similarly, a high standard deviation reflects a high level of spread amongst the data,…...

Similar Documents

Effects of Stress

...Effects of Stress * What steps of the general adaptation syndrome will I experience? The three steps that I would most likely experience is the alarm reaction, the resistance stage, and the exhaustion stage. The alarm reaction is our body’s internal alarm system that warms us when a threat is present. The body undergoes preparation in order to be able to deal with the upcoming stress. This preparation involves releasing stores of energy in order for us to survive. If stress is still present after we undergo the alarm system, we enter the resistance stage. During the resistance stage the body tries to recover the lost energy lost during the alarm system and repairs body damage. If the stressor is still present, we enter the exhaustion stage. During the exhaustion stage, the body’s heartbeat, respiration rate, and bodily arousals slow down despite the fact that the stress is still present (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). * What emotional and cognitive effects might this stressor produce? The emotional effects that this stressor produces are anxiety, anger, and depression. I might be in a state of anxiety where I could possibly have physical conditions such as a rapid heartbeat or even break out into a cold sweat (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). The cognitive effects that this stressor produces are lack of focus and not being able to think clearly. The higher the stress level, the more likely I would have trouble remembering things or being able to solve problems adequately. ...

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

The Effect of Stress and Satisfaction on Productivity

...The effect of stress and satisfaction on productivity George Halkos and Dimitrios Bousinakis Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece Abstract Purpose – This study aims to investigate the effects of stress and job satisfaction on the functioning of a company. It seeks to focus on factors affecting stress and job satisfaction such as number of work hours, good relations between management and employees, good function of the group and work related to employees’ area of education. Design/methodology/approach – A random sample of 425 employees in the private and public sector and two stage cluster sampling is first used to collect primary data. Factor analysis is used next to identify the responsible factors for the correlation among a large number of qualitative and quantitative variables and their influence on productivity. Logistic regression is used next presenting many useful elements concerning the function of stress, satisfaction and supportive elements on productivity. Findings – As expected, increased stress leads to reduced productivity and increased satisfaction leads to increased productivity. When work begins to overlap with workers’ personal life this implies a negative effect on productivity. Quality work is more related to conscientiousness and personal satisfaction than work load. Energetic and active individuals affect productivity positively. Originality/value – The paper presents a number of qualitative variables as......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Stress Effects and Management

...Stress Effects and Management Proposal Debra Barnett University of Phoenix Paradigms of Health SCI/100 Heather Mayer, MPH, CHES September 16, 2013 Stress Effects and Management Proposal My company will be initiating an employee wellness program. I am submitting a proposal for a stress management program that can be implemented at the workplace with no costs for the employee. The technique I would like incorporated in the wellness program is Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR). Stress—physical, mental and emotional wear and tear—is emerging as a leading health risk of the 21st century and as a serious hazard in the workplace. Disabling stress has doubled over the past six years in the United States, with 1 million people absent from work every day due to stress-related problems. Companies annually spend an average of $7,500 per employee due to stress, and 75 percent to 80 percent of workplace accidents are stress-related ("Managing Employee Stress," 2002, para. 1-2). PMR is cost effective. It can be performed by employees with no cost to the organization, time wise or financially. This technique does not require special equipment, and can be performed using a chair or the floor. PMR can be achieved during the workday during a scheduled break or lunch period. It does not require employees to travel from the work site. Our office has several conference rooms and training areas that are comfortable and free of distractions that will facilitate the focus and......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Effect of Social Media Upon Society

...just about sharing information and ideas. Social networking tools like Twitter, Facebook, Flickr and Blogs have facilitated creation and exchange of ideas so quickly and widely than the conventional media. Body Social networking is a tool used by people all around the world. Its purpose is to promote and aid communication. However, this type of technology might be doing more harm than good. It is not only changing how we communicate, but how we interact with each other in daily life. Today, stated that “With the rise of websites such as Facebook, social networking may be on the verge of replacing traditional personal interactions for the next generation” (1).Traditional interactions will continue to be at risk if we don’t realize the effects of our social media. Social networking affects our lives in many ways, including our communication, self- expression, bullying, isolations, friendships, and even our very own sense of humanity. Brian Jung 2oo8 Social networks, such as Facebook, were created for the sole purpose of helping individuals communicate. There are many other reasons that these technologies are used, but communication is still the number one. Many people use these networks to talk to their friends in other cities, states, or even other countries. There are many situations that do not allow the use of telephones; this is why social networking is preferable by many. These networks not only allow communication between friends, but allow you to meet new people.......

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Effects of Employee Stress

...Running head: EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE STRESS Effects of Employee Stress Dexter B McDougal Grand Canyon University Effects of Employee Stress The pursuit of forming a work environment where people would actually enjoy working has proven to be anything but easy. The ever rising pressure to perform only enhances the effort. People like to work in an environment where they work hard but yet have fun while doing it. Furthermore they want to be recognized for the hard work that they are doing. People want to work in a place where there are not a lot of opposing personalities and egos. “Two studies of occupational stress and its relation with antecedent variables and job performance were completed by Stephan J. Motowidlo, John S. Packard, and Michael R. Manning. The first study, in which 104 nurses participated in group discussions and 96 nurses completed a questionnaire, identified 45 stressful events for nurses. In the second study, 171 nurses who completed another questionnaire were also rated by a supervisor and/or a co-worker. Ratings of interpersonal aspects of job performance (such as sensitivity, warmth, consideration, and tolerance) and cognitive/motivational aspects (such as concentration, composure, perseverance, and adaptability) correlated significantly with self-reported perceptions of stressful events, subjective stress, depression, and hostility. Models developed through path analysis suggest that the frequency and subjective intensity of the 45......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Media's Effect Upon People

...Surname Instructor Class Date Media's Effect upon People Media has been evolving in the past few decades, initially media was used as a tool of sending news and beefing people with the information. That is history now, because of the emergence of the new technologies, which has enhanced communications. Furthermore, there has emerged an adaption of electronic messaging from millions of individuals in the world. Electronic messaging has come in different ways, which in effect has enabled unique and specialized ways of sending messages according to the needs of an individual. The massive impact of media in the society has also enhanced the great expansion of media from all the directions. This paper will outline the media effect on people. Television emerges as one of the oldest screen media; this has enabled a number of generations to incorporate it domestically. However, this form of media has experienced major substantial changes that have seen the emergence of video recorders, camcorders, and cable television. This has had a positive impact to the society, for instance in the United States, many households have familiarized themselves with the new television prospective technologies and have readily adopted them (Marie, 2). Unlike in 1950s where few of Americans homes had television, today 99% of all Americans homes have television, with research indicating that some families have more televisions sets than phones. Many children have their own television sets in their......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Stress Effects Management Proposal

...Stress Effects and Management Proposal SCI/100 April 28, 2014 Stress Effects and Management Proposal Stress management is the workplace is essential to long term success of any organization. Recognizing and acknowledging stress that employees are experiencing and providing coping techniques for employees can increase productivity and performance in the workplace. In introducing a new wellness program I am proposing that our organization implements the stress management technique of Visualization in the workplace. This is a technique that is very minimal in cost because it can virtually be done anywhere and will enable employees to benefit on a personal level as well as a professional level. People who visualize their future will develop less or no resistance to changes that correspond to their visualizations. Visualizations create positive energy, inspiration and focus. (Kerklaan, 2011) In this paper I will provide an analysis of how I would have possibly responded to other stress management techniques along with their personal effectiveness while ranking them techniques. How do you think you would have responded to other stress management techniques? Ranked in order of personal effectiveness: Visualization Deep Breathing Progressive Muscle Relaxation Mediation Yoga Massage Therapy Hypnosis Visualization- I believe that visualization is a very effective stress management technique. This method has proven benefits related to workplace, family and......

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

How Stress Effects Health

...How Stress Affects Health Isn’t it amazing how stress affects so many aspects of our lives? Stress can change our routine in the way we live daily. Personalities can be changed due to stress, a person may be under so much stress it causes them to become angry or depressed. Throughout this paper I will relate the effects stress has on our health. Stress influences our physical and mental health in more ways than we can imagine. There are two types of stressors. One causes distress where maybe you’re late for something and you get caught in traffic behind a slow driver. The second one is eustress which is triggered by positive moments like the first kiss or being acknowledged at work for a fine job done. Those are just some aspects of how stress is relative to health. As I previously mentioned there are two types of stressors that have totally opposite effects, one positive the other negative. Well if there are positive and negative stressors what would that do to our mood? Even though a psychological disorder is an entirely different subject, stress can change so many things about a person. Let’s say a student has so much going on at work and school. If this student can’t handle the school and work load it may cause depression. There can also be stress from bullying that causes a person to pick up an eating habit thus making their health deteriorate. Finally learning to cope with stress from daily events can be a task that may involve discipline. Coping strategies are......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Effects of Stress

...Stress and health Name: Institution of affiliation: Course: Lecturer Date: Abstract Stress is normal. It begins when we perceive a threat, and that threat can be real like being in a car accident or it can be imagined simply by seeing a car accident and thinking there must be a lot of crazy drivers on the road. Recently, about three months ago I lost my part time job at a local company and had to go through alot to overcome the feelings.the reason was that I had put alot of efforts and expectations on the same and did not forsee the fateful event happening.It was the only source of income and could provide vital experience for me to face the world once am out there.It is because I like being independent and not so much of a dependant that I chose to wor and the result of the loss was dire.I was emotionally and mentally disturbed as I had many plans and had many projects to handle depending on the prospects of the job.the idea was to develop skills of leadership, management and entrepreneurship.I could not put myself together afeter the ordeal and had to seek the services of a psychologist to relieve my stress.It took me one an dhalf months to get over it. The Brain Responds to Stress When you see a risk, your cerebrum bounced energetically to equip you to battle the danger or to run from it. This is known as the battle or flight reaction. Your mind advises your body to get prepared by: • increasing your heart rate and circulatory strain......

Words: 2435 - Pages: 10

Cause and Effects of Stress

...And Effects Of Stress Stress is a normal physical reaction to events that make you feel threatened or upset. Many different things can cause stress. It can be caused by emotional things such as relationships. Identifying what may be causing your stress is the first step in learning how to deal with your stress. Stress stops being helpful and starts causing major damage to your well being, your mood, your productivity, your relationship, and our quality of life. The situations and pressures that cause stress are known as stressors. We often think of stressors as a bad thing, such as a very busy work day or a hurtful relationship. However, anything that puts pressure on you or forces you to change the way you think is stressful. This might also include good things or events such as getting married, buying a house, going to college or even getting a promotion. What level of stress depends on, at least in part, on how you accept it. Something that is stressful to you may not be stressful to someone else. Your ability to deal stress depends on many things such as how your relationship is going, your general outlook on life or your emotional status. Effects of Stress: Your body doesn’t know the difference between physical stress and mental stress. Thinking about things that stress you out such as mate accident monthly bills, your body reacts the same way as if you were facing a life or death situation. If you have a lot of troubles and worries, your stress......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Effects of Stress

...  What emotional and cognitive effects might this stressor produce?  If this stress continues, how might it affect my health?  How might I resolve this situation effectively? In this particular situation all stages of general adaption syndrome would be experience. The job promotion will completely overwhelm me due to all the new responsibilities I will be soon facing. The first stage I will go through is the alarm stage which is physical and emotional “flight-or-flight reaction”. It is called the alarm stage because the body begins to feel pressured therefore the body to prepare itself to fight or flee from the threatening stressor. After the alarm stage I would go through the resistance stage which is the beginning of learning how to cope with my new workload. After I have gone through the first two stages I might go through the exhaustion stage if I do not take care of myself which can lead me to feel fatigue and stress-related illness. With the job promotion I may become overwhelmed, angry or always on edge. The jobs offer more hours meaning I will have a lot of work to be completed and it must be on time therefore I will become overwhelmed with all my new responsibilities. I may also become angry and on edge due to not sleepy well. I will have a lot on my plate and I may not be in the mood to joke around therefore I will always want to get things done and if they are not being completed on time I become angry. Stress can affect my health in many......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Effects of Stress

...Effects of Stress YOUR NAME PSY/210 Date Day, year Instructor Effects of Stress The steps of the general adaptation syndrome that I would experience would be the following. The first step I will experience will definitely be fatigue. I would be tired and stressed from working long hours which can be too much for me mentally and physically to handle. Also with fatigue comes the stage of resistance because the stress has continued for some time. The body's ability to fend off stress may gradually be reduced. Ultimately compromising the body’s natural immune system function to fight off diseases. The effects that stressor can produce may have a lasting effect and even sometimes fatal outcomes. The following are just a few examples of the effects it can have such as depression, anxiety, general irritability, alcohol, and drug addiction and hyper mobility, which is the inability to relax. If untreated these effects can lead to life change health issues and even driving some to suicide These are just some of the emotional and cognitive effects that someone can experience. Like I’ve stated above that if the stress continues, individuals that experience such stress can have long-lasting......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Causes and Effects of Stress

...Causes and Effects of Stress Stress is a major component of human lives. Possible stressors are ubiquitous and are experienced every day. Every person on Earth experiences some kind of stress during their lives, and some people are more equipped to deal with the effects than others. There are many causes of stress, both internal and external, and in turn there are many ways that stress manifests itself. Stress is a highly subjective condition and because of that every type person, age group, gender, etc., experiences their own unique stress. There are typically two groups of stimuli that cause stress; daily stressors and larger, more catastrophic stressors. Since stress is taxing on those who experience it, stress is expressed by the individual experiencing it by physical symptoms and social symptoms, and each symptom varies from individual to individual. One of the main causes of stress are small, constant stressors that we experience in our every lives. Daily stressors cover a wide range of stimulus: loud noises, losing important items, procrastination, intrapersonal conflicts, embarrassment . . . the list goes on and on. In reality, any usual event that we experience can produce stress. How much stress each stimulus causes depends on the individual, and if they have a high level of tolerance for that cause or not. Take someone who is outgoing and friendly, more of a type A personality. If required to give a presentation in front of peers, it is unlikely for them to......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

The Effects of Stress on Health

...November 2015 The Effects That Stress Has On Health Stress is a word that constantly gets tossed around with different meanings and connotations. Many people do not realize what a significant effect that it can have on people and their families. Merriam-Webster defines stress as a state of mental tension and worry caused by problems in your life, work, etc. The denotation of stress can also be stated as something that causes strong feelings of worry or anxiety. In a medical or biological context, stress is a physical, mental, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension (medicinenet.com). It does not just interfere with your daily life; it causes many health problems. Stress can be as acute or as minute as the patient allows it to be but despite the assumptions, stress is a terrible disease that can affect the health of many including altered brain function, internal organ issues, and mental instability. There are many different causes of stress depending on the type of person the patient may be. Money, the economy, work, relationships, and responsibilities are all recorded factors known to cause stress. Stress can be caused by a deadline you have to meet at work or even the concern of pleasing your spouses or relatives. Workplace stress can affect your ability to apply and keep jobs or appease your boss. According to a survey from the American Psychological Association, more than one third of American workers experience chronic work stress (helpguide.org).......

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Cause/Effect of Stress

...The Effects of Stress in Life In today’s era, people have to cope with advantages and disadvantages in daily life. Besides the advantages in life as economic development, life comfortable and convenience, people often deal with disadvantages as stress, social problems and illnesses. Among of these disadvantages in life, stress is the most common phenomenon. This is clearly expressed through three effects of stress as health problem, motivation and life expectancy. Firstly, the effects of stress are the health of human. When people are stressed extreme, their physical and psychological become weak. With the effects of physical stress, people can easily see them because they express outside the body. When my friend fell into the state of extreme stress, her immune system became weak. A simple cold could become the flu or a lung infection with a person under stress as her. Stress can make people feel headache and fatigue. In addition, stress also has a great influence in the activities of organs inside the body as releasing hormones and breathing rates. With the effects of psychological stress, it also gives a negative result. I have lost the joy in daily life because of stress. I cannot concentrate on work. When people are stressed, they are not able to distinguish what is good and what is bad. So, stress has created a negative result in human health. Everyone should give methods of stress management order not to affect health. Secondly, the effects of stress are a change...

Words: 587 - Pages: 3