Early Onset Schizophrenia

In: Science

Submitted By treya93
Words 3208
Pages 13

April 19, 2015

Introduction to Early Onset Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that has long been a taboo in American society. Schizophrenics have been perceived as being crazy, insane, and outcasts in society. People suffering from this disorder lose touch with reality and often experience hallucinations. One very unlooked aspect of this disorder is the children who are diagnosed with the illness. Early onset schizophrenia (EOS) describes children and adolescents identified with having some form of schizophrenia before age 18 (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Although early onset schizophrenia is very rare, it is important to acknowledge the aspects of this disorder within children. Discovering patterns in the development of mental illnesses among children can drastically enhance the understanding and treatment of the illness.
Until recently very little research was done involving children and adolescents dealing with schizophrenia (Nillinghouse and Trotman, 2009). There has been an increased understanding of the onset appearance of schizophrenia in recent years. Frequently, the age of onset schizophrenia is between 16 and 35 years. EOS is usually identified during school age years and the rate of the disorder usually escalates during adolescence (Li, Pearrow, & Jimerson, 2010). There are two forms of onset schizophrenia: childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a very rare form of schizophrenia with less than 1% of individuals identified before the age of 13, while adolescence-onset schizophrenia (AOS) is somewhat more common with 18% having been identified before the age of 18 (Frangou, 2014). EOS describes the combined population of individuals diagnosed with this disorder.
Schizophrenia is a relatively rare condition with statistics…...

Similar Documents


...Schizophrenia which affects approximately 1 percent of the population usually begins before age 25 and persists throughout life. The illness is a life long debilitating condition for about 40% of patients and is enormously costly in both social and economic terms. Despite the presence of delusions, hallucinations and cognitive impairment which characterize the illness, overall life expectancy is not altered (although there is a significantly increased risk-of suicide in the early years). Schizophrenia is usually viewed as a functional psychosis, a label which implies that the symptoms arise from the disorderly activity of neurons without accompanying anatomical and pathological alterations of brain structure. This view is due to the failure of pathologists to find convincing pathological changes associated with the disease in the first seven decades of the century. Over the last ten years things have changed considerably. Recent CT and MRI scan, and also postmortem studies show that various brain areas of schizophrenic patients are altered. HISTORY The two key people in the history of Schizophrenia were Emil Kraepelin and Eugene Blealer. Kraepelin organized the seriously mentally ill patients by three diagnostic groups: dementia praecox, manic depressive psychosis, and paranoia. Kraeplin’s description of dementia praecox emphasizes a chronic deteriorating course, in addition to including such clinical phenomena as hallucinations and delusions. Kraepelin reported......

Words: 1796 - Pages: 8


...Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is described as a serious brain illness causing disability for many people (National Institutes of Health, 2009). Though, this illness is the most costly mental health illness on earth, affecting approximately 1% of the world’s population (Suro, & Weisman De Mamani, 2013). Researchers and scientists continue to define this disease that has been described as a “moving target” (Tandon, Nasrallah, Keshavan, page 1, 2009) because diagnostic testing is not available and symptoms can be difficult to diagnose (Frangou, 2008). Schizophrenia can be socially crippling to a person suffering from this serious mental condition, though medical research and treatment offer hope for the possibility living a productive life. Early study of schizophrenia by Kraepelin (1919) called this disease “dementia praecox”, which means “cognitive decline with onset in youth” (Tandon, Nasrallah, Keshavan, page 1, 2009) and was renamed as schizophrenia by Eugen Bleuler (1911) (Tandon, Nasrallah, Keshavan, page 1, 2009). Many people believe schizophrenia relates to a person having multiple personalities, when it means “split mind” because of the imbalance of emotions and thinking relating to hallucinations, delusions, thought processes and behaviors (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2012). According to the staff of the Mayo Clinic (2012), schizophrenia is a group of severe brain disorders in which people interpret reality abnormally. As......

Words: 904 - Pages: 4


...Schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of unusual behaviors that cause profound disruption in the lives of people suffering from the condition, as well as in the lives of the people around them. Schizophrenia strikes without regard to gender, race, social class or culture. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, disabling mental disorder typically characterized by a separation between the thought processes and the emotions (Torrey). Schizophrenia is a common disorder, striking one person in every hundred (Schizophrenia). For most people, young adulthood means leaving home, starting a job and starting a family. For most schizophrenics, young adulthood means first admission to a psychiatric hospital. An unfortunate reality for young schizophrenics is the need for hospitalization during their most vibrant and productive time. The age of the first admission is younger for men than women, early twenties for males and mid-twenties for women. The reasoning behind this variation is not exactly known but there is speculation. One biological theory that exists is the help of the female sex hormones. Scientists speculate that these hormones may help delay the horrifying symptoms that afflict schizophrenics. Another question raised is who gets schizophrenia more commonly, men or women? Studies have shown there is no great variation in the numbers but in the severity of the symptoms. Men seem to suffer more severely. Scientists have attempted to explain this through......

Words: 2601 - Pages: 11


...Schizophrenia All over the globe people suffer from schizophrenia. It occurs in all societies regardless of race, religion, class or culture. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, (NIMH) the prevalence of schizophrenia is 1.1% of the world’s population. This means 51 million people worldwide are affected. Approximately 2.2 million people in the United States, roughly six to twelve million people in China and 250,000 in Britain are living with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects men and women. It is usually diagnosed by behavior around the ages of 15-25. Men usually exhibit symptoms earlier than females. People that live in the city have a higher incidence of schizophrenia than people in the country. According to research immigrants such as people from the Caribbean living in the United Kingdom have a greater rate of schizophrenia than the native people of that area. (Fearon,. Et al. 2006) Some researchers speculate that this is due to changed environmental and social factors. The loss of social or family support and change in cultural environment has been thought to trigger biological stressors. Schizophrenia is one type of psychotic disorder, schizoaffective and schizophreniform are other types. Schizoaffective disorder is characterized by psychotic symptoms and significant mood disturbances. Schizophreniform disorder has the same criteria as Schizophrenia but the episode lasts from one to six months and there is no......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5


...Thomas Wallace Dementia Praecox Mental Deterioration at an Early Age Introduction to Psychology Laura McCormick, Professor February 15, 2014 Thomas Wallace Dementia Praecox Mental Deterioration at an Early Age Introduction to Psychology Laura McCormick, Professor February 15, 2014 Abstract Schizophrenia, a classification of psychological disorders considered to be one of the most extreme in terms of psychological dysfunction and breakdown (Carson and Butcher, 1992). This disorder can result in a complete breakdown or alteration of reality. Schizophrenia is often termed psychotic in order to separate it from other disorders that are much milder in nature, such as Mood and Anxiety disorders. It is the goal of this paper to provide an overview of some of the issues and debates regarding this difficult and oft misunderstood disorder. What is Schizophrenia? Dementia Praecox, otherwise known as Schizophrenia, has been regarded as a uniquely distinct disease for well over a 100 years. This disease affects those areas that control how a person functions. It manipulates the individual’s thoughts, distorts their perceptions and causes hallucinations, particularly auditory. The person becomes delusional believing others can read their mind and thoughts of others are being placed in their head. According to the criteria for Schizophrenia described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association,......

Words: 1771 - Pages: 8


...the most hindering of these disorders is schizophrenia, which affects about one percent of the entire world population. Once the symptoms of schizophrenia occur, usually beginning in early adult hood, they continue for the entire lifetime of the patient and are almost totally disabling (Sawa & Snyder, 2002). Schizophrenia is a severe psychopathology which is categorized by positive and negative symptoms (Breedlove, Watson & Rosenzweig, 2010). This disorder distorts thoughts and perceptions. It is described as a loss of contact with reality and a disturbance in one's thoughts, perception, mood and movement. This mental disorder starts to become apparent during early adulthood and usually carries on for the rest of an individual's life (Bear, Connors & Paradiso, 2001). Symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into two categories: Positive and negative. Positive symptoms "reflect the presence of abnormal thoughts and behaviours" (Bear, et al., 2010, p. 695). These symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and catatonic behaviours. Positive symptoms may be related to an excessive amount of dopamine function in the brain, such as the use of antipsychotic drugs which are highly effective in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (Iversen, L., Iversen, S., Bloom & Roth, 2009). Negative symptoms on the other hand reflect the absence of responses that normally present themselves with schizophrenia (Bear, et al., 2010). These include......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7


...Paper| | Case Study: Brian| | | | Ashley Allen Due: 12/5/2011 Ashley Allen Case Study: Brian Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that has affected many people all over the world. It is a term that many people have heard but few understand the true meaning. When described, those with schizophrenia involve abnormal changes in their behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and views on the world. Those with schizophrenia are considered to have their behavior disturbed in particular way along with having difficulty with reality. With a remarkable amount of evaluation on the client, Brian, he has shown a pattern that leads to the diagnosis of Schizophrenia. There are a number of factors that play an important role when considering one with abnormal behavior (Beidel et al, 2010). By acknowledging particular factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, family & health history, work & health status, social relationships, drug & alcohol history, and various behavioral habits, it is easier to fully understand Brian’s behavioral influences. Hyman (2006) explains that schizophrenia affects both men and women equally though men tend to experience symptoms at a younger age than women do. Schizophrenic symptoms often develop in late adolescence to early twenties for males and given that Brian is a 25 years old male, he falls into the appropriate age of onset for schizophrenia. It is important acknowledge that at 19 years old, Brian has experienced his father’s death which is......

Words: 2735 - Pages: 11


...Schizophrenia is a very serious and chronic mental illness which falls into the category of “psychotic disorders”. It is characterized by a variety of debilitating experiences which may include hearing voices that others do not hear, believing that people are controlling your thoughts, reading your mind, or plotting to harm you. Schizophrenia is a life-long illness and, although it can be treated with medication and talk-therapy, symptoms remain, to some extent, throughout a person’s life. Researchers, however, are continually developing new treatment methods and medications which are helping those with schizophrenia improve the quality of their lives. Symptoms of schizophrenia most often emerge in men in their late teens and early 20’s and in women in their mid-20’s to early 30’s. They rarely occur after the age of 45 and very rarely before puberty. Early signs can include a change in friends or the beginnings of isolation from all friends, a drop in grades, a change in sleeping habits. This period is referred to as the “prodramal” period. It is often difficult to diagnose a person in their teens as the onset symptoms closely mirror “typical” teen angst. The differentiating features can include unorganized thought patterns, responding to internal and external stimuli, and disorders of movement. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, three criteria must be met: 1)......

Words: 808 - Pages: 4


...SCHIZOPHRENIA: NATURE OR NURTURE? 1 Schizophrenia: Nature or Nurture? Francia Pulido Miami Dade College SCHIZOPHRENIA: NATURE OR NURTURE? 2 Abstract Schizophrenia continues to create new challenges today and continues to be a complicated mental illness. There had been a misconception that Schizophrenia is a rare condition. But it is actually not rare; in fact each person has a risk of developing it within their lifetime. It is most common to psychoses, and half of the inpatients in mental hospitals are Schizophrenics. It is a brain disorder that can happen to anyone occurring in any culture, affecting men and women equally and all areas of functioning, including thought, emotion, perception and behavior. So to prove that Schizophrenia is a major mental health problem that can affect from all walks of life. The cause of Schizophrenia is not fully known. However, it shows that Schizophrenia may caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Biological interpretations have dominated in past studies. But twin and adoption studies suggest that environmental factors help in triggering Schizophrenia. Nonetheless, neither the biological not the environmental categories is completely determinant, and there is no assurance that one will ensure if he will or will not develop Schizophrenia. Keywords: Schizophrenia; developing, cause, genetic, environmental,......

Words: 2566 - Pages: 11


...Schizophrenia Almar Lim CNI College ADN Program NSG 265 Holistic Health Concepts Ms Shadia Maksemous RN, MSN February 4th, 2015 Schizophrenia is not a single disease, but a broad category of mental illnesses. Schizophrenia is a psychiatry disorder where several structural disturbances occur in the brain. It normally takes place in the temporal and frontal lobes, changing the neural systems and affecting the neurotransmitters in charge of controlling the functioning that takes place in these areas. It is not a structural brain disease that shows up early on X-rays CAT scans, or EEGs. Schizophrenics also have defects in the handling of amino acids. Etiology The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown, but research suggests that a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make people more likely to develop the condition. Current thinking is that some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode. However, it's not known why some people develop symptoms while others don't. (Smith & Segal, 2014) Clinical Manifestation There are two ways that schizophrenia begins. One way is called Acute Onset. This happens very fast, about a couple of weeks. It is easier to recover from this. You are able to get help faster because people notice it sooner. The other way is called Process Onset. This takes a longer period of time to show. It is gradual, sometimes up to years.......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6


...Schizophrenia is defined as: a group of psychoses characterized by confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. (Gromly,526) Schizophrenia is a brain disorder, which is identified by specific concrete symptoms. Schizophrenia is not a split personality, or multi-personality. It has been proven that schizophrenia is not caused by childhood trauma, bad parenting, or poverty. Schizophrenia is not the result of any action or personal failure by the individual afflicted with this terrible mental disorder. Schizophrenia is marked by extreme thought disorder, and is usually treatable with medication. Given proper support, many people with schizophrenia can learn how to deal with their symptoms, and lead reasonably comfortable and productive lives. (Schizophrenia) Schizophrenia is a very common disorder, which affects 1 out of 100 people in the world. (Schizophrenia) Schizophrenia can affect people of any age. Schizophrenia usually strikes young people between the ages of 16 and 25. It can also appear later in adulthood however, onset is less common after age 30, and rare after age 40. Although rare, there is a childhood form of the illness, it can be found in children as young as the age of 5. Schizophrenia does not discriminate. The disease affects men and women with equal frequency, the only difference is the common age that the onslaught of schizophrenia begins. For men, the age of onset for schizophrenia is often between the ages of 16 to 20 years of age. For...

Words: 883 - Pages: 4


...Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, inactivity, as well as others. It is one of the most disabling and emotionally devastating illnesses known to man. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. There are four different causes of schizophrenia and there are different ways to treat it however there is no cure for this disease. People who take medicine for it are able to lead normal fulfilling lives. The causes of Schizophrenia are substance abuse, developmental factors, genetic, and environmental. Alcohol, amphetamines, cocaine, and marijuana are used by more than half of all people with Schizophrenia. Developmental factors can include things such as malnutrition in the mother during fetal development, hypoxia, stress, and infection. Also most people with Schizophrenia are born in winter or spring. Around 80% of people that have Schizophrenia had parents that also had the disease. If one of the parents had the disease, the chance for developing or being born with it increases by 13% and if both parents had it then the chances increase to 50%. The last way to get the disease is by environmental factors. These include the living environment, drug use and prenatal stressors. Other factors......

Words: 509 - Pages: 3


...Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood. People with schizophrenia may not make sense when they talk. They may sit for hours without moving or talking. Sometimes people with schizophrenia seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking. Families and society are affected by schizophrenia too. Many people with schizophrenia have difficulty holding a job or taking care of themselves, so they rely on others for help. Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups around the world. Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men tend to experience symptoms a little earlier than women. Most of the time, people do not get schizophrenia after age 45. Schizophrenia rarely occurs in children, but awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is increasing. Additionally, it can be difficult to diagnose schizophrenia in teens. This is because the first signs can include a change of friends, a drop in grades, sleep problems, and irritability- common behaviors among teens. A combination of factors can predict schizophrenia in up to 80 percent of youth who are at high risk of developing the illness. These factors include isolating oneself and withdrawing from others, an increase in......

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

Schizophrenia Symptoms and Early Detection

...Schizophrenia Symptoms and Early Detection RUNNING HEAD: SCHIZOPHRENIA EARLY DETECTION Abstract Schizophrenia is a chronic, serve and disabling brain disorder that affects all domains of life about one percent of the population (Shioiri, Shinada, Kuwabara, & Someya, 2007; Insel, 2009; Martinez et al., 2011). It affects both men and woman starting at the age of 15 (Yeo, Berzins,& Addington, 2007; Insel, 2009). Looking at the three categorizes of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive; With the four phase or stages: prodromal, active, remission, and relapse and how they correlate with each other, there is the possibility of begin able to help find a way to be more accurate in the way of early detections of not only Schizophrenia but other psychiatry diseases. The amount of time it takes for the disease to be detected is important for the recovery of the individual and also the friends and family of the individual. The longer we wait the harder it is for the individual to control their symptoms. It all comes down to the more that we know, the more we can help (Insel, 2009). Schizophrenia Symptoms and Early Detection Schizophrenia is a chronic, serve and disabling brain disorder that affects about one percent of the population (Shioiri, Shinada, Kuwabara, & Someya, 2007; Insel, 2009). It affects both men and woman starting at the age of 15 (Yeo, Berzins,& Addington, 2007; Insel, 2009). Even though it is shown that there is a link in the genetics of...

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6


...Distorted Reality: A Research on Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is widely considered one of the more destructive illnesses known to man. Contrary to popular belief, schizophrenia isn't a split personality or multiple personality disorder. The word "schizophrenia" does mean, "split mind," but it refers to a disruption of the usual balance of emotions and thinking. Schizophrenia is a severe class of brain disorders in which the sufferer has a vastly distorted perception of reality. Although it affects approximately one percent of America’s population (“Schizophrenia,” n.d), not much is known about it outside of recent progressive research. There are drugs and different therapies available to treat the symptoms of this complex disorder but in most of the cases, the patients will continue to experience schizophrenic symptoms for the rest of their lives. In my research, I was able to determine what schizophrenia is, its symptoms, believed causes, and finally, available treatments. Schizophrenia, as stated before, is a brain disorder that makes it difficult to tell the difference between real and unreal experiences, to think logically, to have normal emotional responses, and to behave normally in social situations. Schizophrenia appears to occur equally among men and women, usually developing between the ages of 15 and 20. In women, however, it tends to start showing symptoms later, around the ages of 20 - 30. Additionally, schizophrenia has shown to have......

Words: 2304 - Pages: 10