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Bahria University | People and Organization Assignment Topic: literature review and Research methodology | Submitted to: Sir, Musarrat Khan | | MBA 5-A | |

Literature review:
Market concentration is one of the major trends in retailing. Large companies grow faster than average, often because of consolidation (domestically). But domestic expansion opportunities are limited. Therefore, internationalization is another possibility to grow and become more competitive (Hermann et al., 2010).
In the intensely competitive retail market, sustaining repeat buying behaviour among store customers is one of the most important competition challenges. There are several reasons for that. Food Marketing Institute (2001) found that customers spend on average 78% of their food expenditures at one primary store. Furthermore, obtaining new customers costs five to six times more than retaining current customers (Huddleston et al., 2004). Other benefits resulting from customer loyalty include the likelihood that customers increase their spending over time, and attracting new customers by word-of-mouth marketing (Curasi, Kennedy, 2002). Thus, retail managers perceive customer loyalty and satisfaction as well as customer retention to be the most important goals for sustaining a firm’s competitive position (Huddleston et al., 2004). Dick and Basu (1994) defined customer loyalty as the relationship between relative attitude toward a brand and a repeat patronage. However, Jacoby and Kyner (1973) as well as Jarvis and Wilcox (1977) found that loyalty and repeat purchase are not synonymous, because the latter is not intentional and does not necessarily mean commitment (unlike loyalty). Furthermore, it indicates that simple repeat purchase behaviour is not stable over time and is affected by many factors.
Some studies have shown how perceptions of…...

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