Describe How Computing Has Evolved

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By moussaraff
Words 515
Pages 3
The first computers were people! "Computer" was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. The first computational device was the abacus. This has been in continuous use for thousands of years.
First Generation Computers - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.
Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors
Just after the first electronic computer was built; the transistor was invented, enabling the birth of vastly less expensive, more reliable computers. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Even with transistors, computers were still too complex and costly for widespread use
Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards…...

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