Creation of Silicon Chips

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By baby16113
Words 1274
Pages 6
Creation of Silicon Chips

D'yara L.Williams
South Carolina State University
CS 304 - Introduction to Computer Organizatikns & Architecture
Dr. Y. Kim
Feburary 25, 2015 Did you know that microprocessors today have more than 30 layers of complex circuits compared to the 5 layered circuit discovered in 1971? Silicon chips are also known as a monolithic integrated circuits, die, or processors. They’re miniature electronic brains that are everywhere in the electronic world, which processes data in the form of electrical currents traveling along a circuit. The natural semi-conductor of integrated chips is manufactured using sand. Beach sand contains a high percentage of the principal ingredient, silica or silicon dioxide, the most abundant element on earth besides oxygen. The process of making silicon chips is called fabrication. A wafer is a thin silicon disk sliced from a cylindrical ingot that is used as the principal ingredient for building integrated circuits. The creation of silicon chips is processed by ensuring product specifications, architectural specifications, creating a logic design, compose a physical representation and finalizations. However, engineers experience a problem with desiring to make electronic devices simpler but more powerful.
Although the first computers came about before its invention, the silicon microprocessor is the advancement that made the modern computer era explode. The ability to create a microelectric chip out of silicon dioxide was what triggered computers best advancements in energy efficiency and performance. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004 which was not very powerful, and it could only add and subtract at four for bits at a time. Microprocessors are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components contained. According to Moore's Law, Gordon…...

Similar Documents

The Creation

...THE CREATION by: James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) ND God stepped out on space, And He looked around and said, "I'm lonely -- I'll make me a world."   And far as the eye of God could see Darkness covered everything, Blacker than a hundred midnights Down in a cypress swamp.   Then God smiled, And the light broke, And the darkness rolled up on one side, And the light stood shining on the other, And God said, "That's good!"   Then God reached out and took the light in His hands, And God rolled the light around in His hands Until He made the sun; And He set that sun a-blazing in the heavens. And the light that was left from making the sun God gathered it up in a shining ball And flung it against the darkness, Spangling the night with the moon and stars. Then down between The darkness and the light He hurled the world; And God said, "That's good!"   Then God himself stepped down -- And the sun was on His right hand, And the moon was on His left; The stars were clustered about His head, And the earth was under His feet. And God walked, and where He trod His footsteps hollowed the valleys out And bulged the mountains up.   Then He stopped and looked and saw That the earth was hot and barren. So God stepped over to the edge of the world And He spat out the seven seas; He batted His eyes, and the lightnings flashed; He clapped His hands, and the thunders rolled; And the waters above the earth came down, The cooling waters came......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3


...Silicon Silicon is an element in the periodic table. Silicon is a metalloid, which means it has both properties of a metal and non-metal, so it is a member of Group 14(IVA)/the carbon family. Its atomic number is 14, its atomic mass is 28.0855 and its density is 2.65g/cm3. Silicon is a solid at room temperature with a boiling point of 3265⁰ C and a melting point of 1414⁰ C. Silicon exists in two allotropic forms, which means it has two forms that have different physical and chemical properties. The amorphous form is a brown powder and the crystalline form has a metallic luster and a grayish colour. Silicon is very hard, very brittle and is a semiconductor, meaning it is able to allow an electrical current pass through it better than a non-conductor, like glass or rubber, but not as good as a conductor, like copper or aluminum. Silicon always occurs as a compound, so it is always combined with other elements. Silicon dioxide is the most abundant compound in the earth’s crust, most commonly taking the form of sand. This compound is used in the manufacture of glass and bricks, paper and rubber, as a food additive, as an insulating material, in cosmetics, and many more! The compound of silicon with other elements like boron, gallium or arsenic is used in the making of electronic devices such as transistors, rectifiers, microchips, etc. Silicon carbide is one of the hardest substances known which can be used as an abrasive or as a refractory material. Silicones, which include......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

The Creation

...that God is the source of the entire natural world. From this creation, we have day and night, land and water, heaven and earth. All the stars, moons, and planets are His design. Everything we see today is a result of that creation. All these things He created for His own pleasure. God desired to populate the earth. He did this with animals and humans. This means God also created man (and woman). All was flawless in the world. There was no death, no sin. Adam and Eve had a perfect relationship with each other, and with God. He had created them in His own image. He walked and talked with them frequently. He gave Adam complete control of everything in the garden, allowing them to eat “of every tree of the garden” (Gen.2:16, NKJV) except for “the tree of knowledge and evil” (Gen. 2:17, NKJV). As long as Adam followed this one rule, he and eve were welcome in the garden. This all changed when Eve allowed herself to be tempted by Satan while Adam stood idly by. At this point, all perfection came to an end. Death, both physical and spiritual, had entered the world. Adam and Eve had disobeyed God’s one commandment. They were thrown out of Eden, and separated from God. This one act has had massive impact on the entire population of the world ever since. The next generation, and all generations that followed, wasn’t immune from sin. The story of Cain and Abel (Gen. 5, NKJV) is one of jealousy and murder. God’s once perfect creation continued to live in sin. In the subsequent chapters......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Pirastes of Silicon

...Pirates of Silicon Valley In: Computers and Technology Pirates of Silicon Valley Watching the film helped me realized that the IPHONE that I’m using right now wouldn’t be possible without the brilliant idea of Steve Jobs. Mike and Steve got along very well, they conversed well and shared similar and constructive thoughts about ways to change the world and to do important things. He's quite intelligent and makes sense, although he doesn't always listen fully but then again for me he’s my favorite inventor in the entire world. After seeing Pirates of Silicon Valley, I understand the differences between being professional and intellectually inclined. Like in Steve Jobs case he can’t easily be approach without you being perfect to his eyes and because of this Bill Gates took advantage on him. How cruel and stupid Bill did to Steve, after he gotten everything to Steve Jobs he immediately relinquished the entire corporation of Steve. I felt so devastated for him perhaps because of Steve’s attitude brought him down. On the other hand of the movie, it shows that Steve is just an ordinary person who also faces failure. Every person who is already on top cannot avoid any failures in their every endeavor. Still you should fight this and continue to develop what is in your mind, not to become a failure one. The success of Steve Jobs includes his faith, passion, courage, innovation and his vision. Faith, in a way that he didn’t know what he is doing in his life and what should be his...

Words: 288 - Pages: 2


...CRNs: 32306, 32307, 32306, 35587 Lincoln Hall 120 Monday and Wednesday 9:00-9:50 am Friday Sections Professor Rachel Havrelock Associate Professor Department of English Office 1909 University Hall Office Hours: Monday, Wednesday and Friday 1:00-2:00 pm Professor Scott Grunow Lecturer Department of English Course Description This introductory class presents a literary perspective on the Bible. Texts from the Bible stand at the center of analysis, while accompanying textbooks help us to contexualize biblical materials within history. Each week revolves around a particular theme with one lecture on the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament and one on the New Testament. Themes include creation, birth, the hero, the mountain, the community, the Temple, suffering, and the end of time. As we place biblical texts in their historical contexts, we will consider the Bible as a literary work with distinct genres, themes and conventions. The thematic connections between the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament will be explored at the same time that differences in their style and message are investigated. While reading the Bible, we will develop a vocabulary for discussing literary texts as well as a vocabulary specific to texts from the ancient world. This lively and pluralistic course provides a thorough introduction to the literature of the Bible. Course Objectives The Bible is a central text that has influenced literature,......

Words: 2487 - Pages: 10

Silicon Wafers

...Silicon wafer is a thin slice of silicon crystal used in the fabrication of integrated circuits and other micro devices. Silicon is widely used in the semiconductor industry because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than other semiconductor materials and because its native oxide is easily grown. Once grown its native oxide forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than other materials. The purpose of this article is to give a brief and basic explanation of the many different silicon wafer options available. If you are interested in purchasing any quantity of silicon wafers then Mi-Net Technology Ltd will be able to help. Please contact us for further information. Quality There are different qualities of silicon wafer available. The main qualities are PRIME, MONITOR and TEST. Prime wafers are wafers of top quality. They will generally be extremely flat and have a very low variation in thickness across the entire wafer. These wafers will be extremely clean and have a very low number of defects. Monitor and test wafers are used less for final manufacturing and more for research and quality control. They are not as clean or as flat as a prime wafer and may have many more defects across the wafer. They will however be cheaper. Growth Methods There are two common growth methods for silicon wafers. These are Czochralski and Float Zone. In the Czochralski method, high purity semiconductor grade silicon is melted down into a crucible. A......

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Silicon Valley

...Homework – Study Trip San Francisco & Silicon Valley Mag. Roland Suttner ------------------------------------------------- December 2013 “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” – Thomas Alva Edison “Most great people have attained their greatest success just one step beyond their greatest failure” -Napoleon Hill Contents 1 Venture Capital 4 2 Mechanics of raising equity capital 5 2.1 Equity financing for private companies – Sources for funding 5 2.1.1 Angel Investors 5 2.1.2 Venture Capital Firms 6 2.1.3 Institutional Investors 6 2.1.4 Corporate Investors 6 2.2 Outside Investors 6 2.3 Exiting an Investment in a Private Company 7 3 The process of start-up funding 8 3.1 Idea and co-founder stage 8 3.2 Family and friends stage 8 3.3 Seed or angel round 8 3.4 Venture Capital Round 8 4 The Initial Public Offering 10 4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Going Public 10 5 Key Elements for successful Entrepreneurship 11 6 The importance of Silicon Valley in the U.S. venture capital system 13 6.1 Venture Capital Investment in the U.S. 13 6.1.1 Venture Capital Investment since 2006 13 6.1.2 Investment by industry 13 6.1.3 Investment by regions 15 6.2 Evolution of Silicon Valley 15 6.3 Silicon Valley – an advanced high tech entrepreneurial habitat 16 6.4 The Power of Clustering 16 6.5 Features of an advanced high tech entrepreneurial habitat 16 6.6 The high-tech......

Words: 8851 - Pages: 36

Modern Chip Components

...Chapter 3 Computer Hardware W1 MODERN CHIP COMPONENTS The four most important concepts in microprocessor architectures are functional units, pipelines, caches, and buses. These factors determine how fast a processor will run and how efficiently it will communicate with the outside world. Functional units are subsystems of logic circuits that carry out a program’s instructions. Different types of functional units handle different instructions. Integer units handle fixed-point arithmetic and Boolean logic. Floating-point units handle more complex arithmetic operations, involving noninteger values. Load/store units load data from and store data to memory. Pipelines work like factory assembly lines. Each stage of the pipeline handles one relatively small and simple task that comprises part of the work needed to execute one computer instruction. A simple pipeline has four stages: fetch (retrieve an instruction from cache); decode (figure out what the instruction does); execute (carry out the instruction); and write back (store the result). Each pipeline stage usually takes one clock cycle. Most modern processors have superscalar pipelines, which are two or more pipelines arranged in parallel. That way, the processor can issue and complete multiple instructions in each clock cycle. The processor may also rearrange the instructions at execution time to put them in a more efficient order. This procedure is called dynamic execution. Modern processors can operate at speeds above......

Words: 5800 - Pages: 24

Computer Chips

...Prof. Husan 4/3/15 Research Paper What do chips do? We see chemistry all over the universe. Mainly we see it in the air or even on the walls of rotten down building of contamination. But it can also be created by us. We can choose what we really want to make to make even antidotes or even medicine. Today I chose a topic of something related to chemistry, something I thought would be kind of neat and interesting to learn. How computer chips in general computer hardware can be closely related to chemistry and how we could use it in real efficiency of time in research. Most of the standard industry use micro chips that are made from Intel. Intel is obviously a huge manufacture in this business and been here since the 1900’s. Most standard chips are made of silicon. Today silicon is everywhere it’s the most basic principle in beach sand as in a natural semiconductor and the most abundant element. First we can say the most advantage of silicon computer chips is because it’s a semiconductor. Which means when the computer runs it acts more like a conductor. Which is why it keeps temperatures low while it runs the PC or laptop from burning your motherboard. This process is called doping. It’s like saying conductors make it hard to control an electric signal. While insulators block electric signals. Semiconductors can do mostly both depending how the manufacturers want it implemented. Stability is one of the other reasons we use silicon in our computers (University of Texas at......

Words: 899 - Pages: 4


...History of Children’s Health Insurance Program 4 The Impact of Licensure, Certification and/or Accreditation on CHIP 7 CHIP Reimbursement 8 Clinical Quality 9 Patient Access to CHIP 10 CHIP Impact on the Workforce 11 References 13 Abstract Americans have always had an insurance gap, but the hardest hit seem to be the children. There was a program created to try to fill that gap. Children’s Health Insurance Program was created to insure children that would otherwise be without health coverage. This program was started under Medicare to ensure that children would have medical, dental, vision, prescription, substance abuse and some mental benefits. History of Children’s Health Insurance Program The following is the history and facts of the Children’s Health Insurance Program: * In 1997, The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was created via federal law. For children’s families that have income above the Medicare limits, this program helps states to provide health insurance to uninsured, low-income children living with families. * The original CHIP funding for fiscal years 1998 thru 2008 was between $3.1 billion and $5.0 billion. The federal and state governments share in the cost for CHIP, and states have leeway in setting criteria for eligibility and which healthcare services to cover. * By 2007, 13 states had expanded CHIP coverage to certain adults, and by using a provision of law that disregards certain types of income, allow......

Words: 2618 - Pages: 11

Through Silicon-Via (Tsv) Technology

...Through Silicon-Via (TSV) Technology Abstract Increasing demands for electronic devices with superior performance and functionality with longer battery life while reducing their sizes, weights and energy consumption has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Among all different types of packaging technologies proposed, three-dimensional (3D) vertical integration (3D stacking of chips) using through silicon via (TSV) copper interconnect is currently considered one of the most advanced technologies in the semiconductor industry. The co-efficient of thermal expansion of copper is 5-6 times more than that of silicon. This leads to thermal stresses in the via. These stresses are analyzed in this paper. Also, these stresses lead to a change in carrier mobility. This leads to formation of keep out zones (KOZ) in surrounding silicon. The various factors affecting the size of the KOZs are also considered. 1 1 Introduction A via (Latin for path or way) is an electrical connection between layers in a physical electronic circuit that goes through the plane of one or more adjacent layers. A through-silicon via (TSV) is a vertical electrical connection (via) passing completely through a silicon wafer or die. This is an interconnection method in which holes are drilled through active chips, after which they are filled with an interconnect material. Different tiers of chips are then stacked on each other by......

Words: 2618 - Pages: 11

The Creation

...Essay #2 Compare/Contrast ENG 099/011 Professor Ficarotta Patrick St. Fleur The Creation The creation of the world has been told in many ways and through the cultures has significant differences. The concept of creation that I’m most familiar with come from the bible, Genesis: Chapter 1-3. However during my recent studies on creation myths, I’ve learned many others. A common theory of the earth started is reflected in the bible and occurred within six days. Creation myths are beliefs and stories on the earliest beginnings of the world. Oral traditions throughout the different cultures are regarded as truth for the “creation” and served as the historical reference we know today. Common element s of creation myths begin with a birth, a supreme being, human and animals and instructions from the creator. Almost all cultures have at least if not all these elements in the creation myths but vary to some degree. Every revolving culture has developed creation myths centered on historical interpretation, factual events and cultural influence however the African Bushmen and the Egyptian’s are similar on morals however different in the creation. All creation myths consist of a supreme being of some kind or form. The being is not always represent but is importance is just as equal. The Greek and the Japanese show gods and goddesses, whereas the Aborigines had to supreme beings: Father of All Spirits and the Sun Mother.(Murtagh). The Japense also has two gods ......

Words: 702 - Pages: 3


...right and on top. It was when I went astray from God that led me to error. Therefore, all my trust and belief are with him and his word. Not with men. Therefore, I believe in the creationist viewpoints. The bible has never lead or stirred me wrong. Evolutionist and men have. One thing men forget is that God created. It is when men think that they are greater than God disasters happen to knock us on our head again. The flood is a prime example. It was God who created the heavens and the earth. It was God who made animals, man and see. It is God who I will and always believe in. Let us not forget that!! References Constino, J. (Writer), & Constantino, J. (Director). (1995). Creation vs. Evolution [Motion Picture]. McCoy, M. L. (October 1, 1996). Christian view on Creation vs. Evolution. Concordia Publishing House. Siegel, E. (2011, September 21). Who discovered Earth Was Round. Retrieved Jan 4, 2012, from starts with a bang:

Words: 681 - Pages: 3

Extending Human Life One Chip at a Time

...Extending Human Life One Chip at a Time COM 172 March 21, 2012 Dr. Yvette Irizarry Extending Human Life One Chip at a Time How long would you like to live? It is undeniably that scientists and technology are predestined to mend and prolong people natural lifespan expectancy. This, due to the emergence and advancements of a new technology era with highly specialized medical doctors, along with; biologists and bioengineers, electronics, chemists and chemical engineers, physicists, and mechanical engineers all working together in an orchestrated choreographed process around the globe. Novelties in nanotechnology, sustained living tissue reproduction, bio-hybrid organ devices and microfluidics platforms have evolved from a concept of fantasy to a revolutionized reality. Available technology has migrated into the medical world, allowing scientists to develop several human organs utilizing microfluidics platform technology. Harvard University has developed a highly refined lung on-a-chip that embodies numerous forms of tissues. “We started with the simplest embodiment of human airway and capillary cells, and then introduced immune cells” (Ingber, 2010, p. 661). The chip consists of micro-channels parted by a malleable micrometer tissue. A single conduit encompasses air sacks lining like human lungs, and the other channel conveys capillaries, and to emulate blood flow, it has liquids flowing. The chip highlights the cells’ behavior and fluctuations when they are stretched....

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7


...silicon 14 | aluminium ← silicon → phosphorus | C ↑ Si ↓ Ge | Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table | | | General | Name, Symbol, Number | silicon, Si, 14 | Chemical series | metalloids | Group, Period, Block | 14, 3, p | Appearance | dark gray, bluish tinge  | Atomic mass | 28.0855(3) g/mol | Electron configuration | [Ne] 3s2 3p2 | Electrons per shell | 2, 8, 4 | Physical properties | Phase | solid | Density (near r.t.) | 2.33 g·cm−3 | Liquid density at m.p. | 2.57 g·cm−3 | Melting point | 1687 K (1414 °C, 2577 °F) | Boiling point | 3538 K (3265 °C, 5909 °F) | Heat of fusion | 50.21 kJ·mol−1 | Heat of vaporization | 359 kJ·mol−1 | Heat capacity | (25 °C) 19.789 J·mol−1·K−1 | P/Pa | 1 | 10 | 100 | 1 k | 10 k | 100 k | at T/K | 1908 | 2102 | 2339 | 2636 | 3021 | 3537 | Vapor pressure | | Atomic properties | Crystal structure | Diamond Lattice | Oxidation states | 4 (amphoteric oxide) | Electronegativity | 1.90 (Pauling scale) | Ionization energies (more) | 1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1 | | 2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1 | | 3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1 | Atomic radius | 110 pm | Atomic radius (calc.) | 111 pm | Covalent radius | 111 pm | Van der Waals radius | 210 pm | Miscellaneous | Magnetic ordering | nonmagnetic | Thermal conductivity | (300 K) 149 W·m−1·K−1 | Thermal expansion | (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1 | Speed of sound (thin rod) | (20 °C) 8433 m/s | Young's modulus | 47 GPa | Bulk modulus | 100......

Words: 2528 - Pages: 11