Computer Storage

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By mariahassan
Words 1498
Pages 6
The device, which is used to store data, is called computer storage. We can divide computer storage into following categories. Computer Storage




ROM Optical Disk Magnetic Disk Magnetic Tape RAM Cache





Secondary Storage
It is not possible to store large amount of data for future use in primary memory of computer because its size is small and it cannot store data on permanent basis. So it is necessary to use some extra media to store large amount of data. That kind of memory is called secondary storage, auxiliary storage, additional storage, external storage or semi-permanent storage. This memory is cheaper that primary memory due to different storage mechanism. Its speed is also slower than RAM. There are two types of secondary memory.

Sequential Access Storage:
Sequential Access Memory is one in which data is retrieved is in the same sequence in which it is stored.

Direct/Random Access Storage:
Direct Access Storage is one in which data is retrieved directly/randomly without any sequence.

Magnetic tape is one of the oldest & popular devices used for storing data permanently. As its name suggest, this device stores information on a magnetic tape that is made of plastic (Mylar) that is the form of magnetic spots.

The tape ribbon itself is stored in reels of 50 to 2400 feet or small cartridge or cassette.

It is similar to the tape used on a tape recorder expect that it is higher quality and more durable.

Non-Volatile Nature
By nature it is non-volatile memory. Like recorder tape computer tape can be erased and reused indefinitely. Old data on a tape are automatically erased as new data are recorded in the same area.

Advantages of Magnetic Tape Unlimited storage
The storage capacity of a magnetic tape is virtually unlimited…...

Similar Documents

How Speed of a Computer Is Affected by Different Storage Devices

...How Speed of a Computer Is Affected By Different Storage Devices Traci Benge CIS/201 May 7, 2012 Charles Jacks Abstract Today’s computers have different ways to store data. Some examples of these ways are devices as the hard disk (aka magnetic disk), floppy disk, RAM, CD ROM, tape, and the flash (aka jump drive, USB memory stick, and thumb drive). Storage devices come in two different sources; primary or secondary. Each of these devices causes the computer to process data at different speeds. This paper will show how each of these devices store data and how they affect the speed of the computer. How Speed of a Computer Is Affected By Different Storage Devices The hard disk of a computer is a secondary type of storage. It can be either an external or internal source of storage for a computer. It is primarily to store a mass amount of data. The data remains stored on the hard disk indefinitely until permanently deleted. The hard disk stores the operating systems and application instructions. Without the hard disk the computer would not know how to open any of its operating systems or any of the other applications for the user. In this RAM (Random Access Memory) works with the hard disk. RAM is part of the primary storage; it contains a software program with small amounts of data for processing. When the computer boots up, it loads the whole program from the hard disk through RAM. Its storage capabilities get larger the farther away it is......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Cloud Storage

...Cloud Storage Flash Research Paper Cloud computing is one of the biggest buzzwords flying around the technology world lately. Our company is located in New Orleans, LA, and in 2004 when Hurricane Katrina hit we had to completely start over with our data because all backups were destroyed with the building by the water. A solid, growing and ever-cheapening option for backups for us is cloud storage. The main idea of this technology is that it keeps all backups in a completely remote location and allows it to be accessed anywhere that we can get Internet. It is a safe and fairly cheap alternative to storing backups in our own datacenter or off site down the street like we do now. According to our data needs we only need to pay the hosting site to lease the amount of storage that we use, rather than having to spend a lot on dedicated servers because they can use their multiple servers on multiple companies. The main benefit to this technology is the fact that we don’t need to do any of the tedious tasks of maintaining, purchasing, and supporting servers, they are all handled by the hosting company. Cost cutting is the main benefit there as we can focus our IT people on optimizing our company rather than paying them to maintain the backups. Also all of the servers are placed off site. One company that I found that would provide this service for us well is the company Barracuda Networks. They are situated in Campbell, CA, and completely away from our natural-disaster-prone...

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Storage Devices

... BACKUP STORAGE DEVICES AND MEDIA |Name/Definition |Picture |Cost |Storage Capacity |Speed |Comments | |3.5” floppy |[pic] |£3.87 each |About 1.44MB | |Too small for anyone to use. | |Flash/pen drives |[pic] |£12.25 |32GB |72.51 MB/s |Used to transfer data quickly | | | | | |111.71 MB/s |and easily | | | | | | | | | | | | |Read Write | | |CD-RW |[pic] |£5.45 (10) |700MB |Burns at 4x |Can......

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Dna Storage

...DNA DATA STORAGE GOOD OR BAD? Thomas Tyrrell Will Combs With the growth of the amount of data that is now being stored, the idea behind storing that data in DNA is a fascinating one. Companies, governments and universities face an enormous challenge storing the ever-growing flood of digitized information, the videos, books, movies and songs sent over the Internet. Some researchers have looked for answers in biology. In recent years, they have found ways to encode trademarks in cells and store pieces of music in the genetic code of micro-organisms. Many movies have explored the human DNA as both an advantage and a disadvantage. Some might say that storing information in our DNA is a bad thing. But in my opinion the advantages are too great to ignore. This will open up an entirely new world for human evolution. Being able to store personal data in your own DNA will increase security levels to an unprecedented level. And with the flow of information these days the need for this security is at an all time high. The first bits of digital information were stored in DNA in 1988. However, it was impractical, both difficult and expensive. Even as recently as 2012, costs and times for reading and writing were only practical for century-scale archives. The latest development makes storing data on a 50-year timescale feasible, and archives for shorter timescales could become cost effective within a decade. A team of researchers headed by Nick Goldman and Ewan Birney at the......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Hitachi Virtual Storage Platform

...Hitachi Virtual Storage Platform Hitachi Storage Navigator User Guide FASTFIND LINKS Document Organization Product Version Getting Help Contents MK-90RD7027-00 Copyright © 2010 Hitachi, Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or stored in a database or retrieval system for any purpose without the express written permission of Hitachi, Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Hitachi”) and Hitachi Data Systems Corporation (hereinafter referred to as “Hitachi Data Systems”). Hitachi and Hitachi Data Systems reserve the right to make changes to this document at any time without notice and assume no responsibility for its use. This document contains the most current information available at the time of publication. When new and/or revised information becomes available, this entire document will be updated and distributed to all registered users. Some of the features described in this document may not be currently available. Refer to the most recent product announcement or contact your local Hitachi Data Systems sales office for information about feature and product availability. Notice: Hitachi Data Systems products and services can be ordered only under the terms and conditions of the applicable Hitachi Data Systems agreement(s). The use of Hitachi Data Systems products is governed by the terms of your agreement(s) with Hitachi Data Systems.......

Words: 42378 - Pages: 170

Cloud Storage

...meeting, or it can be as personal as photos, contact information, phone numbers, addresses, music or anniversary dates. In a sense, it is a folder; of one’s important documents. But as that information grows with a person, so too must the storage capacity of their devices. As technology continues to advance, we are now embarking on a new error, one where we are using a new storage device called, Cloud Storage. This new service is allowing people to have faster access to their personal information and even be able to have more information saved without the worries of overloading their devices with too much ‘stuff’. By definition, Cloud Storage is defined by the practice of using a network of remote servers, hosted on the Internet, to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer, such as a internal or external hard drive.1 Therefore, putting your data into the ‘cloud’, such as it may, you are essentially handing it over to a provider who may have data centers in many different places, countries or even continents. In general, it really refers to saving data to an off-site storage system, which is maintained by a third party.2 Instead of storing information to your computer's hard drive or other local storage device, you would save it to a remote database....

Words: 406 - Pages: 2

Storage Technology

...NATIONAL MANAGEMENT COLLEGE STORAGE TECHNOLOHY Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement For Diploma in Hardware Engineering MG AUNG KYAW SOE Roll No. 6 Batch 25 Diploma project report January, 2014 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents because I had attended “Diploma in Hardware Engineering”. Next, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Than Win (Principal of National Management Collage, Yangon) and Daw Khin Toe Yin (Managing Director of Winner Computer Group). Special thanks to Saya U Myo Aung Latt. A very grateful thanks to all my teachers, lectures and also teachers from laboratory for their supervision, advise and patience. Special thanks my hardware teachers Daw Ohnmar Myo, U Thein Moe, U Min Thu and U Win Naing Oo. 2 CONTENT Page CHAPTER – 1 1.1 1.2 INTRODUCTION 6 6 7 9 Computer data storage Storage Type 1.2.1 1.2.2 Primary storage Secondary storage CHAPTER – 2 2.1 2.2 STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 12 The basic components of data storage system Interaction with a storage system and other computer Components 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Online storage vs. External hard drives Off-line storage Memory hierarchy Memory organization Main memory Secondary memory Type of storage technology CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 MAGNETIC STORAGE 19 20 21 23 23 24 24 How to work magnetic storage History Design Magnetic recording classes 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 Analog recording......

Words: 9711 - Pages: 39

Old Storage Devices

...developed in 1946, the memory storage device proved expensive and suffered from production problems, so it never became a success. Above: The 1024-bit Selectron. Punch cards Early computers often used punch cards for input both of programs and data. Punch cards were in common use until the mid-1970s. It should be noted that the use of punch cards predates computers. They were used as early as 1725 in the textile industry (for controlling mechanized textile looms). Above: Card from a Fortran program: Z(1) = Y + W(1) Above left: Punch card reader. Above right: Punch card writer. Punched tape Same as with punch cards, punched tape was originally pioneered by the textile industry for use with mechanized looms. For computers, punch tape could be used for data input but also as a medium to output data. Each row on the tape represented one character. Above: 8-level punch tape (8 holes per row). Magnetic drum memory Invented all the way back in 1932 (in Austria), it was widely used in the 1950s and 60s as the main working memory of computers. In the mid-1950s, magnetic drum memory had a capacity of around 10 kB. Above left: The magnetic Drum Memory of the UNIVAC computer. Above right: A 16-inch-long drum from the IBM 650 computer. It had 40 tracks, 10 kB of storage space, and spun at 12,500 revolutions per minute. The Hard Disk Drive The first hard disk drive was the IBM Model 350 Disk File that came with the IBM 305 RAMAC computer in 1956. It had 50......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Cloud Storage

...SWIFTSTACK TECH BRIEF Cloudy Weather for Enterprise Storage – an Enterprise Storage Veteran Looks Forward July 2014 by Dave Roberson Executive Summary This whitepaper looks at the root causes of user demands for better, cheaper storage services and IT’s options to meet those demands. In particular, it explains how the shift in value off proprietary hardware and onto open software stacks is happening in storage just as happened over the last decade with server virtualization. Enterprise storage as we have known it for the last four decades is facing significant internal and external pressures. The rapid growth of inexpensive or even free public cloud storage for consumers has created a bring-your-own storage grass-roots revolution demanding IT deliver simple self-service storage at costs far below current chargeback levels. At the same time the capacity requirements for user-generated content from sources like mobile applications is becoming a driving force in storage expansion. While public cloud options exist for enterprises they still have often unacceptable gaps in security and control despite their favorable economics compared to legacy on-premise storage. All of these factors are making it both technically and economically indefensible to just keep expanding your reliance on existing legacy NAS and SANs that suffer from years of vendor lock-in and are burdened by costly proprietary hardware. Something new is needed and the option of pushing data out to public cloud......

Words: 4121 - Pages: 17


...ASPECTS OF COMPUTER L I T E R A C Y Violence and Technology, are never good bed fellows. 1 2 6/6/2013 Aspects of computer literacy What is a computer?      what are its limitations what is a program (not necessarily how to program) what is a known as hardware? What is known as software? what a computer can and cannot do How computer illiterate am I?  3 6/6/2013 Aspects of computer literacy One problematic element of many (though not all) "computer literacy" or computer education programs is that they may resort too heavily on rote memorization. Students may be taught, for example, how to perform several common functions (e.g.: Open a file, Save a file, Quit the program) in very specific ways, using one specific version of one specific program. 1 06/06/2013 4 6/6/2013 Aspects of computer literacy When a graduate of such a program encounters a competing program, or even a different version of the same program, they may be confused or even frightened by the differences from what they learned. 5 6/6/2013 Aspects of computer literacy This is one reason why major computer and software firms such as Apple Computer and Microsoft consider the educational market important: The often time-limited computer education provided in schools most often lends itself to note memorization, creating a sort of vendor lock-in effect whereby graduates are afraid to switch to competing computer systems. 6 6/6/2013 Aspects of......

Words: 2401 - Pages: 10

Storage Devices

...NT1110 Mr. Khan Nicole Snyder Kat Genovesio STORAGE DEVICES Installing a new hard drive requires creating partitions, formatting partitions before installing operating system. Hard drives are comprised of platters, have read/write heads on top and bottom for each platter. Since they are coated with magnetic film, which contain the bits, they should never be exposed to a magnet as it may result in data loss. Hard drives and gilded to protect their data, but floppy disks are not. The BIOS can be flashed to upgrade the system. The hard drives can attach to the motherboard using different interfaces, such as PATA, SATA, SCSI, USB, and FireWire; PATA (Parallel ATA) interface is most commonly used and is sometimes referred to as IDE or EIDE. The IDE (PATA) cable has 2 connector which are master and slave, the motherboard supports 2 cables which are primary and secondary. The motherboard can support 4 devices total (primary master/slave and secondary master/slave). The motherboard connector may be color coded, blue is primary and black is second. The cable connectors may also be color coded, blue goes into motherboard (regardless of primary or secondary), black goes to first device and grey is second device. The jumpers on the drive determine the master/slave designation. The hard drive should be installed as master on the primary cable, other devices should be second to improve performance. The cords have improved from 40 pin/40 wires to 40 pin/80 wires (the extra wires are...

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Energy Storage

...The Commercial World of Energy Storage: A Review of Operating Facilities (under construction or planned) Septimus van der Linden Principal Brulin Associates 1st Annual Conference of the Energy Storage Council March 3, 2003 Houston, TX AGENDA • INTRODUCTION • TECHNOLOGIES • PROJECTS • FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS • CONCLUSIONS Motivation for Electrical Energy Storage Price of Electricity Power Generation Energy Storage Time - Make Use of Volatile Electricity Prices - INTRODUCTION • Electricity! 3rd Largest Business in the USA $300 billion/per annum. • Demand for Electricity is seldom constant over time. • Excess generation during low demand periods - can be stored. • Stored Energy can provide Electricity during high demand. • Help reduce power system loads. • Improve Efficiency and Reliability. • Make better use of efficient Baseload generation. • Allow use of Renewable Energy technologies. TECHNOLOGIES • • • • Batteries Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Flywheels Pumped Hydro Storage Two Main Categories: • Bulk Energy Storage – CAES-PHS • Distributed Energy Storage – Batteries-Flywheels-Other (capacitors) PROJECTS • OPERATING • UNDER CONSTRUCTION • PLANNED PROJECTS OPERATING • Bulk Energy Storage • PHS (Pumped Hydro) - First introduced circa 1904 in Swiss Alps. – 100,000 MW Europe, Asia & Latin America. – 21,000 MW Japan. – 18,900 MW in USA. (Installed 1970-1990) • CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) – Two Highly Successful......

Words: 1830 - Pages: 8

Mass Storage System

...MASS-STORAGE SYSTEM ROMERO, MHICA ANGEL M . OUTLINE Overview of Mass Storage Structure Disk Structure Disk Attachment Disk Scheduling Disk Management Swap-Space Management RAID Structure Stable-Storage Implementation OBJECTIVES Describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices and the resulting effects on the uses of the devices Explain the performance characteristics of mass-storage devices Discuss operating-system services provided for mass storage Magnetic Tapes Magnetic Disks Solid State Disks » Magnetic tape ˃ Was early secondary-storage medium ˃ Relatively permanent and holds large quantities of data ˃ Access time slow ˃ Random access ~1000 times slower than disk ˃ Mainly used for backup, storage of infrequently-used data, transfer medium between systems ˃ Kept in spool and wound or rewound past read-write head ˃ Once data under head, transfer rates comparable to disk ˃ 20-200GB typical storage ˃ Common technologies are 4mm, 8mm, 19mm, LTO-2 and SDLT » Magnetic disks provide bulk of secondary storage of modern computers ˃ Drives rotate at 60 to 200 times per second ˃ Transfer rate is rate at which data flow between drive and computer ˃ Positioning time (random-access time) is time to move disk arm to desired cylinder (seek time) and time for desired sector to rotate under the disk head (rotational latency) ˃ Head crash results from disk head making contact with the disk......

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Gas Storage

...Gas Storage With the ever growing reserves of natural gas being discovered, production of this fossil fuel is at an all-time high. Production of natural gas in the US has increased year over year for the past 11 years up to about 29 million cubic feet in 2015. With this surplus in supply, produced gas must be stored until it’s needed. There are 3 main areas where gas can be stored for longer durations once brought to surface. These 3 areas are depleted gas reservoirs, which make up about 85-90% of storage, aquifers and salt caverns. “Typically, the turn-over rate for natural gas in these facilities is a year; natural gas is generally injected during the summer (non-heating season), which usually runs from April through October, and withdrawn during the winter (heating season), usually from November to March.” ( Unfortunately, this year that wasn’t the case. Due to the relative warm winter in the US, gas wasn’t needed as much as in years past and gas withdrawal from storage was at one of the lowest points in Pennsylvania history. If you pair that with record production, you can understand why the natural gas industry has been hit so hard recently. Depleted Gas Storage Fields In general these are the most common and cheapest ways to store gas. They can date back in the US all the way to 1930. These storage wells are just wells that had already been drilled and had the gas brought to the surface. This helps with the storage for a few......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Storage Technologies

...Storage Technologies Nearly every facet of computer technology, like processor speed, memory capacity and I/O capabilities has seen dramatic improvements since its inception. The one technology that has lagged behind is storage. Although data storage has seen considerable improvements from its infancy in 1956, it has not seen major disruptive changes; though, according to the CEO of Pure Storage, Scott Dietzen, in this next decade it’s going to be storage’s turn to face disruptive change (Korbin, 2011). This means that as this decade takes its course, we’ll see major changes in the way we store our data. Pure Storage, a company focused on data storage, has proposed one solution to our need to effectively and efficiently store large amounts of data. We all have heard of flash memory—non-volatile computer storage that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed—and we also know that flash memory is quite expensive compared to traditional storage technologies. The benefit of adopting flash memory for storing data has been unrealized by enterprises, primarily due to the high cost of implementing such infrastructure. Nevertheless, for enterprises undertaking the transition to a virtualized environment, flash memory can be an alluring proposition. Faster, smaller and more efficient than traditional disk technologies, flash makes a convincing case (Korbin, 2011). Scott Dietzens’ Pure Storage company boasts a solution that delivers enterprise-caliber storage at a price point......

Words: 871 - Pages: 4