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Words 3502

Pages 15

Learning Objectives 1. Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between two population means whenandare known. 2. Know the properties of the sampling distribution of . 3. Be able to use the t distribution to conduct statistical inferences about the difference between two population means whenandare unknown. 4. Learn how to analyze the difference between two population means when the samples are independent and when the samples are matched. 5. Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between two population proportions. 6. Know the properties of the sampling distribution of .

Solutions: 1. a. = 13.6 - 11.6 = 2 b. 1.645

2 .98 (1.02 to 2.98)…...

...Solutions Manual for Statistical Inference, Second Edition George Casella University of Florida Roger L. Berger North Carolina State University Damaris Santana University of Florida 0-2 Solutions Manual for Statistical Inference “When I hear you give your reasons,” I remarked, “the thing always appears to me to be so ridiculously simple that I could easily do it myself, though at each successive instance of your reasoning I am baﬄed until you explain your process.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes A Scandal in Bohemia 0.1 Description This solutions manual contains solutions for all odd numbered problems plus a large number of solutions for even numbered problems. Of the 624 exercises in Statistical Inference, Second Edition, this manual gives solutions for 484 (78%) of them. There is an obtuse pattern as to which solutions were included in this manual. We assembled all of the solutions that we had from the ﬁrst edition, and ﬁlled in so that all odd-numbered problems were done. In the passage from the ﬁrst to the second edition, problems were shuﬄed with no attention paid to numbering (hence no attention paid to minimize the new eﬀort), but rather we tried to put the problems in logical order. A major change from the ﬁrst edition is the use of the computer, both symbolically through Mathematicatm and numerically using R. Some solutions are given as code in either of these languages. Mathematicatm can be purchased from Wolfram Research, and R is......

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...Chapter 10: Re-expressing Data: Get it Straight Creating a model is a mechanical process; knowing when it is appropriate to use it is a thinking/analysis process. A useful model is the ultimate goal. Linear Models have tools that are relatively simple to understand and interpret: slope, yintercept. We can verify that a linear model is appropriate by checking the conditions and looking at the residual plot. Curved Models can be fit, but relatively speaking are more difficult to calculate. First Approach: Make sure that a re-expression can be meaningful. • Once we re-express, decide if the model is appropriate o Create the model o Plot the residuals o If there is still a curve, build another model o When the model has random, scattered residuals then we interpret using the model • Scatter plot shows a mixture of “signal” and “noise” o Signal is the underlying association between the variables o Noise is the random variation unaccounted for by the association o Example: in a scatter plot of height and weight, generally tall people weigh more; however, not all 6 ft tall people weigh the same—that variation is the noise. We want a regression model that describes the signal (the underlying relationship between ht and wt) Residual plot shows us the variation that is not explained by the model If the plot is random (just noise) then we have captured the whole signal If a curve remains in the residual plot, then we missed some of the signal meaning we need to look for a better......

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...CHAPTER TWO: Theoretical Foundations CHAPTER OVERVIEW As more firms enter the international marketplace, the competitive environment is more complex than ever. How can firms determine their level of competitiveness in a marketplace of expanded and increasingly intense rivalry? This chapter seeks to answer that question in a multi-faceted manner. First, the concepts of country-specific and firm-specific advantages are presented from the theories of international trade and the multinational firm. Firms must be aware of which advantages they can utilize in operationalizing their competitive advantages. The extent to which these advantages are transferable to other markets and not bound only to the markets in which a firm already operates will determine how successful that firm may be in new foreign markets. Then the Porter's Five Forces model is adapted as a systematic framework for analyzing the competitive environment in any market of the world. Finally, market-based and resource-based marketing strategies are compared. By skillful application of both perspectives, an organization may be well on its way to a profitable multinational presence. QUICK REFERENCE CHAPTER OUTLINE A. Introduction B. Country-Specific Advantages (CSAs) 1. Comparative Advantage & Absolute Advantage 2. International Product Cycle 3. National Competitive Advantages 4. The New Trade Theory 5. CSAs and Country-of-Origin Effects C. Firm-Specific Advantages......

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... Chapter 10 Product Liability I. Definition of Product Liability Manufacturers and anyone in the chain of product distribution can be legally liable for defective products that cause injury to the purchaser, a user or bystander, or their property. Most states have adopted strict product liability, whereby an injured person may recover damages without showing that the manufacturer was negligent or otherwise at fault without a contractual relationship. II. Theories of Recovery The primary theories on which a product liability claim can be brought are breach of warranty, negligence, and strict liability. A. Breach of Warranty In a warranty action, the question is whether the quality, characteristics, and safety of the product were consistent with the implied or express representations made by the seller. 1. UCC Warranties may be either express or implied for merchantability or fitness for a particular purchase, as set forth in Chapter 8. 2. Privity of Contract Breach-of-warranty is based on contract law. Generally, an injured person to recover for a breach of warranty, he must be in a contractual relationship (privity) with the seller (a consumer or buyer of the product) and prevents recovery from bystanders not in privity with the seller. B. Negligence To prove negligence in a product liability case, plaintiff must show defendant did not use reasonable care in designing or manufacturing its product or in providing adequate......

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...LOG OM 5300 Statistical Analysis for Business Decisions Syllabus Spring 2013 Section G01 (11477): T 1855-2135, 132 SSB Instructor: Dr. Alan C. Wheeler Office: ESH 230, 516-6136, awheel@umsl.edu Office hours: MW 1230-1330; T 1400-1500, 1745-1845; or by appointment Text: Statistics for Business and Economics, revised 11th edition, by David R. Anderson, Dennis J. Sweeney, and Thomas A. Williams, South-Western Calculator: hand-held with keys for natural logarithm, mean, and standard deviation Course Description: The role of statistical evidence in the formation of inference and in the selection of strategies in solving business problems is developed. Probability and probability distributions are studied as a basis of statistical inference. An introduction to multivariate analysis is provided, which includes analysis of variance and regression methods. Specifically, the course covers in order most of the material in the following chapters of the text: Chapter Topic 1 Data and Statistics 2 Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations 3 Descriptive Statistics: Numerical Measures 4 Introduction to Probability 5 Discrete Probability Distributions 6 Continuous Probability Distributions 7 Sampling and Sampling Distributions 8 Interval Estimation 9 Hypothesis Tests 10 Statistical Inference About Means and Proportions With Two Populations 11 Inferences About Population Variances 12 Tests of Goodness of Fit...

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...Hypothesis Testing Statistical Method Karl Phillip R. Alcarde MBA University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos DEFINITION DEFINITION Hypothesis testing or significance testing is a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter in a population, using data measured in a sample. In this method, we test some hypothesis by determining the likelihood that a sample statistic could have been selected, if the hypothesis regarding the population parameter were true. Hypothesis testing or significance testing is a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter in a population, using data measured in a sample. In this method, we test some hypothesis by determining the likelihood that a sample statistic could have been selected, if the hypothesis regarding the population parameter were true. The method of hypothesis testing can be summarized in four steps. 1. To begin, we identify a hypothesis or claim that we feel should be tested. For example, we might want to test the claim that the mean number of hours that children in the United States watch TV is 3 hours. 2. We select a criterion upon which we decide that the claim being tested is true or not. For example, the claim is that children watch 3 hours of TV per week. Most samples we select should have a mean close to or equal to 3 hours if the claim we are testing is true. So at what point do we decide that the discrepancy between the sample mean and 3 is so big that the claim......

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...Chapter 10 Statistical Inference about Means and Proportions with Two Populations Learning Objectives 1. Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between two population means when σ 1 and σ 2 are known. Know the properties of the sampling distribution of x1 − x2 . Be able to use the t distribution to conduct statistical inferences about the difference between two population means when σ 1 and σ 2 are unknown. Learn how to analyze the difference between two population means when the samples are independent and when the samples are matched. Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between two population proportions. Know the properties of the sampling distribution of p1 − p2 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 10 - 1 Chapter 10 Solutions: 1. a. b. x1 − x2 = 13.6 - 11.6 = 2 zα / 2 = z.05 = 1.645 x1 − x2 ± 1.645 σ 12 n1 + 2 σ2 n2 2 ± 1.645 (2.2) 2 (3) 2 + 50 35 2 ± .98 c. (1.02 to 2.98) zα / 2 = z.025 = 1.96 2 ± 1.96 (2.2) 2 (3) 2 + 50 35 2 ± 1.17 2. a. z= (.83 to 3.17) = (25.2 − 22.8) − 0 (5.2) 2 62 + 40 50 = 2.03 ( x1 − x2 ) − D0 σ 2 1 n1 + σ 2 2 n2 b. c. 3. a. p-value = .5000 - .4788 = .0212 p-value ≤ .05, reject H0. z= ( x1 − x2 ) − D0 σ 2 1 n1 + σ 2 2 = (104 − 106) − 0 (8.4) 2 (7.6) 2 + 80 70 = −1.53 n2 b. c. 4. a. p-value = 2(.5000 - .4370) = .1260 p-value > .05, do not reject......

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...CHAPTER 10 DETERMINING HOW COSTS BEHAVE 10-16 (10 min.) Estimating a cost function. 1. Slope coefficient = = [pic] = [pic]= $0.35 per machine-hour Constant = Total cost – (Slope coefficient ( Quantity of cost driver) = $5,400 – ($0.35 ( 10,000) = $1,900 = $4,000 – ($0.35 ( 6,000) = $1,900 The cost function based on the two observations is Maintenance costs = $1,900 + $0.35 ( Machine-hours 2. The cost function in requirement 1 is an estimate of how costs behave within the relevant range, not at cost levels outside the relevant range. If there are no months with zero machine-hours represented in the maintenance account, data in that account cannot be used to estimate the fixed costs at the zero machine-hours level. Rather, the constant component of the cost function provides the best available starting point for a straight line that approximates how a cost behaves within the relevant range. 10-17 (15 min.) Identifying variable-, fixed-, and mixed-cost functions. 1. See Solution Exhibit 10-17. 2. Contract 1: y = $50 Contract 2: y = $30 + $0.20X Contract 3: y = $1X where X is the number of miles traveled in the day. |3. |Contract |Cost Function | | |1 | Fixed | | |2 |Mixed | | |3 |Variable ...

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...Name: Jennifer Johnson Assignment: Chapter 2 Review Class: CS-2713 |Question|Answer|Page #| 1|Why is information security a management problem? What can management do that technology cannot?|Information security is a management problem because mangers have to enforce the policy. Management can make sure polices are implemented, Technology can’t make people do anything. |41| 2|Why is data the most important asset an organization possesses? What other assets in the organization require protection?|Data is the most important asset because without it an organization loses its record of transactions or ability to deliver value to its customers. Another asset that requires protection is technology.|42| 3|Which management groups are responsible for implementing information security to protect the organization’s ability to function?|The management groups that are responsible for implementing Info Security are general management and IT management.|41| 4|Has the implementation of networking technology created more or less risk for businesses that use information technology? Why?|The implementation of networking technology has created more risk for businesses that use information technology because business networks are now connected to the internet and other networks external to the organization. This has made it easier for people to gain unauthorized access to the organization’s networks.|| 5|What is information extortion? Describe how such an attack can cause losses, using an...

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...Megan VanSickle Climate Change Collapse Summaries Chapter 10-Malthus in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide Summary In Chapter 10 Jared Diamond is educating the readers in the instance of Rwanda’s collapse with the conditions of lack of farming land, hunger, war, poverty, lack of natural resources and more. These were caused by population pressure. Overpopulation is the primary cause which brings many problems along with it. Diamond begins the chapter by discussing and talking about his family’s stay in East Africa. He and his family saw overpopulated streets of poor people which sadly most of them were children. The children were on the side of the road begging. Diamond also discusses how population problems such as this with East Africa are sometimes pointed out as Malthusian theory. This is when population grows rapidly compared to food production increases. Diamond also discusses the Rwanda’s people that were controlled and influenced by Hutus, mostly farmers and Tutsis. Hutus and Tutsis did not like each other so Hutus army started killing Tutsis with weapons. Diamond later causes many examples such as overpopulation in Kanama. This caused population consuming below the average daily required calories. This educated readers about the different regions that are coming to be thee victims of population pressure. At the end of chapter 10, Diamond thinks that overpopulation had great impact on the Rwandan genocide. Diamond uses three counterarguments in order to prove his point...

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... Chapter TWO THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER CONTENTS Overview of the Chapter 2 Learning Objectives 2 Key Terms 2 Lecture Outline 3 Learning Objectives Revisited 9 Lecture Enhancers 10 Notes for Topics for Discussion and Action 12 Notes for Building Management Skills 16 Notes for Management For You 17 Notes for Small Group Breakout Exercise 17 Notes For Managing Ethically 19 Notes For Web Exercises 19 Notes for You’re the Management Consultant 19 Notes for Management Case 20 Notes for Management Case in the News from the pages of Business Week 21 Overview of the Chapter This chapter examines the organizational environment in detail. It identifies the principal forces—both task and general—that create pressure and influence management and thus affect the way organizations operate. It concludes with a study of several methods that managers can use to help organizations adjust and respond to forces in the organizational environment. Learning Objectives 1. Explain why being able to perceive, interpret, and respond appropriately to the organizational environment is crucial for managers’ success. 1. Identify the main forces in an organization’s general and task environments, and describe the challenges that each force presents to managers. 1. Discuss the main ways in which managers can manage the organizational environment. Key Terms barriers to entry brand loyalty command economy competitors customers demographic forces ...

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...advertisement, so you need statistical evidence to support this assertion. Identify the null and alternative hypothesis needed to test the contention. Null Hypothesis: Gander Mountain (u1) < Cabela’s (u2) Alternative Hypothesis: Gander Mountain (u1) > Cabela’s (u2) Utilizing the information from the outside consumer the null hypothesis that our brand (u1) prices are less than competitor bran (u2) is rejected, making the alternative hypothesis (u1) with higher prices to be accepted. Identify the most appropriate sample section technique to gather data for testing the hypothesis. Use a probability sample or simple random sample technique for both companies; generating random sample purchase dates and various ammunition purchases. What statistical test should you use to accept or reject this hypothesis using the data you will collect? If the standard deviation is unknown, we assume the t-test will work wince we have two independent samples. We could also use a t-test or z-test because they have equal value and both tests could be used if the independent sample size is large enough. Scenario #2 Your love of golf has brought you back to the range as the new product manager for UniDun's Straight Flight (SF) line of golf balls. The company's research and development group has been experimenting with dimple patterns that promote straight flight and feel they have achieved some degree of success. You, however, are worried about the effect that......

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...Comparing the Means of Two or More Groups When it comes to comparing the means of two or more groups, we must state that a null hypothesis. Random samples of each population must be chosen to be able to show the formula in a working status. To get a more accurate sample, a higher number of the populations should be used. There are two tees that can be used for testing depending on the sample size and if the standard deviation is known. The t-test, which test of whether a sample observation comes from a larger sample with standard distribution of statistical properties. The z-test, “a statistical test used to determine whether two population means are different when the variances are known and the sample size is large.” (Investopedia, 2015) If the standard deviation is known then the z-test would be used, and when it is not known we would use the t-test. (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2011) To determine whether a sample is large the sample amount needs to be more than 30. When there are more than two means to compare, the more efficient method is an analysis of variance, or ANOVA. An ANOVA is especially valuable for randomized sampling designs (McClave, Benson & Sincich, 2011). Pooled variance can be used if the variances of the two populations being tested are constant. Reference Investopedia. (2015). Retrieved from Investopedia: www.investopedia.com/terms/z/z-test Lind, D. A., Marchal, W. G., & Wathen, S. A. (2011). Basic Statistics for Business &......

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...Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (2005). CHAPTER 10: Malthus in Africa: Rwanda's Genocide A dilemma ■ Events in Rwanda ■ More than ethnic hatred ■ Buildup in Kanama ■ Explosion in Kanama ■ Why it happened When my twin sons were 10 years old and again when they were 15, my wife and I took them on family vacations to East Africa. Like many other tourists, the four of us were overwhelmed by our firsthand experience of Africa's famous large animals, landscapes, and people. No matter how often we had already seen wildebeest moving across the TV screen of National Geographic specials viewed in the comfort of our living rooms, we were unprepared for the sight, sound, and smell of millions of them on the Serengeti Plains, as we sat in a Land Rover surrounded by a herd stretching from our vehicle to the horizon in all directions. Nor had television prepared us for the immense size of Ngorongoro Crater's flat and treeless floor, and for the steepness and height of its inner walls down which one drives from a tourist hotel perched on the rim to reach that floor. East Africa's people also overwhelmed us, with their friendliness, warmth to our children, colorful clothes -- and their sheer numbers. To read in the abstract about "the population explosion" is one thing; it is quite another thing to encounter, day after day, lines of African children along the roadside, many of them about the same size and age as my sons, calling out to passing......

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...University of Phoenix Material Two Population Means A tomato farmer with a very large farm of approximately 2200 acres had heard about a new type of rather expensive fertilizer which would supposedly significantly increase his production. The frugal farmer wanted to test the new fertilizer before committing the large investment required to fertilize a farm of his size. He therefore selected 15 parcels of land on his property and divided them each into two portions. He bought just enough of the new fertilizer to spread over one half of each parcel and then spread the old fertilizer over the other half of each parcel. His yields in pounds per tomato plant were as follows: |Parcel |New Fertilizer |Old Fertilizer | |1 |14.2 |14.0 | |2 |14.1 |13.9 | |3 |14.5 |14.4 | |4 |15.0 |14.8 | |5 |13.9 |13.6 | |6 |14.5 |14.1 | |7 |14.7 ...

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