Cbbe Scale New

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Codai
Words 8263
Pages 34
A cross-national validation of the consumer-based brand equity scale
Isabel Buil
Department of Economy and Business Studies, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

Leslie de Chernatony
Birmingham Business School, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, and

´ Eva Martınez
Department of Economy and Business Studies, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
Abstract Purpose – This study seeks to investigate the measurement invariance of the consumer-based brand equity scale across two samples of UK and Spanish consumers. Design/methodology/approach – Brand equity was conceptualised as a multi-dimensional concept consisting of brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations and brand loyalty. To test the brand equity scale cross-nationally a survey was undertaken in the UK and Spain. Measurement invariance was assessed using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Findings – The brand equity scale was invariant across the two countries. Results show that the consumer-based brand equity scale has similar dimensionality and factor structure across countries. In addition, consumers respond to the items of brand equity in the same way, which allows meaningful comparison of scores. Research limitations/implications – Future research could examine the cross-national generalisability of the brand equity scale using other countries’ products and services. Practical implications – Given that the brand equity scale is invariant across countries, researchers and international marketing managers can use this instrument to measure and manage brand equity across countries. This is suitable for testing theoretical and conceptual relationships in different national settings and allows managers to design and implement efficient international brand strategies. Originality/value – The study contributes to the scarce literature testing the cross-national…...

Similar Documents

Overview of the Cbbe Model

...Overview of the CBBe Model American scholar Kevin Lane Keller (Kevin Lane Keller) in 1993 proposed CBBE model (Customer-Based Brand Equity), which is based on consumer brand value model for their own brand building the key way. In this model. Various elements designed to be comprehensive, interrelated and feasible, but, CBBE model implies the premise that the brand is present in consumer brand knowledge, feeling and experience, that force is the brand name with a brand with the passage of time exists in the heads of all the consumer experience combined. Therefore, the purpose of the work enterprise is to try to ensure that consumers have for the brand characteristics of its products and services adapted to experience a positive act for the corporate marketing and a positive attitude and a positive brand image for the evaluation. In accordance with Keller's view, the model was created to answer the following two questions: First, what elements constitute a strong brand; the second is how to build a strong corporate brand. 1. According to CBBE model, build a strong brand requires the work of four steps: establish the right brand identity; create an appropriate brand meaning; guide the correct brand response; to create the appropriate relationship between the consumer of a brand. 2. Meanwhile, the four steps and relies on building the brand's six dimensions: significant; performance; image; evaluation; feeling; resonance. Which corresponds to a significant brand identity, brand...

Words: 1242 - Pages: 5

Expertise Scale

...Nursing Expertise Self-Report Scale- Reflection Answering the Nursing Self-Report Scale made me felt that I have a long way to go as a Registered Nurse. Based on my answers I am still on a novice stage, far from the expert stage. I mostly base my nursing care about company’s and or employer’s expectations and or rules. There are some few scales that I was not sure of and there are scales that I felt that I’m so naïve to just strictly follow the rules to perform patient care. I guess it just a nature for me to take ownership on my new license and new job. I have to follow the rules to be safe. Another factor that would be preventing from improving is my lack of interpersonal communication skills. I have this passive, shy personality and am reluctant to voice out my opinion. I feel that I just have to go with the flow just to avoid conflict and to please others. The fear of taking risks prevents me from progressing. If I’m resistant to changes I will be forever stuck to the novice stage and never improve to the expert stage. It is very empirical for me to step out my comfort zone and take necessary steps because my priority right now in this nursing career is my patient, not to please my boss or someone else. As an RN, I am now in a position of leadership. I should set aside my fears and focus on what needs to be done. I have to learn to work with others, lead them and get them to understand, and perform the job that needs to be done. I will be willing to ask question or......

Words: 427 - Pages: 2

Personality Scale

...Personality scales at work Introduction: A considerable amount of literature has described that there are significant differences among employees, especially the personality characteristics. In fact, there are substantial divergence of opinion within different psychological schools about how to define personality, this paper will use the definition first suggested by G.W Allport(1961)saw it as ‘the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought’. According the research of Funder, D C(2001), the objective of personality psychology is to help people to be distinguished from others. So personality researches not only can help an individual find the best suitable job, but also help leaders find a better way to manage and organize the people. This essay will introduce the history and current research of employee selection and two central controversies:(a) who can get benefits and (b) what are the limitations of current research. Background: Individual differences in personality in western cultures can be traced back at least 2000 years to the ancient Greek doctors Hippocrates and Galen(Mcadams, 1997). The formal establishment of Personality psychology in the social science marked by the publication of Allport ’ s Personality in the 1937. In his own theorizing, the wholeness of a person should have eight dimensions:(1) the sense of bodily self , (2) self-identity , (3) self-esteem, (4)......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Cbbe Model Stage 1

...CBBE Model The main rationale of 理由 Keller’s Consumer Based Brand Equity Model is relatively straightforward. If you want to build your brand, you need to develop your brand, based on understanding how customers feel about your brand. Further, brand managers must develop and communicate about the brand ‘experiences’ so that people have positive feelings about the brand, a favourable opinion of the brand, and their perceptions of the brand are positive. If we can achieve this, we can build loyalty from customers – which is a key aim of most organisations (it is approximately約5 times more expensive to acquire獲得new customers than to keep existing ones). Figure 1: Keller's Brand Equity Model As we saw in lecture (on slide 4 from Lecture 2), there are areas of significance to customers - questions that they will ask of the brand (often subconsciously潛意識) - shown in Figure 1 above. Applying the Model Stage 1: Brand Identity – Who Are You? Aim is to create awareness. Brand salience is when your brand is the one that springs彈性 to the mind of consumers, and that is ultimately最終what every brand would aim to achieve. If I were to ask you: name me a brand of car/computer/cellphone/noodle/coffee – the one that comes to your mind first is the one with highest levels of salience. Some markets are highly competitive and it will be harder to perhaps have your brand ‘stand out’. 脫穎而出 How to Achieve? It is essential必要to ‘know who your customers are’. And to achieve this,......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Customer Based Brand Equity Model (Cbbe)

...Customer Based Brand Equity Model (CBBE) The CBBE model approaches brand equity from the perspective of the customer – whether customer is an individual or an organization. The CBBE model provides a unique point of view as to what brand equity is and how it should best be built, measured and managed. The power of a brand lies in what customers have learned, felt, seen and heard about the brand as a result of their experiences over time. The big challenge for marketers is to ensure that customers have the right type of experiences with their products and services. In order to do this, marketers must develop marketing programs in way that best fit into customers' mind and linked the brand to the desire customers' feelings, thoughts, actions and beliefs. So that customer-based brand equity is defined as, the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. Customer-Based Brand Equity Pyramid Brand Salience: It's means broad awareness of the brand. The first step in building a brand equity is the brand awareness that contains two parts; brand recognitioin (how easily customer identify a brand after exposing some cue or a physical product) and brand recall (how easily customer recall the brand without showing a cue while making purchase decision or thinking the product category). We must consider both the breadth and depth of the brand awareness; the depth is that how likely it is for a......

Words: 1283 - Pages: 6

Cbbe

...MKT-429: Chapter 2 CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY Customer-based brand equity: Past experience-Marketing Activity- Word of Mouth The CBBE is formally defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. The Power of a brand lies in what resides in the mind of customers. ▪ Differential effect-How customer react about the name ▪ Brand knowledge-Consumer has learned, felt, seen and heard ▪ Consumer response to marketing-Recall, actions in sales promotion, evaluation of extensions Marketing advantages of strong brands (Figure 2.1) ▪ Greater loyalty ▪ Less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions ▪ Improved perceptions of product performance ▪ Less vulnerability to marketing crises ▪ Larger margins ▪ More inelastic consumer response to price increases ▪ More elastic consumer response to price decreases ▪ Greater trade cooperation and support ▪ Increased marketing communication effectiveness ▪ Possible licensing opportunities ▪ Additional brand extension opportunities Brand equity as a bridge: a) Brands as a reflection of the past: b) Brands as direction for the future: FIGURE 2-2 MAKING A BRAND STRONG: BRAND KNOWLEDGE Associative network memory model: The associative network memory model views memory as consisting of a network of nodes and connecting links ❑ Nodes represent stored information or concepts ❑......

Words: 1455 - Pages: 6

Measurement Scales

...Measurement Scales Tina M. Biebl MKT / 441 Marketing Research University of Phoenix Introduction A poorly designed questionnaire may not obtain the results the firm or organization is looking for. There are four categories in which numbers are generally grouped. In increasing order of sophistication, they are (1) nominal numbers, (2) ordinal numbers, (3) intervally scaled numbers, and (4) ratio-scaled numbers. This paper will examine each briefly and how they can be used effectively in the design of a survey questionnaire. Qualitative Data Data that can be categorized into one of several non-numerical categories is qualitative. You are recording some quality that the data possesses. Care needs to be taken to avoid assigning numbers to the categories then computing with them. This type of data is either nominal or ordinal. Nominal The number we assign to some object, idea, or behavior is entirely arbitrary, although in some cases a tradition may establish the rules of assignment. If measurements are assigned arbitrary numbers, they are called nominal numbers, and their sole purpose in the analysis is to differentiate an item possessing one characteristic from an item possessing a different characteristic. Nominal data is a type of categorical data in which objects do not have a natural, meaningful order. You can count but not order or measure nominal data. Only calculations based on the frequencies of occurrence are valid. Nominal scales have no......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Scales

...Types of Measurement Scales Marc Waters MKT/441 June 9, 2014 Cyndie Shadow Types of Measurement Scales Introduction For this week’s assignment, students are to select four types of types of measurement increasing order of sophistication; they are Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio. These are categories in which numbers are grouped. This paper will also demonstrate how they can be effective in surveys or questionnaires. Nominal The number we assign to some object, idea, or behavior is entirely arbitrary, although in some cases a tradition may establish the rules of assignment. If measurements are assigned arbitrary numbers, they are called nominal numbers, and their sole purpose in the analysis is to differentiate an item possessing one characteristic from an item possessing a different characteristic. Nominal data is a type of categorical data in which objects do not have a natural, meaningful order. You can count but not order or measure nominal data. Only calculations based on the frequencies of occurrence are valid. Nominal scales have no numeric properties. Qualitative information is obtained from a nominal scale. This means objects are classified by name only. Counting is the only operation that can be performed on a nominal scale. Examples of nominal questions that may be used are: state of residence; gender; or hair color: blonde, brown, red, and black. Ordinal Ordinal data is a type of categorical data in which objects have a natural......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Rsca Scale

...Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents A critical review Katie Waghorn West Virginia University March 14, 2014 Author’s Note This paper was prepared for COUN 505 taught by Dr. Tina Walsh Introduction Resilience is a complex construct with many definitions. Most frequently, resilience can be defined as one’s ability to “bounce back” from an adverse situation. It is “interactive and contextual” (Prince-Embury & Saklofske, 2013, pg.19). However, some believe resiliency is a personality trait. There is some aversion to the use of resiliency, however, as it gives the impression that some are better than others. Resilience is applicable to both adults and children. This paper will focus on the childhood aspect of resilience. Over the years, it has been a topic of interest among researchers as to how some children manage to overcome adversity and thrive, while others suffer psychological and physical distress. As a result, much of the early research carried out on resilience looked at “three sets of factors implicated in the development of resilience: (1) attributes of the children themselves, (2) aspects of their families, and (3) characteristics of their wider social environments” (Vanderbilt-Adriance & Shaw, 2008, pg. 31). Recently, research has shifted from identifying key characteristics of resilient children to understanding how these factors affect a child’s ability to handle adversity. Despite extensive research on the subject, there is still......

Words: 3734 - Pages: 15

Economies of Scale

...ECONOMICS OF SCALE Name Institution Economics of scale Introduction Economies of scale is the cost advantages by enterprises due to size, input, or scale of operation with cost per unit decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out more to units of output (Thatcher, 2009). The reason why some regions are more developed than other regions economically is because they produce their goods more efficiently and hence bringing more profit than competitor's regions. Since economies of scale lay it main focus on having an efficient production this shapes the economic development of regions. This paper is about economies of scale it describes how economies of scale shape the economic development of regions through description of different types of economies of scale and examples of countries and regions around the global (Stamp, 2009). Structure Definition Economies of scale is the cost advantages by enterprises due to size, input, or scale of operation, with cost per unit decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out more to units of output. Economies of scale are known to improve with growing firms, therefore; it can be said that the economies of scale are directly proportional to the size of the firm (Stamp, 2009). From a simple firm which produces exercise books, the firm uses £200 to produce 10 exercise books meaning the average cost is £20 if the firm produces 40 exercise books the average cost is £12.The difference here is brought......

Words: 2595 - Pages: 11

Measurement Scales

...MEASUREMENT SCALES PAPER; Measurement Scales Paper University of Phoenix MKT/441 In a questionnaire there are many types of scales used to obtain different forms of data. This all depends on which information the questionnaire is looking for exactly, but there are different ways of collecting the data and different types of scales needed for each answer. This paper is to help determine the differences between the ordinal scale, the nominal scale, Interval scale and the ratio scale. Also will be described is a few examples on each scale and a brief description of each scale. Ordinal Scales Ordinal scales are best described as a scale that can measure something like satisfaction. For instance, if someone had developed a new stove that was installed in peoples homes and wanted to know their satisfaction level with the stoves in measurements such as not satisfied, somewhat satisfied, or very satisfied based on various types of questions with the same three as answers, would classify as a ordinal scale. This type of research would be best used in a questionnaire when getting a general response from the people being questioned. This is could also be used as a 1-4 type scale where 1 is not satisfied and 4 being very satisfied. In a questionnaire a good example of an ordinal scale would be a recent visit to a doctors office in which customers are asked to answer questions based on their experiences. So some questions may be from 1 to 4 1 being did not enjoy, 4 being......

Words: 723 - Pages: 3

The Pleasure Scale

...December 2013 The Pleasure Scale As we go through life we will experience different events that will help shape the scales that we use in life. Biss talks about how pain is our own experience and no one else can feel the same intensity of pain that we feel at any given point in the day. I believe that it can also be turned around no one can feel the same type of pleasure that I feel. There is no way that I can write a scale of pleasure that fits every person that is on the earth; the only scale that I can make is one where I use the pleasure that have happened to me during my life time. As we age we tend to go through events that will change our outlook on life. Something that may have been a pleasure to us when we were younger may not be pleasure to use when we are older. Take for instance playing on the playground as a young child, that was to time of the day we all waited for we got to go outside and play on the jungle gym. That would not bring me pleasure it would make me depressed just for the fact that I can no longer play on the jungle gym because I am not small enough to enjoy to the level that I would want to. 0 Imagine a world where there is no such thing as pain. Now that you have done that do you think that there would be pleasure in that world? If there is no pain there can be no pleasure they go hand in hand. If you have never felt pain then how can you know what pleasure is? Biss talks about how there is not an absolute zero on the pain scale that she has......

Words: 2804 - Pages: 12

Kohlberg's Scale

...Out of the six stages of Kohlberg’s scale of moral development, I would consider myself to be in stage 4. This stage is Law and Order, or the good citizen. The stage describes the person as being respectful for fixed rules, laws, and authority. This stage is when the person defends social and institutional order for their own personal reasons and is responsible for the welfare of others. Justice refers to criminal justice, where the person strongly believes that wrongdoers have to be punished and pay their debt to society. Social order is very important, even if someone has to sacrifice something in order to secure it. Authority figures are not questioned because if they do something then, during this stage, the action must have been necessary. This is the highest stage for adults. I consider myself to be in this stage because I believe that everyone who does some sort of wrongdoing then he/she should be punished. I often ask myself what would happen if everyone in the world would do that. For instance, a man in Florida recently threw his five-year-old daughter off of a bridge. The Department of Children and Families had been in contact with the father recently but they did nothing. I often question these actions. What if it were their child? What is someone threw their daughter off of a bridge after DCF had been alerted but did nothing. The man was obviously troubled and the child should not have been left in his care. Now that this occurred, Tallahassee DCF is now......

Words: 585 - Pages: 3

Economies of Scale

...and External Economies/Diseconomies of Scale Economies of Scale: * Economies of scale are the cost advantages that a business can exploit by expanding the scale of production * In the long run, all factors of production are variable. This has an effect on costs as output changes. To start with long run costs fall as output increases. Economies of scale are then said to exist. * However some firms become too large and their average costs begin to rise. They are then said to experience Diseconomies of scale. * You can have both internal and external versions of economies of scale. Internal Economies of Scale These are ‘Economies of Scale which arise because of the growth in the scale of production within a firm’. So there are a variety of sources of internal economies of scale. TECHNICAL ECONOMIES OF SCALE * Large-scale businesses can afford to invest in expensive and specialist capital machinery. For example, a supermarket chain such as Tesco or Sainsbury can invest in technology that improves stock control. It might not, however, be viable or cost-efficient for a small corner shop to buy this technology. * The law of increased dimensions. This is linked to the cubic law where doubling the height and width of a tanker or building leads to a more than proportionate increase in the cubic capacity * These occur from what happens in the production process MARKETING ECONOMIES OF SCALE * A large firm can spread its......

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Application of Cbbe Model

...the first four sources of brand equity correspond to customer-based brand equity while patents and trademarks reflect firm-based brand equity. Keller (1993) focused on customer based brand equity (CBBE) which he defined as “the differential effect of brand knowledgeon consumer response to the marketing of the brand” (p.2). Brand knowledge is the main source of CBBE made up of brand awareness and brand associations. Keller (2003) has further identified four hierarchical levels for building a strong brand: from brand identity to brand meaning, brand responses and finally brand relationships. In a business to business context, brand equity is gaining significant ground Business to business brands like IBM, Cisco, Oracle and Intel have managed to build substantial equity and today feature amongst the most valuable brands globally. Empirical research into brand equity attests to its existence in B2B markets. Bendixen et al. (2004) found that business to business buyers are willing to pay a price premium for their favourite brand which is a consequence of high brand equity. Other benefits of brand equity were willingness to extend the brand’s goodwill to other product lines and willingness to recommend the brand to others. Kuhn et al. (2008) examined the applicability of Keller’s (2003) CBBE pyramid to a B2B context. Their findings provided only partial support highlighting the particularities of B2B branding: 1. Evaluating the equity of the corporate/manufacturer brand is......

Words: 3733 - Pages: 15