Assissted Reproduction Technology Abstract

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Submitted By Jezarel
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Assissted reproduction technology (ART) can be defined as a technique that bypasses intercourse in order to follow biological pathways and manipulation of such pathways leading to pregnancy and the birth of healthy offspring(Velazquez, 2008). ART in humans has been used most effectively since the 1980’s fist concentrating on male human semen and understanding the estrous cycle of females of the same species, before long farm animal stocks were looked at. The ability to manipulate the breeding of certain genetic traits was seen as industrious, making pigs bigger, cows that produce more milk, chickens that laid more eggs and so forth.(Foote, 2002)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and his assistant Hann were the first to discover sperm in 1678, they named them animalcules due to the sperms animated appearance and small size. Little was it known then the research and industrial and natural impact this discovery would have (REF).
The first recorded western insemination was recorded in 1784 by a priest named Spallanzani who whelped 3 puppies from a dog. Much work was being done across Asia but due to lack of linguistic knowledge much of this work was unknown until a translation and review was made in 1958. By this time ART was a rapidly growing technique in the subject of this report dairy cattle(Foote, 2002).

The first step is collection of semen from the male bulls. Semen is collected at a temperature between 42-45c and maintained in a water bath at 30c. As many as 5 ejaculates can be collected per day during certain seasons if collected using an artificial vagina. When using anal electrode treatment not as many collections can be made due to distress on the animal.
Sperm must then be analyzed for it virility. By looking for discoloration a decision can be made if the sample is contaminated by blood or urine. It is imperative that all…...

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