Amrican Literature, Modernism

In: English and Literature

Submitted By majahayes
Words 6245
Pages 25
The term “modern” in everyday language means contemporary, new, the latest thing. When we talk about “Modernism” term, modernism is a literary and cultural international movement which flourished in the first decades of the 20th century. It was an intellectual movement and a change that defined itself as the latest thing. During Modernism it seemed like religion and culture fell apart. In modernism people tried to reject tradition and tried new things. This period was marked by large technological advances such as invention of new building material, cars, speed and locomotion. Although modernism brought up innovative and experimental changes, this time period witnessed the First World War and the Great Depression. Those events led people to feel a sense of loss and uncertainty. When it comes to literature, experimentation with the form was another defining characteristic of modernism is not a term that can be described in single term. It may be applied both to the content and to the form of a work, or to either in isolation. It reflects a sense of cultural crisis which was both, exciting and scary. Modernism opened up a whole new pallet of human possibilities at the same time as putting into question any previously accepted means of grounding and evaluating new ideas. “Modernism is marked by experimentation, particularly manipulation of form, and by the realization that knowledge is not absolute.” (Ciaffaroni, 2009).
While New York City is in the middle of a heat wave, the residents of one building beat the heat by sitting on the building’s stoop and catching up on gossip. Emma Jones, the building’s resident main gossiper, is happy to make sure everyone knows what Anna Murant has been up to. Anna, married to Frank, has been not-too-discreetly carrying on an affair with Steve Sankey, her married milkman. Everyone knows what has been going on with Anna and Steve,…...

Similar Documents

Post Modernism

...'all-toohuman' to refer to the world of a human being as ordinary, and in many cases, already becoming an all too familiar and boring domain. Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human (Penguin Classics, 2004), pp. 320. 3 International Journal of Arts and Sciences 3(15): 238-254 (2010) CD-ROM. ISSN: 1944-6934 © InternationalJournal.org the privileging of particulars may not be entirely surprising after all. Since the postmodern effect is to make ourselves disposed to the dialectic between the familiar and unfamiliar, the unfolding milieu can actually serve as an opportune occasion for the systematic articulation of particular philosophies. An Apprehension with Post-Modernity By invoking our own specificities, we propose that post-modernism can also be reckoned as a location for the discussion of a particular philosophy that can be called our own – Filipino. This is an important presupposition that the present article holds. 5 But there are some hesitations in proposing that a Filipino Philosophy is to be discussed within the ambit of the Post-Modern Milieu. Let us look into this apprehension. 6 Part of the initial hesitation is the free-for-all-attitude that the Post-Modern mindset carries. Should the notion of a Filipino philosophy follow certain standards of thought? Not discounting the possible limitations that standards bring, we are of the opinion that there is still a need to have a logical and organized way of presenting thoughts. Otherwise, we might all be......

Words: 10004 - Pages: 41

Traces of Modernism in Art

...TRACES OF MODERNISM IN ART The ancient parallel between literature and visual arts –i.e. painting, sculpture and architecture becomes newly relevant in the twentieth century. Painters were the first to explore the revolutionary possibilities of modernism, so that painting became the leading art form. Modernism refers to the style and ideology of art produced between the 1860s and the 1970s. As traditional art forms had become outdated due to industrialization, modernism emerged in Western Europe out of a need to reject tradition and embrace the political, social and economic change of the industrial age. Modernism was embodied by a new generation of artists whose work was characterized by a variety of styles and subject choices that flew in the face of accepted convention. While, generally speaking, it challenged a number of aesthetic principles, modernism ultimately gave rise to a variety of movements and styles. The great progenitor of modernist revolt was the impressionist movement in the second half of the nineteenth century in France. Impressionist painters made colorful style of painting, characterized as impressionism. Impressionism attaches great importance to our perception of contrasts and light, something that is accurately expressed through the seasons. Claude Monet’s Rouen Cathedral in full sunlight was a famous painting, other than this Pierre Auguste Renoi, Edgar Degas, Alfred Sisley and Henri de Toulouse Lautrec are among the most important impressionist......

Words: 930 - Pages: 4

American Modernism and House Made of Dawn

...Universität Bayreuth “ Notes on Indian Country: Native American Literature” SS 2012 Claudia Deetjen American Modernism and House Made of Dawn Daniel Quitz Matrikelnummer: 1164204 Englisch (5) / Geschichte (5), LA Maximilianstrasse 16, 95444 Bayreuth Tel.: 0176/ 73911615 danielquitz@t-online.de Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Defining American Modernism 3. American Modernism in House Made of Dawn 3.1 Complex and Modern Urban Life 3.2 Alienation: The Portrait of a Lost Generation 3.3 The Stream of Consciousness 3.4 Other Features 4. Conclusion 5. Bibliography Quitz 1 1. Introduction When Navarre Scott Momaday first published his award-winning novel House Made of Dawn, literary critics celebrated the book as the Renaissance of Native American Literature. The novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1969, has influenced both readers and well-known Native American writers such as Leslie Marmon Silko or Sherman Alexie since its first publication. Moreover, it has certainly made the success of Native American Literature possible. This is one of the reasons why Momaday can be considered as the “dean of Native American writers“ (Hager 2). House Made of Dawn is about Abel, a young Native American who returns home to Walatowa from World War II. There, he struggles to reintegrate into the tribal community as he is torn between two different worlds. On the one hand, it is the traditional environment of his......

Words: 4226 - Pages: 17

Post Modernism

...Understand True Knowledge of Reality Post-modernism is arguably the most depressing philosophy ever to spring from the western mind. It is difficult to talk about post-modernism because nobody really understands it. It’s allusive to the point of being impossible to articulate. But what this philosophy basically says is that we’ve reached an endpoint in human history. That the modernist tradition of progress and ceaseless extension of the frontiers of innovation are now dead. Originality is dead. The avant-garde artistic tradition is dead. All religions and utopian visions are dead and resistance to the status quo is impossible because revolution too is now dead. Literature Literary postmodernism was officially inaugurated in the United States with the first issue of boundary 2, subtitled "Journal of Postmodern Literature and Culture", which appeared in 1972. David Antin, Charles Olson, John Cage, and the Black Mountain College school of poetry and the arts were integral figures in the intellectual and artistic exposition of postmodernism at the time. boundary 2 remains an influential journal in postmodernist circles today.[21] Jorge Luis Borges's (1939) short story Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote, is often considered as predicting postmodernism and conceiving the ideal of the ultimate parody. Samuel Beckett is sometimes seen as an important precursor and influence. Novelists who are commonly connected with postmodern literature include Vladimir Nabokov, William......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Comparison Modernism and Postmodernism

...Modernism/Postmodernism A representation of belonging in the poem ''I Too'' by Hughes Williams and ''A Wife'S Story'' by Mukherjee In this essay, I compare Hughes poem ''I, too'' published in 1925 (Modernism) and Mukherjee's story ''A Wife' Story'' published in 1988 (Postmodernism). The focus of my comparison will be on belonging as I believe this theme could be attributed to both texts. First of all, the poem ''I, too'' is about a black man who belongs to and wants to be seen as an American which is especially emphasised by the poem's title ''I, too''. A similar expression is used in the last line of the poem which therefore forms a frame. Evidently, this can be understood as a statement which expresses that this person is a citizen of America because he is represented throughout the whole poem from the beginning to the end. The little difference between the first and 18th line can be interpreted as a sort of improvement which takes place within the poem because singing America means he does something to actually belong to it. The statement ''I, too, am America'' can be seen as rather passive; hence it can be argued that the narrator is accepted and finally belongs to the American culture. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that the narrator is excluded from American society by stating that ''they sent me to eat in the kitchen when company comes'' (l.3-4). This citation suggests that he is separated from the others as they do not wish to eat with him but; hence it...

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Modernism

...see as an exciting creative present. Today Museums showcase some of Gropius and the Bauhaus influence e.g. Modernism: Designing a New World 1914-1939. This Exhibition demonstrates the extent to which Modernism has transformed the built and design environment. Some critics often arise when the idea of modernist artist are mentioned, for instance the question of whether Modernism succeeded or failed? If we look at Gropius and his designs we can slightly say he failed in some countries like Britain for example. David B (2014) an editor mentions that artists like Gropius, ‘did not merely want to change the templates of modern design, they wanted to transform the world. They hoped to bring clean lines and clean homes to all classes, inspired by the desire to improve the living conditions of the post-war poor, and driven too by the rather more questionable moral belief that purity of design might create better people’. A preconception hardened in Britain by the fact that the movement there was influenced by the jerry-built Modernist-style council flats put up here in the 1960s and '70s. However in many German cities in the 1920s and '30s were transformed by successful large-scale Modernist housing projects inspired by artist like Gropius. References • Anon, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3651513/Modernism-Designing-a-New-World.html [Accessed 05 Nov. 2014]. • Archdaily.com, (2014). Architecture......

Words: 1111 - Pages: 5

Modernism

...student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Essay Marking Service Example Essays Who wrote this essay Become a Freelance Writer Place an Order In common with organizational symbolism, post-modernism is associated with the introduction into organizational culture studies of disciplines such as linguistics, psychoanalysis, anthropology, literary criticism, and history. Foucault's (1972) influence underlines the realization that concepts such as 'organization' and 'culture' refer not to objects but to linguistic constructs. Attention to discourse suggests that even if researchers who are interested in 'culture' do not appear to 'have very much in common. organizational culture studies can still be considered as part of the same 'discursive formation'. (Michael & Stephen 1999).Two of the major influences on post-modernism in history has been White and Foucault (Munslow 1997). White is associated with the stream in postmodernism that 'is informed by a programmatic, if ironic, commitment to the return to narrative as one of its enabling presuppositions' (1987: xi). Post-modernism has shifted the emphasis away from seeing archival research as the historian's craft towards a view that it is the conventions and customs of writing that constitute the craft of history (White 1995: 243). However, it is to believe that organizations are entities that take every possible aspect......

Words: 2694 - Pages: 11

Modernism & Art Deco

...Modernism & Art Deco Report Paper History of Graphic Design Razan El Hout & Sherine Karout What is Modernism? Modernism is a up-to-date philosophical movement, founded in the Western Society, specifically Latin America; Mexico, Scandinavia and other places, during the early 19th till the early 20th centuries that sought towards innovative and upgraded ways to change their atmospheres. What helped modernism to develop was the fact that it happened during the industrial revolution. The movement prohibited enlightenment thinking as well as religious beliefs. All fields relating to activities and designs were developing in a new modern way. Domains such as: architecture, literature, religion and faith. Poet Ezra Pound, was a touch stone towards what it saw as the new obsolete culture of the past. By 1930, popular culture entered along with the stream of Modernism. Defining popular culture as the wholeness of ideas, viewpoints, outlooks, memes, images and other phenomena that are within the majority of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th C. This term traditionally has denoted the education and the general culture of the lower classes, meaning everything was mass-produced. An important alteration happened during this period was the collaboration of modern production/technology into our daily lives. Examples such as, electricity, the telephone, the automobile and the need to do other fixes and changes with them. They felt...

Words: 1331 - Pages: 6

Reason, Romanticism, Realism, and Modernism

...Reason, Romanticism, Realism, and Modernism Since 1660 the literary world has gone through four major periods, The Age of Reason, Romanticism, Realism, and Modernism. Each period had very distinct characteristics and writers who were able to define the style through their words. The Age of Reason was a time of wit, philosophy, and satire that Johnathan Swift and Voltaire utilized to explain their views on the modern world. Fredrick Douglass, William Wordsworth, and Jean Jacques Rousseau embodied the greatest aspects of the Romanticism era focusing on solitude, nature, and feelings. In 1830 the Realism movement started, a movement strife with inclusiveness and determinism that was highlighted in the works of Gustave Flaubert and Fyodor Dostoevsky. The most recent period was Modernism in which William Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot used rationalism and psychoanalysis when writing their poems. Each period uprooted the period before it and the writers values and views contradicted those of the writers who proceeded them. The major aspects of each period are very apparent when dissecting the writers who lived through them. The Age of Reason covered from 1660 to 1770 and focused on order, cities, and used satire as a tool to find reason. Voltaire’s Candide and Swift’s A Modest Proposal were both satire that questioned traditions and philosophical norms of the times. In Candide, Voltaire mocks the idea that eternal optimism of ones course in life by continuously......

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5

Modernism in Kafka's Metamorphosis

...Modernism in the Metamorphoses and the depiction of Modern man The modernist movement in literature began around the turn of the century and created a dramatic change in the way that authors viewed their work. The new breed of writers were extremely affected by the new perception of the world and our place as human beings in it. WW2 was on the verge of the beginning, and the literary world was expressing their fears and attitudes toward their impending doom through their writing. Modernism has a few key themes that Franz Kafka follows throughout his piece ‘The Metamorphosis”. One of the most common themes among popular modernist literature are the rejection of literary tradition through experimentation with a darker style writing. Surrealism was common among pieces which often involved the decaying of the human existence that was occurring in the (at the time) current, more face-paced, disconnected society. In this paper, my goal is to show modernism in “Metamorphoses” and highlight the factors which make Gregor, the epitome of modern man. The isolation and despair that Gregor experienced is obvious from the start. From the very first sentence of the story we notice this solitude. Gregor is lying on his bed in a shape of a gigantic insect and there is nobody around to help him. This theme of isolation is even more present in the rest of the story as we see that Gregor can't depend on anyone for support. He locks himself in his room when he......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Robert Venturi's Post Modernism

...the necessary complex and contradictory architecture, which essentially contains ambiguity and tension. Rather than exclude everything, inclusion of unity becomes the task of his architecture. He emphasizes the play of compromising of element which leads to difficult whole. The writing doesn’t reject nor accept any prevailing style, instead it abstracts the element of the building that demonstrates the complexity and contradiction in his thought and from them he combines and derives a new form of hybrid architecture. On the other hand, it had been a controversy topic which he claimed that he was never and won’t be a post- modernism architect. However, his works and theory demonstrate postmodernism architecture which they claimed that they never intended to do so. The tension begins to surface, such influential pieces towards the post modernism, is claimed that the intention was never to be one. The relation between practice and theory of his work is then interrogated and investigated in this writing. Analysis Ambiguity and tension are everywhere in an architecture of complexity and contradiction. Architecture is a form and substance-abstract and concrete and its meaning derives from is interior characteristics and its particular context (Venturi, 1977, p20). Presents day architect, in their visionary compulsion to invent new techniques, have neglected their obligation to be experts in existing conventions. (Venturi, 1977, p43) Old clichés in new settings......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9

Modernism

...Modernism and the Nuclear family Modernist consist of new right and functionalist who see society as clear cut and one family fits all, as seen by parson who explains that one family type that being nuclear family is uniquely suited to that of modern society such as being geometrically being able to move to suit job the primary socialisation of children and the stabilisation of adult personalities. The New right The new right have an anti-feminist perspective on the family. They are firmly opposed to family diversity. They see the same values as functionalist parson who says that male and females have roles males have instrumentals roles where they’re designed to work and earn food labelled bread winner while females have expressive roles that are designed to look after children, The new right see the nuclear family as natural and based upon biological differences, family is the cornerstone which upheld society a place of refuge contentment and harmony The new right argue that the decline of the traditional nuclear family and growth of family diversity are a cause of social problems such as high crime rates and educational failures One way they see this occurring is because single mothers are unnatural and harmful as they cannot discipline their child propley which results in them become delinquency and become a burden on the welfare state by them become a strain on education which they will fail and therefore become dependent on welfare later in life and repeat......

Words: 755 - Pages: 4

Modernism

...The dominant artistic movement from about 1900 to 1940, modernism was characterized by the reexamination of existence from every possible angle. Modernist writers sought to leave the traditions of nineteenth-century literature behind in terms of form, content, and expression. They realized that a new industrial age—full of machines, buildings, and technology—had ushered out rural living forever, and the result was often a pessimistic view of what lay before humankind. Frequent themes in modernist works are loneliness and isolation (even in cities teeming with people), and a significant number of writers tried to capture that sense of solitude by engaging in stream-of-consciousness writing, which captures the thought process of a single character as it happens without interruption. Some of the most famous modernist authors include Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Virginia Woolf, and James Joyce. 1. Open form and free verse are distinguishing characteristics of modernist poetry. Though commonplace now, this style was quite a break from nineteenth-century rules about meter and rhyme. 2. The moniker “The Lost Generation” was coined by Gertrude Stein and refers to those artists of the 1920s who had become disillusioned with America and found themselves living as ex-patriots in Europe, chiefly in France. 3. An example of stream-of-consciousness (also called “interior monologue”) from Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway: “She felt somehow very like him—the young man......

Words: 1678 - Pages: 7

Criminological Modernism

...According to Heidi Rimke, criminological modernism theory is centred on the requirement that devotion is placed on the rules of scientific endeavours which will give an objective and authoritative language that will enable social problems to be resolved in a civilised manner (2011) Unlike classical criminology of the 18th century which main focus was on calculated choices made by the rational human agent, criminological positivism assumes that natural science should be the implemented method applied to the objective study of criminality. This line of thinking emerged in the 19th century during what was said to be a much more broader movement that saw all social problems scrutinized in the course of a scientific viewpoint. Positivism is a pathological approach to human conduct fashioned either or jointly by biological, psychological or psychiatric factors and attributes which are isolated and measured, at the root of any criminal activity, the mind and body are perceived to be flawed (Hester and Eglin 1992). Criminality is perceived to be a naturally caused beyond individual control, it occurred due to the disordered psyche, mind or body. Theorists argue that criminals commit crime due to a faulty reasoning and the prevention of crime should focus on re-education of criminals. They can be changed into being productive and useful members of the society and can be reformed from criminal activities. Punishment is viewed in order to fit the criminal depending on they type......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

British Literature

...ASSIGNMENT MODERNIST SHORT STORY Submitted By: Steffy Johnson 11/PELA/026 INTRODUCTION Modernist literature is the literary expression of the tendencies of Modernism, especially High modernism. Modernistic art and literature normally revolved around the idea of individualism, mistrust of institutions mainly government and religion, and the disbelief of any absolute truths. Modernism as a literary movement reached its height in Europe between 1900 and the middle 1920s. Modernist literature addressed to aesthetic problems and can be viewed largely in terms of its formal, stylistic and semantic movement away from Romanticism,  examining subject matter that is traditionally mundane. It often features a marked pessimism, a clear rejection of the optimism apparent in Victorian literature. It attempted to move from the bonds of Realist literature and to introduce concepts such as disjointed timelines. Modernism as a literary movement is seen, in large part, as a reaction to the emergence of city life as a central force in society. Furthermore, an early attention to the object as freestanding became in later Modernism a preoccupation with form. Modernist writers were more acutely conscious of the objectivity of their surroundings. The most prominent modernist authors are: T. S. Eliot, W. B. Yeats, Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, D. H. Lawrence, E. M. Forster, Ernest Hemingway, Joseph Conrad, Franz Kafka, Knut Hamsun, Gertrude Stein, Mikhail Bulgakov, MarcelProust, John......

Words: 2124 - Pages: 9