Algorithmics

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By paulyfun
Words 8195
Pages 33
Algorithmic

BFS, DFS, Kruskal, Prim’s, Adjacency matrix, Adjacency List
Table of Contents
Analysis of the Problem 4
Graph Searching 4
BFS: 4
DFS 4
Comparison of Algorithms 5
Features of BFS and DFS Algorithms 5
Minimum Spanning Tree 6
Prim’s Algorithm: 6
Kruskal’s Algorithm: 6
Feature of Prim’s and Kruskal’s Algorithm 7
Application 7
Shortest Path Problem 7
Shortest Path Algorithms 7
Adjacency Matrix:- 8
Adjacency List:- 9
Unweighted and Undirected Breadth First Search (BFS) 10
Pseudo Code for Breadth First Search (BFS) 21
Analysis Complexity of BFS 21
Depth First Search (DFS) 22
Algorithm for DFS 31
Analysis Complexity of DFS 31
DIKSTRA’S SINGLE SOURCE SHORTEST PATH 32
Algorithm for Dijkstra 39
Analysis 39
How Dijkstra’s Efficiency could be improved? 40
Kruskal’s Algorithm 41
Algorithm for Krushkal Algorithm 51
Analysis Complexity of Kruskal’s Algorithm 51
Prim’s Algorithm 52
Pseudo Code for Prims Algorithm 61
Analysis 61
Comparison of Time complexities with their analysis 62
Adjacency List and Adjacency Matrix 62
Description and Justification of chosen class 62
Definition of classes 63
Assumptions 64
Assumption of BFS: 64
Assumption of Prim’s 64
Assumption of Kruskal’s 64
References and Citations 65
Books: 65
Websites 65

Analysis of the Problem
There are various data structures are used to represent graphs in computer memory such as adjacency list, incidence list, adjacency matrix, incidence matrix. Different algorithms are applied on these graphs like Prim’s algorithm, Dijkstra’s algorithm, Kruskal’s algorithm etc. to solve the real world problems. The graphs can be of different types for example weighted or unweighted, Directed or Undirected graph.
Graph Searching
Graph traversal refers to the problem of visiting nodes in a particular order in order to find a path or a particular node. Traversal continues…...

Similar Documents

Big Skinny

...to customers when they visit Big Skinny website? * What method of inviting customer should be adopted? Algorithmic search, Sponsored search, Social Media, Interactive Content, Online Distributors, A/B testing or other options? * How to advertise the core features of Big Skills through different online mediums to achieve better sales results. Brief on various available methods 1. Display Adds: Display adds on various web pages over the internet is very important medium of advertising. But it is very important to identify the websites that you would like to put your advertisement on. The chosen web pages should be such which are frequently viewed else the advertising purpose is defeated. 2. Algorithmic search: Algorithmic search means most accurate result to the users query. Ranking high in a search will allow a site to reach consumers whose search was related to the site’s product. The output of the algorithmic search would entirely depend upon the keywords chosen to be enlisted to the search engines. It is quite technical stuff and takes time. 3. Sponsored search: In Sponsored search advertising, advertisers are allowed to key in search words in sections embarked for sponsored search. The main difference for the algorithmic search and sponsored search is those sponsored searches is more focused and give better results. Generally algorithmic searches are free but needs technical skills whereas sponsored are paid and can be easily incorporate......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Total

...people to customers when they visit Big Skinny website? * What method of inviting customer should be adopted? Algorithmic search, Sponsored search, Social Media, Interactive Content, Online Distributors, A/B testing or other options? * How to advertise the core features of Big Skills through different online mediums to achieve better sales results. Brief on various available methods 1. Display Adds: Display adds on various web pages over the internet is very important medium of advertising. But it is very important to identify the websites that you would like to put your advertisement on. The chosen web pages should be such which are frequently viewed else the advertising purpose is defeated. 2. Algorithmic search: Algorithmic search means most accurate result to the users query. Ranking high in a search will allow a site to reach consumers whose search was related to the site’s product. The output of the algorithmic search would entirely depend upon the keywords chosen to be enlisted to the search engines. It is quite technical stuff and takes time. 3. Sponsored search: In Sponsored search advertising, advertisers are allowed to key in search words in sections embarked for sponsored search. The main difference for the algorithmic search and sponsored search is those sponsored searches is more focused and give better results. Generally algorithmic searches are free but needs technical skills whereas sponsored are paid and can be easily incorporate......

Words: 2065 - Pages: 9

Real

...measures, trying to offer new perspectives and deliver solution proposals. Our main results are: HFT is a technical means to implement established trading strategies. HFT is not a trading strategy as such but applies the latest technological advances in market access, market data access and order routing to maximize the returns of established trading strategies. Therefore, the assessment and the regulatory discussion about HFT should focus on underlying strategies rather than on HFT as such. HFT is a natural evolution of the securities markets instead of a completely new phenomenon. There is a clear evolutionary process in the adoption of new technologies triggered by competition, innovation and regulation. Like all other technologies, algorithmic trading (AT) and HFT enable sophisticated market participants to achieve legitimate rewards on their investments – especially in technology – and compensation for their market, counterparty and operational risk exposures. A lot of problems related to HFT are rooted in the U.S. market structure. The flash crash and the discussions on flash orders relate to the U.S. equity markets and the NMS. In Europe, where a more flexible best execution regime is implemented and a share-by-share volatility safeguard regime has been in place for two decades, no market quality problems related to HFT have been documented so far. Therefore, a European approach to the subject matter is required and Europe should be cautious in addressing and fixing a......

Words: 30328 - Pages: 122

Algorithmic Programming

...What is procedural or algorithmic programming? Procedural programming is a programming methodology which divides a task into routines or procedures and process, one by one according to their relevance in task completion. Thus procedural or algorithmic programming is based upon concept of procedure call. Here procedures or subroutines are series of computational steps. It enables the programmers to specify simple interface, very suitable for reusability, and procedures are self-contained.  Because of reusability, different people can use the code written by someone. This also paves way to creation of programming libraries.   Procedural programming offers the following advantages: 1.       Ease of implementation 2.       Easier to keep track of program flow. 3.       Modularized 4.       Need less memory Disadvantage of procedural programming can be summed up as: 1.       Data is exposed to whole system. 2.       Real world object mapping is difficult. 3.       New user data type creation is very difficult. Reusability Procedural programming does achieve reusability of code within the same program as well as other programs. This is achieved by creating reusable chunk of code called procedures. Procedures can be declared and defined locally or globally inside a program. It enables the programmer to call the specific procedure at any point of the program. But here is a point to notice that local declaration permits reuse only within the local scope while a......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Big Skinny

...problem, users have become apathetic to ads. To combat this Kiril could choose either to display his ad directly with big websites directly or to participate in a network of smaller websites through “ad exchange” programs. More to the point this section dicusses Algorithmic and Sponsored Searches, as well as Social Media [facebook, myspace, etc] with Interactive Content [contests, shopping-guides, Algorithmic Search – Is based on Search Engines. Using the right keywords within the content of it’s website, including the file names that include keywords the likelihood of the website to appear in the top results would be significantly higher. SEO techniques are used to make sure that the website is optimized so that the Search Engine can recognize it through its Algorithms. Sponsored Search – is different from Algorithmic search in regards to the fact that here the company pays for a top-tier spot on top of the search results – and on the sides as well. There are two options for this: Exact-Match, and Broad match. Where Exact-Match ad will only be shown for one keyword, as where broad match will also engage in related keywords. Algorithmic Search vs Sponsored Search. Besides the obvious economical differences. Algorithmic search poses a challenging for the content of the website needs to be tailored in such a way where it would be recognized by search engines algorithms and still be recognisable for human reader. Sponsored Search can be achieved quite easier but at a......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Image Theory

...Jackson Park Road, L606, Portland, OR 97239, USA 3 University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 4 Center for Neuropharmacology & Neuroscience, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA ABSTRACT An algorithmic information theoretic method is presented for object-level summarization of meaningful changes in image sequences. Object extraction and tracking data are represented as an attributed tracking graph (ATG), whose connected subgraphs are compared using an adaptive information distance measure, aided by a closed-form multi-dimensional quantization. The summary is the clustering result and feature subset that maximize the gap statistic. The notion of meaningful summarization is captured by using the gap statistic to estimate the randomness deficiency from algorithmic statistics. When applied to movies of cultured neural progenitor cells, it correctly distinguished neurons from progenitors without requiring the use of a fixative stain. When analyzing intra-cellular molecular transport in cultured neurons undergoing axon specification, it automatically confirmed the role of kinesins in axon specification. Finally, it was able to differentiate wild type from genetically modified thymocyte cells. Index Terms: Algorithmic information theory, Algorithmic statistics, Information distance, Gap statistic, Clustering. Various portions of this research were supported by the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems, under the Engineering Research Centers......

Words: 3769 - Pages: 16

Essay

...work. 8. Diminishing intrinsic behavior, can cause a lack of interest in performance, creativity, and even Alter someone’s behavior. 9. External motivation allows a subject to be focus focused on a short term goal, but lose focus in the long term. 10. When hoping to increase someone’s motivational level, driving them to expect a specific reward could cause a decrease in the subject’s intrinsic motivation in the activity. 11. Financial incentives can impact negatively on performance. 12. The term algorithmic is the subject’s continuous ability to follow a specific set of paths. 13. Meanwhile the heuristic term allows the subject to break from the routine and come up with another novel strategy or idea. 14. The sawyer effect seems to be a theme, when pressured by someone else an activity that you would usually do out of love in certain cases, becomes work, instead of play or joy. 15. Extrinsic rewards could be good for algorithmic task, but it can be dangerous for more inventiveness and thinking. 16. The goal setting can in addition to other extrinsic factors could induce unethical behavior. 17. Extrinsic rewards causes people to take the quickest route to potentially achieve a certain goal, meanwhile doing all the wrong things to achieve their objectives. 18. When doing an activity that you love, you are intrinsically motivated, so it most likely impossible to take a short cut while engaging in that activity. 19. Goals are......

Words: 418 - Pages: 2

Milk Dairy Project

...Evidence for Limiting the Project Scope 11 1.1.10Resources Needed by the Project 12 1.1.11 Project Success Criteria 12 1.1.12 Project Feasibility Report 12 1.1.13 Project Scope Statement 14 CHAPTER # 2 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION 15 2.1 Problem Background in a Non-Ambiguous Manner 15 2.1.1 Elaboration of the problem 15 2.2 Proposed Solution 16 2.2.1 Conclusion drawn from the Problem Area Discussed 19 2.3 Why the Problem should be studied? 19 2.4 Importance of Identified Problem 19 2.5 Nature of Challenges and Learning Capabilities 20 2.5.1 Domain challenge 20 2.5.2 Technical challenges 21 CHAPTER # 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 23 3.1. Domain Research 23 3.1.1 Commodity Trading 23 3.1.2 Algorithmic Trading 24 3.1.3 Advantage of using Algorithms in Algorithmic Trading 25 3.1.4 Web Application 25 3.2 Market Research 26 3.2.1 Similar Web Based Systems in the Market 27 3.2.1 Conclusions Derived from Market Research 29 3.2.2 Benefits of the Proposed System over Similar System Implemented 29 3.3 Services and Technology Growth in India 29 3.3.1 Internet Growth in India 30 3.2 Critical Evaluation of the Literature Review 30 CHAPTER # 4 RESEARCH METHODS 32 4.1 Primary Search 32 4.1.2 Questionnaires 32 4.1.2 Interview 37 4.2 Secondary Research 38 4.2.1 Research of Methodology Selection 39 4.2.2 Research of Web Application Development Platform 42 4.2.3 Database Research 44 4.2.4 System Architecture Research 47 CHAPTER # 5 (Part 1)......

Words: 30261 - Pages: 122

Skinny Case

...problem, users have become apathetic to ads. To combat this Kiril could choose either to display his ad directly with big websites directly or to participate in a network of smaller websites through “ad exchange” programs. More to the point this section discusses Algorithmic and Sponsored Searches, as well as Social Media [Facebook, Myspace, etc.] with Interactive Content [contests, shopping-guides, Algorithmic Search – Is based on Search Engines. Using the right keywords within the content of it’s website, including the file names that include keywords the likelihood of the website to appear in the top results would be significantly higher. SEO techniques are used to make sure that the website is optimized so that the Search Engine can recognize it through its Algorithms. Sponsored Search – is different from Algorithmic search in regards to the fact that here the company pays for a top-tier spot on top of the search results – and on the sides as well. There are two options for this: Exact-Match, and Broad match. Where Exact-Match ad will only be shown for one keyword, as where broad match will also engage in related keywords. Algorithmic Search vs Sponsored Search. Besides the obvious economical differences. Algorithmic search poses a challenging for the content of the website needs to be tailored in such a way where it would be recognized by search engines algorithms and still be recognizable for human reader. Sponsored Search can be achieved quite easier but at a......

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Kolmogorov Algorithm

...CSC 435 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHM GROUP THREE(3) ASSIGNMENT THE KOLMOGOROV COMPLEXITY ALGORITHM Computer Science: FMS/0704/11 FMS/0707/11 FMS/0720/11 FMS/0721/11 FMS/0728/11 Computing-with-Accounting: FMS/0818/11 FMS/0643/11 FMS/0749/11 FMS/0722/11 FMS/0729/11 FMS/0741/11 FMS/0829/11 FMS/0784/11 FMS/0812/11 FMS/0652/11 Kolmogorov complexity In algorithmic information theory (a subfield of computer science and mathematics), the Kolmogorov complexity (also known as descriptive complexity, Kolmogorov–Chaitin complexity, algorithmic entropy, or program-size complexity) of an object, such as a piece of text, is a measure of the computability resources needed to specify the object. It is named after Andrey Kolmogorov, who first published on the subject in 1963. For example, consider the following two strings of 32 lowercase letters and digits: abababababababababababababababab 4c1j5b2p0cv4w1x8rx2y39umgw5q85s7 The first string has a short English-language description, namely "ab 16 times", which consists of 11 characters. The second one has no obvious simple description (using the same character set) other than writing down the string itself, which has 32 characters. More formally, the complexity of a string is the length of the shortest possible description of the string in some fixed universal description language (the sensitivity of complexity relative to the choice of description language is discussed below)...

Words: 3373 - Pages: 14

Green Computing

...Green Computing Impact of Green Computing Architecture Metrics of Green Computing Architecture Solution of Green Computing Architecture   Product  longevity     So1ware  and  deployment  op6miza6on   o  Algorithmic  efficiency   o  Resource  alloca6on   o  Virtualiza6on   o  Terminal  servers     Power  management   o  Data  center  power   o  Opera6ng  system  support   o  Power  supply   o  Storage   o  Video  card   o  Display     Materials  recycling     Telecommu6ng     Low  performance  computer   5 1. Abstract Overview of Green Computing •  Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. •  The study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. 6 2. Green computing architecture 2. Green Computing Architecture Regulations and industry initiatives   Government   Industry Green  Compu-ng   Architecture Approaches to Green Computing   Product longevity   Software and deployment optimization o  Algorithmic efficiency o  Resource allocation o  Virtualization o  Terminal servers   Power management o  Data center power o  Operating system support o  Power supply o  Storage o  Video card o  Display   Materials......

Words: 4836 - Pages: 20

Daily English News Paper and National Daily

...1 Software Cost Estimation Hareton Leung Zhang Fan Department of Computing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University {cshleung, csfzhang}@comp.polyu.edu.hk Abstract Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a general overview of software cost estimation methods including the recent advances in the field. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. We then highlight the cost estimation models that have been proposed and used successfully. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper includes comment on the performance of the estimation models and description of several newer approaches to cost estimation. Keywords: project estimation, effort estimation, cost models. 1. Introduction In recent years, software has become the most expensive component of computer system projects. The bulk of the cost of software development is due to the human effort, and most cost estimation methods focus on this aspect and give estimates in terms of......

Words: 6839 - Pages: 28

Product Planning

...selecting the relevant article from the summaries below or the menu on the right. Algorithmic Sequencing Algorithmic sequencing is one method for schedule construction. The sequencer uses an algorithm to select an order and places each operation for that order on the planning board. Capacity Planning As defined by the APICS Dictionary, “Capacity planning or capacity requirements planning is the function of establishing, measuring and adjusting limits or levels of capacity. The term “capacity requirements planning” in this context is the process of determining how much labor and machine resource is required to accomplish the tasks of production”. Glossary Common planning terms and their definitions. Planning vs Finite Scheduling It is not uncommon for people to assume that project planning and finite scheduling software perform the same task. You can see why this happens from a cursory review of these types of software, since both utilize Gantt charts to show visually the work that has to be completed. This document illustrates the differences between project planning and finite scheduling. Simulation-Based Sequencing Simulation-based sequencing provides an attractive alternative to algorithmic sequencing by providing a simple, yet very flexible method for constructing a schedule. In general, a simulation-based sequencer can also produce any schedule that is produced by an algorithmic sequencer. Supply Chain Management (SCM) The Supply Chain......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Software Developer

...Subject: Analysis of a Professional Journal Date: Mar, 31, 2016 Introduction I am evaluating a journal article titled: Algorithmic accountability. The article was published in Digital Journalism, in November 7, 2014. The author of the article is Nicholas Diakopoulos from College of Journalism, University of M aryland . Evaluation This article focuses on the concept of “Algorithmic Accountability Reporting” as a way of investing biases and influences employed by algorithms in todays society and how new age computational journalists should approach it. This article is directed at journalists who are scrutinizing algorithms to understand biases and false analysis portrayed by algorithms. The article is well structured. Text is organized in coherent sections which logically connects the entire article. The article starts with the brief introduction which outlines the points which will be covered in the article. Introduction also answers the questions of – what is this article about, who is the target audience, what are the current issues faced in journalism and how methods described in this article will help address those issue. Author, then mentions few real world examples of software companies which collect user data and then build ingenious algorithms to classify, group and eventually target people for their benefits – and how in doing so – they often open risks and flaws. The author exposes potential flaws by raising very valid questions about the decisions......

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Management Concepts Literature Review

...advertisements, which places further emphasis that intelligent, creative people like to work with others with similar characteristics. Instead of feeling threatened, employees are on a competitive edge to create new products, regularly sharing ideas and knowledge to collaborate with each other striving to be successful (Stross 2004). There are two main types of jobs: Algorithmic and Heuristic. Algorithmic jobs are jobs where employees follow a set of instructions to achieve a target or goal. An example is a hotel front desk clerk. A hotel front desk clerk’s main job description is to take bookings, check patrons into their hotel rooms and check them out at the end of their stay. Every day, there is a set of procedures that they must abide by. Algorithmic jobs are more of a “carrots and sticks” approach. The employee is burdened with deadlines and schedules, in the end for a monetary value (salary and bonuses). Hence it is more of an extrinsic reward than an intrinsic reward. However, you may have case where the employee may relish that kind of challenge in a rush to beat deadlines. Heuristic jobs are entirely the opposite of Algorithmic jobs. There are no specific sets of instructions and employees must think creatively and experiment with a host of possibilities to reach a target or goal. An example of a heuristic job could be marketing. Marketers must think creatively to sell products or services. They may create an ad campaign to boost sales or catch people’s attention.......

Words: 1826 - Pages: 8