Agency Theaory

In: Business and Management

Submitted By iwakianda
Words 650
Pages 3
Queries on what is bonga
Dear Customer, Bonga points is a loyalty reward program. You earn 1 point for every 10/= spent. To enroll, redeem or enquire for points dial *126#OK. Thank you

Mteja, Bonga ni huduma wa kurudishia wateja asante kwa kuwa na Safaricom. Unapata point 1 kwa kila 10/= unatumia. Tuma neno Bonga kwa 125 ili kujiunga. Asante

Customers sending the word Bonga and they are not registered

Dear customer, you are enrolled for Bonga, to enquire or redeem you points dial *126#, please call 100 to register on Safaricom Bonga point system. Thank you

Mteja,laini yako inakusanya Bonga point, ili kubadilisha au kujua point zako bonyeza *126#. tafadhali piga 100 kusajiliwa katika mtambo wa Bonga points.Asante.

Customers sending the word Bonga and they are not enrolled

Dear Customer, you are not enrolled, to enroll for the Bonga reward scheme, SMS the word BONGA to 125. You earn 1 point for every 10/= spent. Thank you

Mteja, samahani haujajiunga na huduma wa Bonga, tafadhali tuma SMS umeandika neno BONGA kwa 125 ili kujiunga. Kwa kila 10/=unatumia, unapata point moja. Asante

Customers sending the word Bonga and they are registered
Dear Customer, to enroll, redeem or inquire on your bonga points, dial *126# and follow the instructions. Incase of a problem call 100 for assistance .Thank you
Mteja, kujiunga, kubadilisha au kujua una pointi ngapi bonyeza *126#OK kisha fuata maelezo. Ikiwa unapata shida tafadhali piga 100 upate usaidizi. Asante

Bonga enquiries

Please confirm subs total number of points first then reply

Dear Customer, you have XX points. To enquire for Bonga points, SMS the word POINTS to 124 or dial *124#ok. Thank you. Mteja, uko na pointi XX. Ili kujua una point ngapi , tuma neno POINTS kwa 124 au bonyeza *124#OK. Asante

Redemption enquiries

Dear Customer, to redeem your bonga points, dial *126# and…...

Similar Documents

Agency

...Agency Costs (Fama and Jensen 1983) Contracting problem or principal/agent problem. Agent is person tasked to do something on behalf of the principal. Jensen and Meckling (1976) Definition: “ We define an agency relationship as a contract under which one or more persons (the principal(s)) engage another person (the agent) to perform some service on their behalf, this involves delegating some decision making authority to the agent”. Examples: Patient – Doctor (delegate authority to doctor to choose medication), Client – Lawyer, Client – Taxi Driver. CEO and management team are agents of the stock holders with aim to raise stock price as high as possible. Why hire agents? * To access their skills or expertise(main reason) * To free up time for other things (Opportunity Cost), Eg. Tiger Woods does not cut his own grass at home, he knows his grass. * To fulfil a legal requirement – eg. External Auditor, Priest for marriage. * To send a signal– eg. Hire best law firm or investment bank in a takeover situation, not necessarily because you need them but because it will intimidate the other side. Eg. Goldman Sachs is our banker. Signalling to market place The basic Problem Agents are utility maximisers concerned mainly with their own happiness. Ie. They do not behave exactly as principal wishes they would. “If both parties to the relationship are utility maximisers, there is a good reason to believe that the agent will not always......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Agency Problem

...Agency Problems and Dividend Policies Around the World Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer and Robert W. Vishny* January 1999 Abstract This paper outlines and tests two agency models of dividends. According to the “outcome” model, dividends are the result of effective pressure by minority shareholders to force corporate insiders to disgorge cash. According to the “substitute” model, insiders interested in issuing equity in the future choose to pay dividends to establish a reputation for decent treatment of minority shareholders. The first model predicts that stronger minority shareholder rights should be associated with higher dividend payouts; the second model predicts the opposite. Tests on a cross-section of 4,000 companies from 33 countries with different levels of minority shareholder rights support the outcome agency model of dividends. The authors are from Harvard University, Harvard University, Harvard University and University of Chicago, respectively. They are grateful to Alexander Aganin for excellent research assistance, and to Lucian Bebchuk, Mihir Desai, Edward Glaeser, Denis Gromb, Oliver Hart, James Hines, Kose John, James Poterba, Roberta Romano, Raghu Rajan, Lemma Senbet, René Stulz, Daniel Wolfenzohn, Luigi Zingales, and two anonymous referees for helpful comments. 2 The so-called dividend puzzle (Black 1976) has preoccupied the attention of financial economists at least since Modigliani and Miller’s (1958, 1961) seminal......

Words: 11836 - Pages: 48

Agencies

...Agencies 1 World Wide Regulatory Agencies Amy Lynn Wooldridge HCA375: Continuous Quality Monitoring & Accreditation Instructor: Heather Ables December 4, 2011 Agencies 2 “Clinical Contract Research Organizations (CROs) provide a range of services from consulting to labor- intensive tasks such as data processing”. (Kaluzny & McLaughlin, 2006, p.318) The majority of CRO growth is accounted for by pharmaceutical & biotechnology industries. The contract research organization is contracted by a sponsor or client to perform several functions and duties related to clinical trials. (Kaluzny & McLaughlin, 2006, p. 319) The clinical trials are designed to obtain regulatory approval to market new pharmaceutical or biotechnology products. (Kaluzny & McLaughlin, 2006, p. 319) The services they perform for such clients as pharmaceutical companies include: “consulting and advice related to the design of drug development programs to labor-intensive services that are part of the drug development process; these include clinical monitoring of investigational sites, data management and statistical analysis, and presentations of regulatory submissions for review by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration”. (Kaluzny & McLaughlin, 2006, p. 319) The FDA in the United States clearly mandate practices to protect the public’s health by implementing laws, regulations, and guidelines that provide oversight of the drug......

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Agency Overview

...Agency Overview Agency Overview The center for nursing (CON) in Illinois is a resource for current and future nursing staff to find information on education options, continuing educations, and improvements in working. The Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation (IDFPR) handles all of the licensures for nursing professionals as well as any complaints and reviews placed against any professionals. The CON provides many services ranging from giving guidance to prospective nursing students on how to obtain funding for their educations to acting as an advisory board for dealing with workplace conditions. The IDFPR performs all necessary responsibilities for overseeing nurse education programs and licensures of nurses throughout the state of Illinois. IDFPR and CON maintain integrity of the nursing profession by regulating all current and new nurses educations. This includes supervising educational institutions teaching future nurses as well as providing continuing education requirements for current nurses. The IDFPR mainly supports current nursing staff throughout the state of Illinois. They issue and maintain all records associated with individuals who have been granted licensure in the state. The CON supports both current and prospective future nurses by providing detailed guidelines for continuing education requirements as well as requirements for first time licensure. There are several different levels of nursing recognized in the state of......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Recruitment Agency

...Table of Contents 1.0 Executive Summary 2 2.0 Objectives 3 3.2 Industry 4 3.3 Competitors 5 3.4 Services Offering 5 3.5 Keys to Success 5 3.6 Critical Issues 6 3.7 Technology 6 4.0 Marketing and Advertising Strategy 7 4.1 Mission 7 4.2 Marketing Objectives 7 4.3 Financial Objectives 8 4.4 Marketing Mix 8 5.0 Management Team 9 5.1 Management Talent and Skills 9 6.0 Financial Plan 10 6.1 Balance Sheet (at start) 10 6.3 Break-even Analysis 16 Recommendations 19 Conclusion 19 1.0 Executive Summary PakkiNoukri is an online recruitment center which operates from Karachi, as a recruitment agency in the main business area of Karachi that is I. I. Chundrigar Road. Establishment of PakkiNoukri Recruitment Center will provide recruitment services to its clients (Candidates and Companies) all over Pakistan. PakkiNoukri will market its activities to its clients by having a marketing strategy, which contains website, printed adds, sms marketing, facebookfan page and linkedin page. PakkiNoukri has made four classes to candidates, available or seeking jobs, and according to the different level of candidates PakkiNoukri has a different pricing policy for the candidate and as well as for the company. Following is the Services Income forecast for the Fiscal Year 2013 to 2016. 2.0 Objectives * To earn at-least 15% profit at first year of services * To attract and fulfill the available jobs with the suitable candidates ...

Words: 2063 - Pages: 9

Agency

...|Agency Name :  | |PLACEWELL INTERNATIONAL SERVICES CORP. | |POEA License No. : | |POEA-430-LB-022604-R | |Address : | |2nd Floor Suite 214, 217, 220 Aurora Plaza Bldg. Arquiza St. Cor. J. Bocobo St. Ermita Manila Metro Manila | |Tel. No. : | |(632) 5215067; 5264838; 5215067 | |Website : | |http://www.placewellinternational.com (abrasive blaster and painter) (Australia) | | ...

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Contract of Agency

...CONTRACT OF AGENCY The general law of contracts is embodied in the Contract Act, 1872. The law of agency being a branch of the law of contracts, the same is incorporated in the said Act by giving it a full chapter on the subject. Thus sections 182 to 238 of the Contract Act, 1872 deal with the subject of Agency. Special enactments are also there and where a provision of a special Act is in conflict with the provision of the general Act, the former shall prevail unless the special law itself states otherwise. The wisdom behind this principle is to maintain consistency in law and to oust any ambiguity or confusion concerning any subject. PARTIES TO THE CONTRACT OF AGENCY AGENT AND PRINCIPAL: AGENT: Agent is an individual or firm authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal), such as by executing a transaction or selling and servicing an insurance policy. The agent does not assume any financial risk in the transaction. The function of the agent is to act on behalf of his principal in bringing about a contract between his principal and a third party. The relationship between principal and agent can arise in many ways, by contract under seal or in writing or verbal, by contract implied from the conduct or situation of the parties and by ratification. An agent such as a director has a lot of duties for the company. He must act in good faith in the interests of the company. As well, he has duty to avoid actual and potential conflicts of interest. If the......

Words: 7591 - Pages: 31

Agency

...Question 1. The first agency risk exists between the food suppliers and the Aegean Isles, Inc. One major reason contributing to Aegean Isles’s success is the high-quality and authentic Greek food, which depends on the quality of the perishable raw material and other non-perishable products served in the restaurant. Once the raw material is not fresh or other products are not high-quality, food served at the restaurants will not taste as good as before and this will definitely harm the restaurants’ reputation. If the new restaurant operates as a company-owned branch, the purchasing unit will be responsible for all the non-perishable inventories and perishable inventories needed. The restaurant managers only have a little authority. Therefore, Aegean Isles can execute better quality control on the products. Also, as Aegean Isles will choose reliable suppliers for long-term cooperation, the likelihood of this agency risk is not that high. However, Aegean Isles has constant suppliers. If one of these suppliers provides stale vegetables or fruits, all the five restaurants controlled by Aegean Isles will be effected negatively. The magnitude of this agency risk is quite high. If the new restaurant operates as a franchise, the franchise will be free to purchase such food as fresh products, domestic beer and wine from a local economy. The franchise may choose second-class products for economic reasons. Aegean Isles can not take much control on the quality of the products. The......

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

2020 Agency

...2015/10/20 A mind map of the 2020 agency A MIND MAP OF THE 2020 AGENCY Propulsion, the official blog of Ignition Consulting Group.  Propulsion May 27, 2015 | By Tim Williams It’s appropriate that in the new agency ecosystem that emphasizes best-in-class providers instead of traditional “full-service” firms, today’s clients have a set of world-class expectations of their agencies. Some of these needs are a 21st century version of long-standing agency qualities. But there’s also a new class of emerging competencies, mostly in response to a new environment for marketing organizations in which: 1.  Established categories of business are being constantly disrupted by innovative new start ups. 2.  Marketing organizations must respond to market forces faster than ever before. 3.  Traditional marketing campaigns are clearly losing their effectiveness, requiring much more marketing invention and experimentation. http://www.ignitiongroup.com/propulsion­blog­post/mind­map­foundations­of­the­2020­agency/ 1/6 2015/10/20 A mind map of the 2020 agency 4.  The marketing function is under constant scrutiny for proof of performance and is increasing under the thumb of finance and operations. 5.  Marketers are saddled with the colossal job of central integration, overseeing and managing the efforts of a large federation of marketing services providers. 6. ......

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Intelligence Agencies

...Why state Intelligence agencies engage in international intelligence liaison?  9/11 terrorist attacks, 7/7 terrorist attacks, Paris attacks are the implementer of what is called international intelligence liaison. These major terrorist attacks have put intelligence agencies in a place where they need liaison to face the problem. 21st century is witnessing the increase in globalization of intelligence. The phenomenon of international intelligence liaison is central to this process, it is an area where intelligence and international relations come in to connect. This article highlights the key themes that are currently developing within international intelligence liaison relationships. International intelligence liaison which may be defined as the the process of communication or cooperation which facilitates a close working relationship between intelligence organizations and law enforcing agencies of many states and countries. Intelligence agencies act as frontline of homeland defense and security. Right now, no any single state or country is facing the challenge of terrorism. These days international intelligence liaison is occupying space in academic research, political discourses and in state matters. As Adam Svendsen says: ‘Liaison today represents the most significant dimension of intelligence.’ It is high time for world to recognize and realize that existentialist issues such as, pandemics, overpopulation, climate change and now terrorism, are of global level. Therefore...

Words: 4006 - Pages: 17

Agency Structure

...Determine where each agency lies in the administrative structure of the federal government. Identify it as an executive department or an independent agency. U.S. Corps of Engineers: An executive department and the primary federal manager of the nation’s water resources. The Corps build and maintain much of the nation’s navigation and flood damage reduction infrastructure and regulates the issuance of Clean Water Act dredge and fill and other permits to the private sector. For over 225 years, the Corps has transformed our nation’s rivers and coasts, constructing 11,000 miles of inland waterway navigation channels, 8,500 miles of levees and seawalls, and more than 600 dams (Sanet 2009). The agency also dredges hundreds of millions of cubic yards of material each year from the nation’s rivers and harbors and when Congress added environmental protection to the Corps mission areas, it grew to include some of the nation’s most controversial restoration projects. While Corps projects produced positive economic benefits, it caused environmental harm as well example (freshwater species North America and Hurricane Katrina coastal wetlands (Sanet 2009). The Bureau of Land Management: An independent agency and a small agency with a big mission to sustain the health, productivity and diversity of America’s public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. It administers more public land-over 250 million surface acres than other federal agency in the U.......

Words: 1025 - Pages: 5

Administrative Agency

...Week – 2 Homework GM 520 1. State the administrative agency which controls the regulation. Explain why this agency and your proposed regulation interests you (briefly). Will this proposed regulation affect you or the business in which you are working? If so, how? Submit a copy of the proposed regulation along with your responses to these five questions. The proposed regulation can be submitted as either a separate Word document (.doc) or Adobe file (.pdf). This means you will submit two attachments to the Week 2 Dropbox: (1) a Word doc with the questions and your answers and (2) a copy of the proposed regulation you used for this assignment. (10 points) Ans . Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the agency which control the regulation. FDA is an agency of Department of Health and Human Services. FDA is responsible for the regulation and inspection of food industry and drug industry including prescription drugs, OTC drugs, cosmetics, veterinary drugs, vaccines etc. By which they are responsible to protect and promote health society. It will not affect me or the place where I am working but my background in Pharmaceutical production and management brings interest in this regulation. Because when pharmaceuticals are committed to provide quality services to the community at the same time they have to follow the rules and regulations which cost the business a good amount of money to introduce a new regulation. Here in this case the gluten free drug......

Words: 1451 - Pages: 6

Questions on Agency

...AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS ( Agency: A fiduciary relationship that results when one person (the principal) manifests her consent that another person (the agent) will act on her behalf and subject to her control, and the agent manifests his consent to so act. ( Fiduciary: A person who undertakes to act on behalf of and primarily for the benefit of another. ( Fiduciary Duty: A duty arising from the trust and confidence placed in a fiduciary by those on whose behalf and for whose benefit she acts. EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIPS ( Employee: A person (1) who works for, and receives payment from, an employer, (2) whose working conditions and methods are controlled by the employer, and (3) for whose acts and omissions occurring in the scope of employment the employer is liable. ( Independent Contractor: A person (1) who works for, and receives payment from, an employer, (2) but whose working conditions and methods are not controlled by the employer, and (3) for whose acts and omissions the employer is not liable. DETERMINING EMPLOYEE STATUS ( To determine whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor, courts consider the following: (1) how much direction and control the employer exercises over the details of the person’s work, (2) whether the person is engaged in an occupation or business distinct from that of the employer, (3) whether the work the person......

Words: 2107 - Pages: 9

Agency Structure

...RUNNING HEAD: AGENCY STRUCTURE Assignment #1: Agency Structure Jamisha B. Breland Professor Stephen Kenealy PAD 505: Public Budgeting and Finance April 22, 2012 Strayer University Determine where each agency lies in the administrative structure of the federal government. Identify it as an executive department or an independent agency. U.S. Corps of Engineers: An executive department and the primary federal manager of the nation’s water resources. The Corps build and maintain much of the nation’s navigation and flood damage reduction infrastructure and regulates the issuance of Clean Water Act dredge and fill and other permits to the private sector. For over 225 years, the Corps has transformed our nation’s rivers and coasts, constructing 11,000 miles of inland waterway navigation channels, 8,500 miles of levees and seawalls, and more than 600 dams (Sanet 2009). The agency also dredges hundreds of millions of cubic yards of material each year from the nation’s rivers and harbors and when Congress added environmental protection to the Corps mission areas, it grew to include some of the nation’s most controversial restoration projects. While Corps projects produced positive economic benefits, it caused environmental harm as well example (freshwater species North America and Hurricane Katrina coastal wetlands (Sanet 2009). The Bureau of Land Management: An independent agency and a small agency with a big......

Words: 1179 - Pages: 5

Agency Structure

...responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Congress and appoints the heads of the federal agencies, including the Cabinet. The Cabinet and independent federal agencies are responsible for the daily enforcement and administration of federal laws (Our Government, 2011). These executive departments and independent agencies have missions and responsibilities. First, there is the executive department known as the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).The USDA develops and executes policies on farming, agriculture, and food. This department aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers; promoting agricultural trade and production; assuring food safety; protecting natural resources; fostering rural communities; and ending hunger within the United States and abroad (About USDA, 2011). The United States Secretary of Agriculture, Tom Vilsack, oversees this department and its seventeen executive agencies. One of those agencies is the U. S. Forest Service. The U. S. Forest Service manages public lands in national forests and grasslands. It is also the largest forestry research organization in the world, and provides technical and financial assistance to state and private forestry agencies (About USDA, 2011). The U. S. Forest Service submits its budget requests to the U. S. Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. This subcommittee is one of twelve subcommittees formed under the U. S. House of Representatives Committee on...

Words: 941 - Pages: 4