African American Women

In: Historical Events

Submitted By lolo1215
Words 1017
Pages 5
Lauren Bridgewaters
HIST 310-01
March 25, 2015

Maria Montessori

“It is the child who makes the man, and no man exists who was not made by the child he once was.” –Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870 in Chiaravalle, Italy. She was well schooled and an avid reader since her mother came from a family who valued education and her father financial manager for a state-run industry. Education for Italian women was not very common at this time, so it was definitely seen as a gift. Maria was not only an Italian physician but also an educator and innovator. Maria opened the first Montessori school which was called the Casa dei Bambini or Children’s House. The school was built in Rome in 1907. Her educational methods were built on the way children naturally learned. Montessori learning differed from regular learning in the sense that Montessori learning used all five senses.
In the beginning of her life, Maria grew up in Rome, which opened the doors to many libraries and museums. Rome also had many fine schools. Maria was a great, ambitious student and she refused, even at an early age, to let the expectations for women stop her. One example of this was Maria attending an all-boys school at age thirteen to become an engineer. After some time, she decided that engineering was not for her and she decided that she wanted to become a doctor. Maria applied at the University of Rome’s medical program only to find out that later, she would be rejected. Being the persistent person that she is, she did not let this hold her back. She began taking courses that she knew would better prepare her for the admittance into medical school and later got in. Maria became Italy’s first female physician after graduating from the University of Rome in 1896.
While focusing on psychiatry, Maria also gained an interest in education. When she began to study a…...

Similar Documents

Cardiovascular Disease in African American Women

...CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN Richard Allen Williams, M.D. Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine President/CEO, Minority Health Institute, Los Angeles, California Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has long been considered a disorder which principally affects men in our society; consideration of the occurrence of heart attacks in females, for example, has been largely an afterthought. In the past few years, however, it has become increasingly obvious that this is not a problem limited to males, but that it occurs with great frequency in women. We now know that CVD is the cause of death more than any condition in women over the age of 50, including cancer (1) and in fact is responsible for more than a third of all deaths in women (2). It is estimated that 370,000 women in the United States die from heart disease each year. However, our knowledge base regarding CVD in African American (AA) women has not kept pace with the accumulation of data on white females. Thus, there is a deficit of information about this subgroup and the prevalence of CVD despite the fact that black women have more risk factors for CVD than do white women (3). The purpose of this paper is to review the subject of CVD in African American women and to focus upon four principal CVD categories: Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF).The impact of gender and race on each of......

Words: 2577 - Pages: 11

African American Women and Contraceptive Use

...In fact, African Americans are the racial/ethnic group that are mostly influenced by HIV/AIDs. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, by the end of 2008, an estimated 240,627 blacks with and AIDs diagnosis has died in the United States (CDC, 2012). Contrary to the evident statistics affecting the African American population as a whole, there remains a small amount of research studies, dedicated towards HIV/AIDs healthcare promotion and prevention strategies specifically designed for the African American women. However, there is a large proportion of African American women affected by HIV/AIDs. In 2009, black women accounts for 30% of the new estimations of HIV infections among blacks. The rate for HIV infections as compared to other populations is 15 times more than white women, and three times as high for Latina women (CDC, 2012). This is confirmed by social media, primarily directed at African American males. In regards to the African American women, personal beliefs, cultural practices, and social norms act as a backdrop in determining the risk behavior of acquiring HIV/AIDs. This study serves to address the need for prevention strategies among single African American women of 18-22 years of age in college from the middle socioeconomic class. The subjects for the study are voluntary and motivated to learn with no developmental barriers noted. In particular, the study will investigate the use of sexual barriers among the college women as a......

Words: 2634 - Pages: 11

African American Women

...AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN IN 1945-1970 Name Institution After the war concluded, the reality of emancipation was experienced but the conflicts between the African and Americans were far from being resolved. The years of post war were monumental since it was during this duration that equality between African Americans was experienced. Although the whites had gladly embraced the blacks during the war, when the black soldiers came back home and were treated like second-class citizens. African American women are not entitled to rights of being an American citizen. They are not also given the privilege of being respected like the white women. This makes Negro women live in a world of their own and not in an integrated world. Although the dangers of being racially segregated have been well stated and experienced, little is being done to ensure equality. In explaining that a black woman has no equal rights in Columbia Tennessee, a disputed erupted between a white shopkeeper and a navy veteran. They had a dispute regarding a black woman who had issues with paying her. The black navy was charged and he pleaded guilty for disturbing the peace of the. He was later fined fifty dollars. Later he was fined, he was later arrested and charged with assault and murder. There were protests and the next day they white police officer came, violated the blacks, and arrested hundreds. Women were left without their husbands and without any protection. This would in turn result to insecurities,...

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

African Americans

...African Americans: The Role of Race Abstract The Following Essay defines and integrates the role race plays on the African American culture in their family values and politics in comparison to the Anglo American Culture. The United States has become increasingly diverse in the last century. While African American families share many features with other U.S. families, the African American family has some distinctive features relating to the timing and approaches to marriage and family formation, gender roles, parenting styles, and strategies for coping with adversity. African cultures, slavery, slave rebellions, and the civil rights movements(circa 1800s-160s)have shaped African American religious, familial, political and economic behaviors. The imprint of Africa is evident in myriad ways, in politics, economics, language, music, hairstyles, fashion, dance, religion and worldview, and food preparation methods. In the United States, the very legislation that was designed to strip slaves of culture and deny them education served in many ways to strengthen it. In turn, African American culture has had a pervasive, transformative impact on myriad elements of mainstream American culture, among them language, music, dance, religion, cuisine, and agriculture. This process of mutual creative exchange is called creolization. Over time, the culture of African slaves and their descendants has been ubiquitous in its impact on not only the dominant American culture, but on......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Hiv and Aids in African American Women

...weakened and the likelihood that it will be attacked is dramatically increased. As the body is defending what it can the possibility of certain types of cancer is also raised. The HIV and/or AIDS disease can go undetected with no signs or symptoms for up to ten years. Scientists believe that the disease came from a chimpanzee and humans acquired it or became infected with it when they would hunt and eat these animals. Some of the factors that put African American women at a more vulnerable state in being infected with HIV and/or AIDS are barriers to testing and treatment, including poverty, limited access to healthcare or prevention education. Studies have shown the direct link of poverty in African American women to be consistent higher HIV and/or AIDS infection rate. The environmental factors that make African American women more vulnerable to HIV and/or AIDS are poverty with limited education. The consequences of not a having primary or secondary prevention or intervention strategy leads to higher infection rates of African American women. There are several modes of transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency virus which can cause the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The largest contributor to this is having unprotected oral, vaginal and anal sex. Other means of transmission can be men having sex with other men, having sex with someone who is already infected, having sex with someone who has been in a prison setting, sharing needles or having sex with someone who......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Breast Cancer and African American Women

...Running head: TARGETING BREAST CANCER AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..3 Background…………………………………………..……………………………………………4 Preparing and Adapting to the Field..……………………………………………………………..5 Medical Anthropology Fieldwork Methodology...………………………………………………..6 Ethnographic Fieldwork Data Analysis …………………………………………………………..9 Reflective Comments/ Conclusion……………………………………………………….…….....9 References………………………………………………………………………………………..11 Targeting Breast Cancer among African American Women in Nash County: A Proposal to Identify Enabling and Reinforcing Factors of Seeking Preventative Screening Services Introduction Ethnographic field work is an excellent strategy in understanding and describing a cultural group. Field work is also an asset in performing a needs assessment in the planning phase of developing health promotion interventions. As described by Bailey (2002), “ethnographic techniques are integral tools for galvanizing and mobilizing communities for social action relative to generating a promotion and disease prevention agenda.” (Bailey, 2002) This paper serves as a proposal to conduct a medical anthropology field work project to assess reinforcing and enabling factors that promote the use of early detection and preventative breast cancer screening services among African American women. The study design consists of a qualitative ethnographic approach utilizing observation and focus group methodology....

Words: 2146 - Pages: 9

Domestic Violence in African American Women

...Runninghead: Domestic Violence Domestic Violence in African American Women Jennifer Rhoad The College of New Rochelle Abstract According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary definition, domestic violence is: "the inflicting of physical injury by one family or household member on another; also: a repeated or habitual pattern of such behavior." Domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV), is broadly defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, or cohabitation. Domestic violence, so defined, has many forms, including physical aggression or assault (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, slapping, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse; emotional abuse; controlling or domineering; intimidation; stalking; passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect); and economic deprivation. Alcohol consumption and mental illness can be co-morbid with abuse, and present additional challenges in eliminating domestic violence. Awareness, perception, definition and documentation of domestic violence differ widely from country to country, and from era to era. Domestic Violence: A Survivor’s Perspective Domestic violence and abuse isn't limited to obvious physical violence. Domestic violence can also mean endangerment, criminal coercion, kidnapping, unlawful imprisonment, trespassing...

Words: 3305 - Pages: 14

Health Promotion in Hiv African American Women

...HIV Prevention in African American Women Introduction From its origin, HIV/AIDS has been defined as a sexually transmitted disease associated primarily with white homosexual men. In fact, African Americans are the racial/ethnic groups that are mostly influenced by HIV/AIDs. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, by the end of 2008, an estimated 240,627 blacks with and AIDs diagnosis has died in the United States (CDC, 2012). Contrary to the evident statistics affecting the African American population as a whole, there remains a small amount of research studies, dedicated towards HIV/AIDs healthcare promotion and prevention strategies specifically designed for the African American women. However, there are a large proportion of African American women affected by HIV/AIDs. In 2009, black women accounts for 30% of the new estimations of HIV infections among blacks. The rate for HIV infections as compared to other populations is 15 times more than white women, and three times as high for Latina women (CDC, 2012). This is confirmed by social media, primarily directed at African American males. In regards to the African American women, personal beliefs, cultural practices, and social norms act as a backdrop in determining the risk behavior of acquiring HIV/AIDs. This study serves to address the need for prevention strategies among single African American women of 18-22 years of age in college from the middle socioeconomic class. The subjects for the study...

Words: 1895 - Pages: 8

Hiv in African American Women

...HIV in the African American Population The year was 1981, and the first discovered cases of PCP, Pneumocystis Cabrini pneumonia was discovered in five young males who did not fit the norm for being diagnosed with this disease. In 1983, the isolation of a T lymph tropic retrovirus was found. In January 1983, the CDC reported a new disease which could be sexually transmitted both homosexually and heterosexual, passed from mother to infant, through blood and blood products. A note was made that the disease could also be passed from a negative host, who carried the disease asymptomatically. On February 7th, the world takes notice of the African American blacks and their relationship with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2006, blacks composed approximately 12% of the United States population over the age of 13. Out of that reported number it was estimated that 46% of them are living with HIV/AIDS. 63% of those cases were from between male to male cases, with 83% new cases being from high risk heterosexual black females. The numbers from the CDC report it is an estimated 12.3 per 10,000 blacks that are currently affected yearly. Of all the ethnic and racial groups of the United States of America, the African Americans are the ones who have been to a larger extent faced with the HIV/AIDS burden. Statistics show that more than two hundred and thirty thousand African Americans have already passed on as a result of AIDS- a figure which represents 40% of the total deaths in the U.S.......

Words: 2766 - Pages: 12

Heart Disease Among African American Women

...Disease among African American Women Ciatta Jones, RN Excelsior College Abstract Heart Disease remains the number one killer among women. However, African American women have a higher rate of heart disease than any other ethnic group or demographics and subsequently have an increased mortality rate among other nationalities. They are disproportionately outnumbered when it comes to the obesity rate, stroke and diabetes amongst other groups such as the Caucasians and Asian’s. Contributing factors are decreased awareness and knowledge of heart disease, a low self perception regarding risk factors, ongoing behaviors that are not modified such as smoking, alcoholism, eating fried and salty foods and sometimes the inability to get to medical facilities and clinics. With more education about heart disease and an increased perception of risk, people’s minds will become transformed and will be motivated to modify risk factors related to heart disease. Differences in knowledge and comprehension levels are greater amid those that have a higher educational level. Continual health promotions, fairs, seminars and preventative efforts must continue for us to see positive outcomes associated with a desired behavior change. Keywords: African American, heart disease, women, risk factors, education Heart disease among African American Women The death threat of heart disease is greater than that of AIDS and breast cancer collectively. It is the number one killer of women and......

Words: 3067 - Pages: 13

African American Women and Interracial Dating

...decisions to date interracially for African American women consist of a great deal of struggle, due to the criticism brought on within their community and society. The African American community is currently experiencing a shortage of available men for African American women to choose from due to incarceration and unemployment. While the community as a whole is showing improvement in areas such as social status, education, decrease in poverty, and health, the rise can mainly be attributed to the African American woman. With the increased success of African American women at a rate higher than that of the African American man, women have started considering dating other races. The Family Dynamic of an African American Woman Interracial marriage is not entirely accepted amongst today’s society. Within the African American community, there remains a lot of resistance. The common scenario in the past has been African American male/Caucasian woman; nevertheless, we are starting to see a rise amongst, African American woman/Caucasian man. Consequently the expectations set by the African American family are set higher for an African American women to date and marry within her own race. Due to those expectations the African American woman places, a great deal of consideration when choosing whether or not she will date outside of her race. At the same time, there are many external and internal forces at work threating the African American community: low expectations set by......

Words: 1556 - Pages: 7

African American Women & Beauty

...African American Women & America’s Standards of Beauty: What Legacy Will You Pass On? For most young girls, the mother or “mother figure” is a model. Without truly knowing for herself what it is to be a woman, a girl finds, both consciously and unconsciously, some direction from her mother. Imitating her mannerisms, her characteristics, her every make and move, young girls start to identify with their mothers and subscribe to many of their beliefs. Commonly, little girls are fond of all the “rituals” that women in our society, their mothers, practice in order to be “beautiful,” and one will see everything from “mother and daughter” apparel in catalogs to the fun and simpler “dress-up” days at home, where small girls wear mommy’s make-up, clothes, and high-heel shoes. While this “mother-daughter” scenario exists in our society as a whole, the mothers in some ethnic groups sometimes have different takes on what it is to be “beautiful” and, naturally, pass these confusing and sometimes self-deprecating values and beliefs to their daughters. For many young African American girls, particularly, sometimes the imitation of their mother and all that is sacred to her results in low self-esteem. When daughters are exposed to “race-conscious mothers,” who “admonish [them] to make it a habit to pull their noses to make them thinner” or to do other things to alter their physical appearance, it is difficult for them to feel good about themselves (Seyersted 51). Julia A. Boyd,......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

African American

...ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY WORKSHEET Your topic: African American Inequity In The Workplace Your tentative thesis: African American is to explain the two different viewpoints on how there are inequity in the workplace also to explain to readers different view other have about this subject List your sources in correct MLA format: Book: The Contextual Impact of Social Support Across Race and Gender: Implications for African American Women in the Workplace Bailey, Darlyne, Donald Wolfe, and Christopher R. Wolfe. “The Contextual Impact of Social Support Across Race and Gender: Implications for African American Women in the Workplace”. of Black Studies 26.3 (1996): 287–307. Web... Briefly summarize this source. In this book they explain black studies in comparison to how black women are treated in the workplace. the source also explain research that has been providing basic on age of black american women they then stated that women are most likely to have more support as being african american Scholarly Journal Article 1: RESKIN, BF. GETTING IT RIGHT: SEX AND RACE INEQUALITY IN WORK ORGANIZATIONS Reskin, Barbara F. "Getting It Right: Sex And Race Inequality In Work Organizations." Annual Review Of Sociology 26.(2000): 707. Academic Search Complete. Web. 13 Nov. 2015. Briefly summarize this source. Explain its relevance to your topic and whether it supports or goes......

Words: 427 - Pages: 2

African American Women and the Vote, 1868-1877

...The Radical Reconstruction period from1868 to1877 provided suffrage to the African American community in tremendous ways. This Reconstruction period provided new prospects for the African American community for example, voting, labor, ownership of property, education and restoration of family life. In addition, to providing many opportunities the Radical Reconstruction made it very challenging for African American’s to take advantage of their “freedom”. In this paper my aim is to prove that African American women were relentless individuals, who controlled voting in southern African American communities through the use of their counterparts. Furthermore, African American women overcame the challenges that came along with the opportunities’ that were given during the reconstruction period, they utilized many strategies particularly violent ones. Elsa Barkley Brown article The Labor of Politics, substantially supports my argument. Brown provides numerous testimonies and examples of how African American women manipulated the vote through African American men. Throughout the article Brown uses African American women to emphasize her argument that ex-slaves developed their politics differently from their white Republicans allies. After the Civil War African American’s reconceptualizatize their role to vote in politics and one may wonder how can a group of people who have been recently emancipated do such a thing? Well Brown argues that the Black Richmonders, operated in two......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5

African American Women Under Slavery

...African American Women Under Slavery This paper discusses the experiences of African American Women under slavery during the Slave Trade, their exploitation, the secrecy, the variety of tasks and positions of slave women, slave and ex-slave narratives, and significant contributions to history. Also, this paper presents the hardships African American women faced and the challenges they overcame to become equal with men in today’s society. Slavery was a destructive experience for African Americans especially women. Black women suffered doubly during the slave era. Slave Trade For most women who endured it, the experience of the Slave Trade was one of being outnumbered by men. Roughly one African woman was carried across the Atlantic for every two men. The captains of slave ships were usually instructed to buy as high a proportion of men as they could, because men could be sold for more in the Americas. Women thus arrived in the American colonies as a minority. For some reason, women did not stay a minority. Slave records found that most plantations, even during the period of the slave trade, there were relatively equal numbers of men and women. Slaveholders showed little interest in women as mothers. Their willingness to pay more for men than women, despite the fact than children born to enslaved women would also be the slaveowners’ property and would thus increase their wealth. Women who did have children, therefore, always struggled with the impossible......

Words: 2409 - Pages: 10